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TMI Practice Test - Summer 2021
Terms in this set (77)
Symbiosis - Scientific Definition
A mutually beneficial relationship between 2 organisms which greatly improves both of their lives
period from delivery until the reproductive organs return to normal - the healing time for the mother
a specialized form of breast milk that delivers essential nutrients and antibodies in a form that the newborn can digest - also has a laxative effect which helps to pass the first feces
Symbiosis - Montessori Definition
Lasts from birth to 6-8 weeks. This period is essential for both the parent and newborn as they build and foster a new orientation to the world. The child is learning to trust in their human & physical environment.
Symbiosis - Psychological Benefits for Parent and Child
Feeling of connectedness. Both parties feel abandoned if they're not together.
Symbiosis - Physical Benefits for the Adult
The child's sucking stimulates uterine contractions, bringing the mother's body back to a pre-pregnant state.
Oxytocin is produced by bonding with the baby (holding, feeding, etc).
Baby helps mother to produce prolactin to feed - breastfeeding helps to continue milk production and to regulate according to the baby's needs in terms of quantity.
Symbiosis - Physical Benefits for the Child
The child receives antibodies and nutrients from breast/chest milk. Colostrum (liquid gold) is high in protein, has a laxative effect to pass meconium, strengthens the immune system, and stimulates the digestive system.
The fats in breastmilk help to myelinate the nervous system, facilitating voluntary movement and brain development.
Skin to skin contact is so important - it aids the child in adapting to life outside of the womb (orienting, understand their body schema, regulate body temp)
Symbiosis - Psychological Benefits for the Parent
Fluctuating hormones and lack of sleep can contribute to their mood. Spending time with the baby and sleeping on their schedule assists with the psychological adjustment.
The mother introduces the child to this new world and assists them with the acquisition of human characteristics.
Symbiosis - Separation and Attachment in the Adult
The mother is eager to see, touch, and hold the child in her arms and the child wants to be touched, held and accepted by their mother.
With acceptance, the mother can understand that separation from their baby (birth) that was growing inside of them will produce a positive, helpful attitude that is beneficial for both parties (mom and baby).
Symbiosis - Communication in the Adult
Before language is established, the child will learn acceptance and have their needs met through the hands of the caregiver. This will ensure safety within the child.
Symbiosis - Preferential Relationship in the Child
This is formed based on their experiences with the mother. Breastfeeding is an intimate relationship that is formed, and it sets the pattern for future intimate relationships.
The child prefers this established relationship and this becomes a model for their future relationships. The mother needs to be psychologically present during nursing.
Symbiosis - Trust in the Child
- Trust will be developed in the child if their physical and psychological needs are met by their environment (physical and the people in within)
- Build this trust through order and consistency in the prepared environment (stable routine and caregiver)
- Trust will be formed by the caregiver responding promptly when the child cries.
- Basic Trust = first block in the child's psychological foundation that will enable the child to interact positively with their surroundings and adapt to their given environment. Essential!
Symbiosis - Separation and Attachment in the Child
Birth is a big separation for the child, as they are not in the womb/previous environment anymore.
Breastfeeding and holding the baby forms unity between the mother and child, as this helps to adjust gradually to the sudden change.
Symbiosis - Communication in the Child
The child will cry for communication with their parents to get their needs met. Observation and awareness of the child is a must.
Symbiosis - Example
Mirae and Hunter - Mirae is returning to work and Hunter will be in the Nido. Mirae is excited to have Hunter in the Nido, but is also having mixed/sad emotions about their relationship changing and spending less time with Hunter.
Symbiosis - Role of the Adult
Prepare the environment, link the child, observe, remove obstacles, and repeat.
When caregivers are unable to meet the needs of the child during this time, the child begins to construct their understanding of their world upon a cracked foundation - this builds distrust and insecurity in their world.
Later, this may develop into deviations observed throughout the rest of the first plane and potentially beyond if not addressed.
Provide freedom of movement to strengthen their bodies and encourage them to explore their world.
Symbiosis - Prepared Physical Environment
The HE should be prepared well in advance of the baby's birth so the main focus of the parents will on the baby.
This environment should ease the transition from the womb to the outside world, and should mimic the womb as best as possible through temperature, lighting, sound, and color. The newborn should have access to natural light and sound from nature.
