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CPS 504 Learning Disabilities
Terms in this set (39)
disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which manifests itself in an inability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations
LD includes conditions such as
perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia
LD does not include
learning problems that are result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, ID, ED, or environmental/economic/cultural disadvantage
1. universal screening, all students given scientific based practices
2. targeted interventions, 10-15% given increased intensity
3. intensive intervention, 5% consider for eligibility
Problems with Discrepancy model
LD students respond similarly to "slow learners", wait to fail, if special ed worked so well-students would test out, FSIQ is too broad to target intervention
Those who support cognitive processing acknowledge that students with learning disabilities may do more _____ on intelligence tests BECAUSE of their _____. Dumont & Willis coin this "The Mark Penalty."
What is the Mark Penalty?
students with LD may do more poorly on intelligence tests because of their disability
Problems with RTI
lack of evidence-based interventions in reading, math, writing, listening comp, and oral expression
Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses
believe that a learning disability is a pattern of strengths and weaknesses
In ID, all skills are low, in LD looking for reasons child cannot read/write, etc
Cog processing theorists believe LD is
a dysfunction in one or more of the 7 broad abilities while having strengths in others
Are states responsible for adopting their own criteria for determining LD?
T/F: States must not require use of discrepancy model,
T/F State must allow use of RTI method
T/F May permit use of another research-based procedure to determine MD
Part 200 LD Definition:
is synonymous with the federal definition
Past LD definitions specified that
there must be a discrepancy between expected and actual achievement
Some states interpreted the ability-achievement definition as functioning a certain number of _____ or _____ below where they should be, while other used ___ ___ to determine actual achievement
years, grades, intelligence tests
Big 5 skills needed for reading
phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension
The ability to hear and manipulate the individual sounds
the understanding that each sound is represented by a letter
ability to read with speed and intonation
knowing words to understand what you read
ability to read for meaning
according to CHC theory, ____ knowledge, ____-term storage/retrieval, _____ processing, ______ speed, and ____-term memory are all needed for reading
crystallized, long, auditory, processing, short
You can be LD in either math ____ or math ____ ____
calculation, problem solving
students with calculation difficulties may have:
visual-spatial deficits (can't line up probs), counting issues, or memory retrieval issues
students with problem solving deficits have difficulty with
nonverbal reasoning or background knowledge
Students with difficulties in writing may have problems with ______ retrieval, ____ speed, ____ _____ memory, and _____
memory, processing, short term, language
CBM's allow us to get ______ and visualize the effects of ______
DIBELS looks at 3
phonemic awareness, fluency, and phonics
Strengths and Weaknesses model of looking at LD
1.Identify student underachievement.
2.Rule out ID, ED, cultural, or sensory issues.
3.Administer tests of achievement and look for deficits.
4.Rule our ID, ED, cultural, or sensory issues.
5.Administer tests of cognitive ability.
6.Rule out ID, ED, cultural, or sensory issues.
7.Look for weaknesses in cognitive abilities that are related to the achievement area (for example, problems with auditory processing in reading).
8.Look for strengths in cognitive abilities that are not related to the achievement area (for example, strengths in auditory processing with math.)
9.If this pattern emerges, you likely have an LD student.
In PSW, cognitive strengths and academic weaknesses indicate
a learning disability
according to PSW, if a student has a large difference between their actual cognitive area of weakness and expected performance (overall ability/aggregate of cognitive strengths), this is
unusual in general population and indicates domain-specific cognitive deficit
cognitive and academic weaknesses are indicated by scores typically less then ____
T/F there is no classification of dyslexia in NY, although it does encapsulate in the definition
Can schools in NY diagnose dyslexia?
Evidence-based intervention means it should have some degree of ____ _____ and it should be implemented with ____
proven efficacy, fidelity
intervention is based on theoretical framework, but few studies show that it works
studied and positive impacts were shown
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