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Foundations Exam 1 Objectives
Terms in this set (27)
describe the chain of infection
portal of exit
mode of transmission
portal of entry
what are the normal defenses of the body against infection?
-body system defenses
-inflammation (vascular and cellular responses, inflammatory exudate, and tissue repair)
what are the events in the inflammatory process?
-Vascular and cellular responses: vasodilation occurs allowing more blood to be delivered by the site of injury
-inflammatory exudate: fluid, dead tissue cells, and WBC's forms and exudate at the site of inflammation
-tissue repair: healing involves the defensive, reconstructive, and maturative stages
what are the factors that influence infection prevention and control?
what are the signs and symptoms of a localized infection?
redness, warmth, and swelling
drainage may be yellow, green, or brown
possibly tightness and pain caused by edema
gentle palpation results in tenderness
what are the signs and symptoms of a systemic infection?
more generalized symptoms: fever, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, and malaise.
lymph nodes become enlarged, swollen, and tender.
what conditions promote the transmission of health care associated infections?
what are the major sites at risk for these infections?
-antibiotic administration (too many can cause C-diff)
-presence of multidrug-resistant organisms
-breaks in infection prevention and control activities.
-Major sites include: surgical or traumatic wounds, urinary and respiratory tracts, and the bloodstream
what is medical asepsis?
disinfection and sterilization
routine environment cleaning
(commonly followed in the home)
what is surgical asepsis?
sterile technique that prevents contamination of an open wound, serves to isolate an operative or procedural areas from and unsterile environment, and maintains a sterile field for surgery or procedural interventions.
describe standard precautions and explain the rational for them
they apply to blood, blood products, all body fluids, secretions, excretions (except sweat), nonintact skin, and mucous membranes.
use of standard precautions is a step toward preventing transmission of infection
describe the proper procedure for obtaining specimens
-obtain all culture specimens using clean gloves and sterile equipment.
-blood culture: taken from 2 venipuncture sites and before initiation of antimicrobials.
-seal all containers tightly to prevent spillage and contamination of the outside of the container
Identify patients at most risk for infection
Patients in health care settings, especially hospitals and long term care facilities.
Explain how infection control measures differ in the home versus the hospital
in the hospital everyone is more susceptible to infection as there are many types of microbes in the same place. the risk for infection decreases in the home but the patient must still be educated on how to use infection control practices at home
The definition of occupational exposure
Reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties
explain the 4 P's of hourly rounding
-Pain: how is your pain?
-Position: are you comfortable?
-Potty: nursing department: lets go to the bathroom to see if you can use it.
describe the environmental hazards that pose risks to a person's safety
-physical hazards (lighting, obstacles, bathroom hazards)
-motor vehicle accidents
-transmission of pathogens
-disasters (natural or man made)
discuss the use of side rails as a restraint and effects on a confused patient
this causes more confusion and further injury
what needs to be included during the assessment for patient safety?
-the patients own perceptions of his or her risk factors
-the patients concerns about being in a health care setting
-the patients knowledge of how to adapt to safety risks
-information about a patients previous experience with accidents
-consult with patients and their family members if appropriate
what are the areas of serious reportable events?
-surgical or invasive procedure events
-product or device events
-patient protection events
-care management events
-potential criminal events
identify factors to assess when a patient is in restraints
Pressure ulcers, pneumonia, constipation, incontinence, breathing, circulation, behaviors that necessitated the application of restraints, procedure used in restraining, condition of the body part restrained, evaluation of the patient response.
Discuss the importance of consensus standards for public reporting of patient safety events
It helps provide patient-centered safety and improve performance and risk management.
Discuss methods to reduce physical hazards and the transmission of pathogens.
-Reduction of physical hazards in the environment includes providing adequate lighting, decreasing clutter, and securing the home.
-Reduce the transmission of pathogens through medical and surgical asepsis, immunization, adequate food sanitation, and appropriate disposal of human waste.
Discuss the specific risks to safety related to children younger than 5 years of age
at greatest risk for home accidents that result in severe injury and death.
Discuss the specific risks to safety related to adolescents
at risk for injury from automobile accidents, suicide, and substance abuse.
Discuss the specific risks to safety related to adults
frequently associated with lifestyle habits.
Discuss the specific risks to safety related to older patients
directly related to the physiological changes of the aging process.
Identify relevant nursing diagnoses associated with risks to safety.
-risk for injury
-impaired cognition: confusion
-lack of knowledge
-risk for poisoning
-risk for trauma
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