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Digestive APII (Exam 4 - Embry)
Terms in this set (74)
eroded "cavities" of teeth formed when bacteria build up, metabolize sugars, and then release lactic and other acids that dissolve the minerals of the enamel and dentin
inflammation of the gums
burning sensation produced by acid reflux into the esophagus
sore in the stomach because of pepsin and hydrochloric acid eroding the stomach wall -- usually because of gastritis
gallstones - hard masses in the gallbladder or bile duct
inability to digest lactose
abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall of the colon
inflammation of the diverticula (pouches in the walls of an organ) in the colon
inflammation of the pancreas caused by trauma leading to leakage of pancreatic enzymes into parenchyma, where they digest tissue and cause inflammation and hemorrhage
inflammation of the appendix
a chronic autoimmune disorder of intestinal tract producing granular lesions and fibrosis of intestine, diarrhea, and lower abdominal pain
aka Celiac Disease -- atrophy of intestinal villi triggered by genetically susceptible individuals -- where eating gluten will cause the immune system to attack the intestinal villi
protrusion of a part of the stomach upward through the opening in the diaphragm
chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers, especially in the sigmoid colon and rectum
What is the correct list of tooth anatomy from superficial to deep?
enamel, dentin, pulp
Starting after it leaves the pyloris, place the following anatomical structures in order to identify the correct sequence that food would pass through the body.
duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum
The ___ stores excess glucose and releases it into blood when needed
Carb digestion begins in the __, whereas protein digestion begins in the ___
Carb = Mouth
Protein = Stomach
A patient comes to you with jaundice and waves of intestinal abdominal pain. He also states he can't really eat fatty foods anymore. Which do you suspect?
Parts of the Large Intestines
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon
Parts of the Small Intestines
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
The ___ regulates the flow of contents from the stomach to the duodenum
Which of the following has an abundance of lymphoid tissue in the mucosa and submucosa
Necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption, __________ is/are secreted by __________ cells.
Intrinsic Factor -- Parietal
Defecation is stimulated by
stretching of the rectum
Which of the following is a function of the stomach
chemical and mechanical digestion
In which direction do the peristaltic contractions of the stomach's smooth muscle move contents?
from the body to the pylorus region
The peristaltic movement of colonic contents triggered by the gastrocolic reflex approximately 1-3 times per day is called ___
Which of the following is NOT associated with the large absorptive surface of the small intestines
What is the straight muscular tube conveying food from the pharynx to the stomach?
What are the segments of the small intestines in order through which food passes?
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
Which organ is located behind the greater curvature of the stomach and acts as both an endocrine and exocrine gland?
During digestion, what is the major site of nutrient absorption?
Bile from the liver and digestive juices from the pancreas enter which section of the small intestine?
Acid reflux into the esophagus is normally prevented by
lower esophageal sphincter
What is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food called?
Protein digestion begins in the ___
What are the digestive system accessory organs?
teeth, tongue, gallbladder, digestive glands (salivary, liver, and pancreas)
What is the peritoneum?
the mucus membrane covering the abdominal cavity
What is the peritoneal cavity?
space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum
Which are the retroperitoneal organs?
part of the intestines and kidneys
What do the frenulum do?
Superior and Inferior: hold lips to gums
Lingual: hold tongue down
pocket between your lips and gums
Anterior, slightly corrugated to help create friction against the tongue, holds food in place, helps give solid surface to push tongue against when talking
posterior portion, not supported by bone; closes off the nasopharynx during swallowing
smooth pink on tip of tongue
scattered bumps around tongue to help get a grip on food
V-shaped row in back of tongue
sides of tongue
3 Glands of the mouth
1 = Parotid: in front of ear
2 = Sublingual: underneath tongue
3 = Submandibular: underneath jaw
What controls salivation
salivary nuclei in the brainstem send pulses along parasympathetic nerves to increase salivation
strong sympathetic stimulation inhibits salivation and results in dry mouth (xerostomia)
What are the Primary and Permanent types of teeth (and their shorthand codes)
Primary = 2I, 1C, 2M
Secondary = 2I, 1C, 2PM, 3M
I = Incisor: scissor-shaped for cutting
2 = Canine: puncturing and tearing
3 = Molars: crushing and grinding
4 = Premolars: bicuspid
immune cells attack intruders and body tissue destroying periodontal ligament and attacking osteoclasts
results in tooth loss, promotion os artherosclerosis, and clot formation in coronary and cerebral arteries
the folds in the mucosa lining the stomach
used to knead food and digestive secretions
rounded upper portion of the stomach (big bump on top)
What are the 3 Gastric Cell Types and what do they secrete
1 = Parietal: HCl and Intrinsic Factor
2 = Chief: Pepsinogen
3 = Enteroendocine: Serotonin, Histamine, Somatostatin, and Gastrin
What is HCl useful for
denature food protein, activate pepsin, kill bacteria
What is Intrinsic Factor useful for
required for absorbing Vitamin B12 in small intestines
What is Pepsinogen useful for?
activated to pepsin by HCl
What is chyme?
a mixture of partially digested food, water, and gastric juices
What is the speed difference between carb-rich and fatty-rich chyme
Carb-Rich moves quickly through the duodenum
Fatty-Chyme remains in there for about 6 hours
What comes together to form the bile duct?
Cystic Duct (from gallbladder)
Common Hepatic Duct (from liver)
Where do the Pancreatic and Bile Duct empty into
Major Duodenal Papilla
What are the Hepatocyte functions?
Production of bile (900 ml/day), processing bloodborne nutrients, storage of fat soluble vitamins, detoxification.
Pancreatic Endocrine Function
islets release insulin and glucagon
Pancreatic Exocrine Function
Acini secrete pancreatic juice
Pancreatic juice = alkaline to neutralize chyme -- enzymes amylase (break down starch), lipase (break down liquid), and requires ions or bile for optimal activity
What is the gastrocolic reflex?
The increase of muscle movement in the GI tract when food enters an empty stomach. This may cause the urge to have a bowel movement immediately after eating.
mass movement force feces into rectum
What are the water-soluble vitamins?
C + B
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
A, D, E, K
Where are majority of vitamins absorbed
What vitamins are absorbed in the large intestines
K + B
Where is water mostly absorbed?
Small intestines by osmosis
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