Symbiosis - Prepared Human/Psychological Environment - 3 Tools
1. Holding - the way the birthing parent holds the child while feeding. The parent needs to fully accept the child during this process in order for the child to feel confident in themselves and in the world.
2. Handling - The parent establishes contact with the child through dressing, bathing, and changing them to continue their connected, emotional bond.
3. Feeding - An intimate interaction between the mother and the child of the mother providing milk/food to the newborn. The child will construct expectations for all intimate relationships to follow in their lives from feeding.
Symbiosis - The Roles of the Partner
Birthing Parent = the protective barrier of the birthing parent and newborn.
Partner = needs to be present and prioritize the needs of the newborn, and protect the physical and human relationship between the birthing parent and the newborn (running errands, doing chores, etc.)
The partner must find ways to connect with the child - skin to skin contact and bathing are strong ways to demonstrate that this parent will meet the needs of the child.
Symbiosis - Importance for the Family
Symbiosis lays the groundwork for all future interactions in the physical and human world of the child.
The adult must be prepared, physically and psychologically, for the child to gain basic trust in the world and form a preferential relationship for their future.
Needs must be met for both the birthing parent and the child and receive special care. The symbiotic period should be a positive experience, so all of the physical and psychological changes occurring must be considered. This affects the child's perception and how they interact with the world around them.
Special Food for the Newborn - Montessori Definition
Women produce milk when pregnant and continue to produce milk until the baby can digest solid foods. Breastmilk is vital for the baby, but also assists in the development of a valuable relationship between the mother and baby.
Colostrum is provided in the first 4-5 days after birth, and provides antibodies and other particular needs of the newborn.
Breastmilk replaces colostrum after the first 4-5 days after birth, and alone can sustain the child for the next 6 months of life, in which breastmilk will be supplemented with solid food to support the child's continued development.
Special Food for the Newborn - Examples
Phase 1: Before Birth - the breasts enlarge during the first few months of pregnancy, however there is no milk until the child is born.
Phase 2: After Birth - Expulsion of the placenta stops the production of inhibiting hormones, so the breastmilk starts to flow. The newborn's sucking at the breast stimulates the mother's pituitary gland to produce prolactin (hormone that promotes lactation). Oxytocin is produced which allows the baby to get breast milk, shrink down the uterus after birth, and foster bonding.
Special Food for the Newborn - Colostrum (Characteristic)
Colostrum provides the antibodies for the baby during the first few days after birth.
Fats are absent initially, but increase each day which helps stimulate the newborn's digestive system for proper function.
Colostrum is high in protein since the antibodies attach to the protein to support the immune system.
It provides a laxative effect for the baby to pass meconium (the first feces after birth).
Special Food for the Newborn - Breastmilk (Characteristic)
Breastmilk is easier for the baby to digest since it contains molecules that protect them and contribute towards the baby's health.
Breastmilk helps the baby to gain more weight and growth since it has more fat and carbs as well as less protein than Colostrum. High protein is not needed as the child produces their own immunity.
Breastmilk is digested easier and faster than formula (formula contains more casein)
Breastmilk is convenient ($$), increases the bond with the baby, helps the uterus contract after delivery, and reduces health risks for the newborn (SIDS, asthma, colic, and more).
Special Food for the Newborn - Role of the Adult
"Cue Feeding" is the technique that should be proposed - milk is offered to the child based off of observation and following the child. The child can be offered the breast when they're prepared (awake and ready to eat). The child should not be offered the breast every time the child cries.
The breast should never be forced into the mouth, but create the most comfortable conditions for the child to latch on voluntarily. The child should have the opportunity to feed or not based off of an active attachment to the breast.
Special Food for the Newborn - Absorbent Mind
The child will absorb everything in their environment. They will also know that when they're hungry the caregiver will meet their needs. The child will gain trust by this support.
Special Food for the Newborn - Human Tendencies
Humans need food to survive. They will use their human tendencies to seek this need (ex. exploration of the breast to latch). Feeding creates a bond between the mother and baby, giving a positive relationship to support the baby's social relations.
Special Food for the Newborn - Adaptation
The baby will adapt to the way that the mother interacts with them during breastfeeding. A preferential relationship is formed that they will seek out later in life.
