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40 terms

Sociology 111

byu, sociology, 111, freshman
STUDY
PLAY
Sociological Perspective
everything that defines us has been socially constructed
social structure
patterns of what we see - class distinction, etc.
social institutions
media, family, school, peers, etc.
social reproduction
each new generation is being taught social norms
Macro
social institutions and social structures
Micro
individuals and social interaction
Popular View
individual characteristics lead to poverty (lazy, etc.)
Culture of Poverty
some political-econ. forces ->poverty-> <-ind. Characteristics
Situational
political-economic forces->poverty->ind. Characteristics
Structural
political-economic forces->poverty (no characteristic relationship)
Colonialism
establish economic colonies to exploit people and resources from benefit of "mother" country
Maximalist
emphasizes difference, attributes it to biology/early socialization/both, distinctive cultures for men and women, differences are just biological between genders
Minimalist
men and women are essentially similar, differences are relatively superficial and socially constructed, dismisses significance of difference
Race
socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of society consider important
Ethnicity
group of people who share a common ancestry and culture
1616
Pocahontas (social status)
1775
Johann Blumenbach (race-Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, etc)
1781
Jefferson (black inferiority)
1790
race of first census (free or enslaved)
1862
Homestead Act (white settlers, reservations)
1887
Jim Crow (segregation)
1889
Ripley "The Races of Europe" (immigration and whiteness)
1922
courts decide who white (common understanding of white man)
1935
Social Security Act, Wagner Act (protect American workers and exclude non-whites)
1954
legal segregation ends (Brown vs. Board of Education, civil rights act)
1967
interracial marriage (Virginian couple)
2000
census allows more than one race
Discrimination
unfair action
Prejudice
a rigid and unfair generalization about and entire category of people
Racism
prejudice and discrimination based on race
Stereotype
exaggerated description applied to every person in some category
De facto
actual segregation but not necessarily by lawful authority
De jure
legal segregation, segregation by law
Genocide
the systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of a group because of their race or ethnicity
Population transfer
forcing a minority group to move
Internal colonialism
the policy of economically exploiting minority groups
Segregation
the policy of keeping racial-ethnic groups apart
Assimilation
the process of being absorbed into the mainstream culture
Multiculturalism/pluralism
a philosophy or political policy that promotes ethnic difference
socialization
the process of learning what group one is in and how to act accordingly