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The outer layer of a kidney is the ________, and it contains the ________.

renal cortex; renal corpuscles

When the _________ detects a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate it secretes ________ to start the renin (--) angiotensin mechanism.

juxtaglomerular apparatus; renin

Buffers either combine with or release ________ to maintain the pH of blood within normal limits.

hydrogen ions

With a normal glomerular filtration rate, the entire volume of blood in the body will be filtered approximately every ______ minutes.


The ________ is a capillary tuft that lies between an afferent arteriole and an efferent arteriole.


Under normal conditions, which of the following substances would not appear in the filtrate?


The primary function of the urinary system is to

maintain the volume and composition of body fluids within normal limits

A ________ consists of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule.


During reabsorption of solutes in the proximal tubule, most of the Cl- ions and HCO3- ions are moved by ________ mechanisms.

passive transport

________, formed by the breakdown of bile pigments in the intestine, gives the characteristic color to urine.


The functional unit of the kidney is the


Urine formation begins when _________ moves some of the water and solutes in blood from the glomerulus into the glomerular capsule.


The fluid in the glomerular capsule contains the same substances as blood plasma except it lacks


In the ________, nutrients and positive mineral ions are actively reabsorbed from the filtrate into blood in the peritubular capillary.

proximal convoluted tubule

Which of the following ions is secreted into filtrate rather than being reabsorbed?

Mg+ ions

Angiotensin II raises systemic blood pressure by triggering mechanisms that

constrict arterioles and increase water retention.

The kidneys receive approximately ______ of the total cardiac output each minute.


The kidneys assist in the blood's ability to transport oxygen due to the secretion of the hormone


Antidiuretic hormone regulates the passive reabsorption of water from filtrate in the

collecting duct

A _________ carries urine from a kidney to the urinary bladder.


The removal of amine groups from amino acids results in the formation of ________, the most abundant nitrogenous waste in urine.


During reabsorption of solutes in the proximal tubule, most of the amino acids, glucose, Na+ ions, K+ ions, and Ca2+ ions are moved by ________ mechanisms.

active transport

The ability of the body to reabsorb significant quantities of water from the filtrate is due to

all of these choices are correct

Approximately 65% of tubular reabsorption occurs in the

proximal tubule.

Aldosterone regulates the active reabsorption of sodium ions and secretion of potassium ions by the

distal convoluted tubule.

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