Special Food for the Newborn - Sensitive Periods
The child's feeding applies to their sensitive periods for order (consistency), language (interactions around feeding), movement (sucking), social relations (relationship built through feeding), and relating to the world sensorially (taste, smell, sight, sounds, and touch related to feeding).
Special Food for the Newborn - Psychic Embryo
This is the child's mind, soul, and development of the child's personality. Through feeding, the mother satisfies the child's need for food while also providing psychological needs in terms of love, acceptance, care, and safety to support their development.
Special Food for the Newborn - Summary
Human breastmilk contains a variety of nutrients and benefits which supports the child's development and is beneficial for the mother. It supports physical and human needs, and also helps the child to adapt to their time and place.
Clothing - Montessori Definition
Clothing should be chosen for the young child so that they can successfully be independent with their choices. The clothing should fit the child well and be able to support the child throughout their day without hindering their movements and needs.
Clothing - Characteristics
Clothing needs to be appropriate for the climate, season, and activity for protection.
They should be good quality and made from natural or synthetic fibers that are easy to wash while also being beautiful and a proper fit.
Clothing should never be too tight that it limits the child's circulation or restricts digestion - if it's too large it can inhibit movement.
Clothing - Three Trunk Layers - Undershirt
The undershirt is made out of silk or cotton fabric. It opens in the front for easy removal for the child and adult, and does not go over their head for comfort of the newborn.
The seams are on the outside so it does not irritate the baby's skin. The arm holes are large, so the child's underarms do not become raw.
Clothing - Three Trunk Layers - T-Shirt
The t-shirt can be used depending on the climate as an insulating layer, and can be long sleeve or short sleeve. It needs to have an easy fastening that does not bother the child's skin (ex. a tie in the front).
Like the undershirt, it does not go over the newborn's head.
Clothing - Three Trunk Layers - Sweater
The sweater can be wool or cotton, and also does not go over the newborn's head for comfort. It can be worn if needed for the climate and weather of their environment.
Clothing - Three Trunk Layers - How it Aids the Child
The three trunk layers aid the child with protecting their sensitive skin since they are natural with no chemicals and are breathable. Materials used should be soft such as cotton, wool, or silk. These layers help the child to regulate their body temperature since they are not able to do it independently.
Clothing - Diapers
Diapers can be made from cloth or cotton, and can have cotton inserts to help with absorption. Plastic covers should not be used as they can keep moisture in and cause diaper rash.
Clothing - How it Aids the Child
Cloth diapers assist the child to feel the result of their elimination to help understand their body. These cloth diapers are chemical free and are better for the child's health and the environment.
Clothing - Layette
French for an "ensemble or collection of clothes."
The layette can include diapers, diaper covers, undershirts, t-shirts, sweaters, pants, and hats.
An adult should consider receiving blankets and clothing needed for the outdoors of the child's climate (ex. jackets, mittens, etc.)
Clothing - Layette - How it Aids the Child
The Layette helps regulate the child's body temperature. It can also help prepare the parents to know how much of what clothing they need. Pants should be used sparingly as they can hinder the child's movement.
Clothing - Topponcino
A small mattress made from organic cotton batting and cotton fabric. It's used for the first 2-3 months depending on the size and needs of the baby.
Clothing - Topponcino - How it Aids the Child
It aids the child by providing a safe space for the child to be when they are held or on the floor.
It's a sensorial point of reference for them in that it becomes familiar and therefore comforting to the child when it's used.
It aids in limiting the startle reflex when handling the baby as it supports them when they're passed to another person or put down.
Clothing - Aiding Movement
A onesie and pants or a shirt and pants works well for the child. Once the child begins creeping, onesies without legs should be worn so their knees are open for traction. Pants should not have feet.
The clothing should fit the child appropriately so it does not restrict movement.
Cotton training pants are suggested once they're moving since they are less bulky than a cloth diaper. (aid in movement, not used for toileting at this age)
If socks are needed, they should have traction so they can successfully move.
Bibs that tie around the middle are best if worn while they are drooling.
Leg warmers can be used to keep the child warm.
Clothing - Aiding Independence
The shirt should have a large enough head hole so they can successfully put on and take off their shirt. A button or snap on the side can be helpful to make it bigger.
Pants can have elastic on the waist so the child can freely put on the pants.
