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25 terms

A&P Chapter 16

STUDY
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The outer layer of a kidney is the ________, and it contains the ________.
renal cortex; renal corpuscles
When the _________ detects a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate it secretes ________ to start the renin (--) angiotensin mechanism.
juxtaglomerular apparatus; renin
Buffers either combine with or release ________ to maintain the pH of blood within normal limits.
hydrogen ions
With a normal glomerular filtration rate, the entire volume of blood in the body will be filtered approximately every ______ minutes.
40
The ________ is a capillary tuft that lies between an afferent arteriole and an efferent arteriole.
glomerulus
Under normal conditions, which of the following substances would not appear in the filtrate?
protein
The primary function of the urinary system is to
maintain the volume and composition of body fluids within normal limits
A ________ consists of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule.
nephron
During reabsorption of solutes in the proximal tubule, most of the Cl- ions and HCO3- ions are moved by ________ mechanisms.
passive transport
________, formed by the breakdown of bile pigments in the intestine, gives the characteristic color to urine.
Urochrome
The functional unit of the kidney is the
nephron
Urine formation begins when _________ moves some of the water and solutes in blood from the glomerulus into the glomerular capsule.
filtration
The fluid in the glomerular capsule contains the same substances as blood plasma except it lacks
proteins
In the ________, nutrients and positive mineral ions are actively reabsorbed from the filtrate into blood in the peritubular capillary.
proximal convoluted tubule
Which of the following ions is secreted into filtrate rather than being reabsorbed?
Mg+ ions
Angiotensin II raises systemic blood pressure by triggering mechanisms that
constrict arterioles and increase water retention.
The kidneys receive approximately ______ of the total cardiac output each minute.
1/4
The kidneys assist in the blood's ability to transport oxygen due to the secretion of the hormone
erythropoietin
Antidiuretic hormone regulates the passive reabsorption of water from filtrate in the
collecting duct
A _________ carries urine from a kidney to the urinary bladder.
ureter
The removal of amine groups from amino acids results in the formation of ________, the most abundant nitrogenous waste in urine.
urea
During reabsorption of solutes in the proximal tubule, most of the amino acids, glucose, Na+ ions, K+ ions, and Ca2+ ions are moved by ________ mechanisms.
active transport
The ability of the body to reabsorb significant quantities of water from the filtrate is due to
all of these choices are correct
Approximately 65% of tubular reabsorption occurs in the
proximal tubule.
Aldosterone regulates the active reabsorption of sodium ions and secretion of potassium ions by the
distal convoluted tubule.