How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

48 terms

SYMPATHETIC/PARASYMPATHETIC DRUGS

Everyday drugs, and drugs used to treat PD and AD
STUDY
PLAY
Parasympathetic nervous system
The division of the autonomic nervous system known as the 'resting and digesting' system. It causes a general decrease in body activities such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure, and an increase in blood flow to the GI tract and digestive function.
Sympathetic nervous system
"fight or flight" response, expends energy, increases heart rate, dilates pupils and bronchi, vasoconstriction, decreases secretions and GI and Intestinal motility
Sympathetic direct agonists exs
Epi, Norepi, Dopamine, Dobutamine, Terbutaline
Sympathetic indirect agonist exs
Amphetamines, Pseduophedrine
Alpha blocker exs
Tamsulosin (Flomax), Terazonsin
Beta blocker examples
Labetolol, Carvedilol(CoReg), Propanolol, Metoprolol, Atenolol
Parasympathetic Agonists exs
Bethadnechol, Pilocarpine, Physostigimine
Parasympathetic Antagonists exs
Atropine, Scopolamine, Tolteridine, Benztropine
Dopamine (DA)
direct sympathetic agonist, works on DA receptors; low doses : good renal blood flow, high doses: increase BP. USE: SHOCK
Terbutaline
direct sympathetic agonist, works on B2 receptors, cause bronchiolar and uterine relaxation, USE: prevent asthma, and premature L&D
Phenlyephrine
direct sympathetic agonist, works on alpha 1 receptors, vasoconstriction, increase HR, USE: in cold meds, dilate pupils
Pseudophedrine (Sudafed)
**indirect sympathetic agonist, works on alpha 1 receptors, vasoconstriction; USE: nasal decongestant, fewer CNS effects
Dobutamine(Dobutrex)
Direct sympathetic agonist, acts on B1 receptor, increase efficiency of heart beat, DOC for cardiac stimulation for adults, "chemical paddle"
Norepinephrine
Direct sympathetic agonist, works on alpha 1 receptors, vasoconstriction, increased reflex, decrease heart rate (reflex bradycardia) USE: SEPTIC SHOCK
Epinephrine
direct sympathetic agonist, works on alpha 1 &2, beta 1&2, vasoconstriction, bronchodilation, increase HR, increase glycolysis and lipolysis, GI relaxation; USE: peds cardiac stimulation, anaphylaxis, combined w/ local anasthetics
Amphetamines
indirect sympathetic agonist, works on alpha 1 receptors, heightened mood, decreased appetite. USE: ADD, Narcolepsy
Propanol
sympathetic antagonist, B1, B2 blocker(heart and lung effects!), decrease HR, BP, use w/ caution for asthmatics and diabetics(can mast signs of hypoglycemia, USE: HTN
Labetelol
HCZ, sympathetic antagonist, blocks alpha 1, beta 1 &2, decrease BP, HR, vasodilation; USE: Post-MI patients, HTN
Atenolol
sympathetic antagonist, B1 specific blocker, decrease HR and workload, used in CV diseases, avoids CNS effects **doesn't pass BBB
Metoprolol
sympathetic antagonist, B1 specific blocker, decrease HR and workload, USE: HTN, vtach, CHF **numb and cold extremeties SE
Tamulosin (Flomax)
sympathetic antagonist, alpha 1 blocker, vasodilation, USE: BPH +/- HTN, decreases size of prostate to allow better urinary flow
Bethanechol
muscarinic(parasympathetic) agonist --cholinergic, expulsion of urine, increase GI motility, USE: post-op patients, pts w/ urinary retention probs
Physostigmine
parasympathetic agonist -- cholinergic, enhances effect of Ach, increase GI motility, urination, secretions, bronchoconstriction USE: glaucoma(to reduce IOP), AD, delayed gastric emptying
Pilorcarpine
muscarinic(parasympathetic) agonist -- cholinergic, stimulates secrections, saliva, sweat, USE: glaucoma(to decrease IOP), antidote for scopolamine, atropine
Atropine
parasympathetic muscarinic antagonist, decrease secretions, USE: diarrhea, bronchospasm, anesthesia, ER codes, urinary incontinence
Scopolamine
parasympathetic muscarinc antagonist, decrease secretions, USE: motion sickness, pre-op patients as anticholinergic
Tolterodine(Detrol)
parasympathetic, muscarinic antagonist, anticholinergic, USE: overactive bladder
Benztropine (Cogentin)
atropine + diphenhydramine, parsympathetic antagonist, anitcholinergic/antihistamine, decrease imbalance b/w dopamine and ACh. USE: PD
Curare (Pancronium)
* non depolarizing muscle relaxant, nicotinic antagonist at the neuromuscular junction, USE: longer surgical procedures as adjuncts to anesthesia, work for 20-40 min, recovery = hour, *SE: Malignant hyperthermia
Succinylcholine (Anectine)
depolarizing muscle relaxant, nicotinic antagonist at the neuromuscular junction USE: quick onset w/i 30 secs for paralysis/muscle relaxant for purposes of intubation/endoscopy/removal of vent, inhibits gag reflex, works for about 5 min ** SE: Malignant hyperthermia
Baclofen (Lioresal)
muscle relaxer, * PO muscle relaxer for back spasms/aches
Carisoprodol (Soma)
PO muscle relaxer to treat back spasms/muscle aches
Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril)
PO muscle relaxer to treat back spasms/muscle aches
Levodopa (L-dopa)
DA pre-cursor that crosses BBB, used to increase DA in the brain for PD patients,
Carbidopa
used in combination with L-dopa, inhibits breakdown of DA(inhibits decarboxlyase)
Sinemet
combo of L-Dopa and Carbidopa, reserved for more advanced PD patients
Selegiline
MAO-B inhibitor
Block degradation of Dopamine (no tyramine interactions).
Uses: atypical depression, Parkinson's disease (prevents dopamine breakdown).
Tox: GI distress, CNS stimulation, dyskinesias, serotonin syndrome if used with SSRI. CAUTION: RED FLAG DRUG
Ropinirole (Requip)
Parkinson's drug;D2 (some D3) agonist; sudden day time sleepiness; compulsive behavior; treatment for Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
Stalevo
New drug for treatment of Parkinson's disease that combines carbodopa, levodopa and entacapone for better results. Entacpone increases 1/2 life of L-Dopa
Donepezil (Aricept)
AchE inhibitor used in Alzheimer's to slow progressions. Causes peripheral cholinergic effects, N/V/diarrhea
Rivastigmine (Exelon)
AchE inhibitor. Used for Alzheimer's symptoms to increase Ach in frontal cortex.
Memantine
NMDA receptor antagonist; Helps prevent excitotoxicity (mediated by Ca).
Use: Alzheimers
Tox: Dizziness, confusion, hallucinations
alpha 1 receptor
vasoconstriction in areas that don't need it(GI), decrease secretions, pupil dilation, decreased GI motility, urinary retention
alpha 2 receptor
"turn off switch", decrease CNS sympathetic outflow, decreases NE release, decrease insulin release
beta 1 receptor
increased HR, CO, automaticity, contractitlity, renin secretion increased -- hold on to Na and H2O --> increase BP
beta 2 receptor
bronchial relaxation, uterine relaxation, vasodilation in areas needed - muscles, heart, lungs
nicotionic receptor
ACh receptor, found in CNS and PNS, stimulant, ganglia
muscarinic receptor
ACh receptor, smooth muscle contraction, increase secretions, decrease HR and contractility