Jackets can have a large zipper or buttons so the child can easily manipulate those. Belts are not necessary.
These should be considered so the child can independently put on and take off clothing by themselves.
Clothing - Shoes
Shoes are not necessary until the child is walking and only should be worn outside of the house for protection. The feet are developing the arch and need to flex and move in order to do so.
Shoes should have thin bottoms and be flexible so the child can still feel the ground, but their feet are protected.
Clothing - Montessori Theory
Clothing which fits well, protects them, functions and provides choices to the child support positive experiences for the development of their absorbent mind, human tendencies, and sensitive periods.
Clothing chosen for the culture and specific preference of the child supports positive adaptation to the environment where they live.
Clothing - Role of the Adult
The adult can prepare the environment so the child can be independent with choosing their own clothes and choosing clothes that are easy for the child to put on and take off by themselves. (the adult can give a choice of two of each item of clothing so the child can choose what they want by using a wardrobe or low bar in a closet to present the clothes)
The adult can give presentations and collaborate with the child by assisting them more in the beginning and then fading the support so the child can do it independently.
The adult can remove obstacles through observation of the child's capabilities, and offer them clothing that support those capabilities.
Language Development - Definition
Pronunciation and the methods of combining them to understand and to be understood by the community.
Every human is born with the potential and ability to develop language but it is the environment and the child's interactions with the human and physical environment that determine their language development.
Language Development - Characteristics
1. Language acquisition characteristics are universal. Children have a similar time frame for acquisition (practicing sounds before saying words, then later developing this into sentences).
2. Receptive language develops earlier than expressive language.
3. Expressive language can have plateaus where it appears that the child is not progressing, however, the child can still absorb during this plateau.
4. Language needs to be attached to experience (ex. if we talk about apples, the child needs to experience an apple through their senses).
5. The environment should provide stimulation for language development.
Language Development - Two Phases - Prelinguistic
Generally, from 7 months in utero to 12 months.
Before words are spoken, children communicate through crying, to vowel sounds, to babbling, using body language, and then gestures (ex. crying - oooo - gaga, dada, then pointing, waving, smiling, etc.)
Language Development - Two Phases - Linguistic
This starts after the child says their first word (average of 12 months).
The language that has been absorbed in the prelinguistic stage is now present.
This begins with single words (typically nouns - labeling), then becomes a language explosion once the child has 50+ words. Next is 2-3 word phrases, followed by full sentences.
As the child progresses through their development, the adult can continue to aid them by expanding their language and modeling.
Language Development - Human Considerations to Support Language Development
1. Use both conversational and direct communication. Conversations should be had with the child rather than only directing the child to do things, as direct language doesn't give the child time to respond.
2. Having access to multiple language is beneficial because of the child's absorbent mind.
3. Use simple instructions and allow response time for the child to do what is asked.
4. Expand everyday language by providing vocabulary for objects based around their experiences.
5. Make eye contact and be at the child's level when speaking with them.
6. Observe the child's interests and talk to them about it.
7. Engage in conversation and talk about relevant things.
8. Model social graces (please + thank you)
9. Encourage limited to no screen time.
10. Limit background noise.
11. Read to children at home and school (expand when reading following developmental needs)
12. Use clear enunciation, correct grammar, full sentences, and rich vocabulary.
13. Do not correct the child's misarticulating. Instead, repeat acceptingly in the correct way (ex. when the child says "nana", say "Yes, you are eating a banana."
Language Development - Physical Considerations to Support Language Development
1. With non-verbal children, use eye contact, gestures, facial expressions, and body language when communicating.
2. Allow exploration of objects in the environment (sensorially and labeling)
3. Use language materials (real objects and language cards) that are first familiar and then add to it.
4. Prepare the environment so the child can experience it freely.
5. Materials used can include a music box, singing, reading books/poems, and the use of musical instruments to promote language development.
Language Development - Importance for the Child
1. Language supports expression and understanding.
2. It helps the child's thinking ability, abstraction, and the development of relationships through language.
3. Language lays the foundation for reading and writing.
4. Language encouragement helps build self-esteem and confidence in children.
Language Development - Montessori Theory - Absorbent Mind
The child absorbs every form of expression from all humans in all of the environments they encounter.
Language Development - Montessori Theory - Human Tendencies
HT motivate the child to develop communication skills with the people in the environment in order to meet their needs.
Language Development - Montessori Theory - Sensitive Periods
Children need to be fully exposed to language during this sensitive period or it will become a much harder task in the future.
Language Development - Montessori Theory - Psychic Embryo
The child's experiences with the environment and language support the development of the psychic organ for language.
Language Development - Montessori Theory - Adaptation
The child adapts and absorbs the language of their environment and place, taking in all of the customs and ways of life by living in it.
Language Development - Role of the Adult
1. Offer a rich language environment.
2. Prepare themselves to give the fullest and richest language that we can.
3. Remove obstacles by supporting the 4 necessities, use observation and seek outside assistance if needed.
4. Give freedom for the child to speak and take the time to listen to what the child is communicating.
5. Link the child to language by speaking with them and include them in conversations by respecting their presence.
6. Observe and notice the interests and needs of the child in order to prepare the human & physical environment for language that applies to them specifically.
Language Development - 4 Necessities
1 & 2. Auditory and vocal apparatus need to be checked to see if they are healthy and functioning.
3. A rich language environment.
4. The child has to have a desire to speak.
Language Development - Summary
Language development from birth to age 3 relies heavily on the adult, as we are the most important language tool.
Preparing a rich language environment is the greatest gift we can offer the child.
Language relies on a rich sensorial environment that the child is allowed to experience freely will positively affect their language development.
Adults who model and enjoy communication create a balance that is beneficial to learning.
Movement - Montessori Definition
A progression of movement happens in the body (equilibrium) and hands (fine motor). For a child in the first sub-plane, movement is significant because it puts the child in a direct relationship with their environment, gaining knowledge and expression.
Movement - 3 Main Parts
Brain, senses, and muscles. This system puts the child in relation to the environment and others. The child develops and learns by moving and interacting with the environment, and the senses provide motivation to interact with the environment.
Movement - 2 Reasons for Movement
1. The child is driven by the energy of their horme - they respond to the physical development of their brain and nervous system (voluntary movement).
2. Movement as an involuntary response (reflexive movement).
Movement - Myelination
The body myelinates from 0-12 months from the top of the head to the toes and from the midline out.
3-6 months - myelination moves down to the mid trunk and out to the hands.
6-8 months - myelination moves from the lower trunk down to the wrists.
8-10 months - moves to the thighs and hands, and assists with the refinement in the fingers.
Myelin is the key substance in the development of voluntary movement.
Movement - Primitive Reflexes
Begins at birth and fades around 12 months. These are uncontrollable reactions that aid in survival including breathing, eating, digesting, etc.
As these reflexes fade, they begin to develop voluntary movements.
Movement - Montessori Theory - Absorbent Mind
Children during this period are not consciously deciding to move. Horme is an inner drive that motivates the child to construct themselves by interacting with their environment. Children are acquiring and refining human characteristics by following this drive.
Movement - Montessori Theory - Adaptation
The child will adapt tot he movements in their environment by mimicking adults using mirror neurons.
Movement - Montessori Theory - Sensitive Period
The sensitive period for movement lasts the whole sub-plane from birth to age 3, with some potential focus on movement during different stages from 0-3. The child experiences an intensity toward acquiring movement abilities.
Movement - Montessori Theory - Human Tendencies
A natural and unchanging drive that pushes a child to interact with an environment to satisfy their needs. They help a child to become part of society. They need motor development to act on all of their human tendencies (ex. in order for exploration to occur, the child must be able to move to gain experience).
Movement - Objectivation
The power the child feels to act on objects - the child wants to act upon the environment and transform it.
Movement - 2 Psychological Legs
Trust in the environment and trust of the self.
Movement - Home Environment from 0-5 Months
In the area for movement, there's a movement mat and materials for movement.
Movement - Home Environment from 5-12 Months
In the area for movement, there's a movement mat and a weaning table to promote fine motor skills during eating and preliminary hand-eye coordination.
During this time, they're moving towards separation and attachment - they want to separate from the adults in the environment and use movement to transform and interact with the environment.
Movement - Home Environment from 12-36 Months
Promoted in the area for work and eating, and other aids in the environment. Low shelves in the environment provided with materials that are developmentally appropriate as well as observation are important.
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