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Micro Chapter 6 - UTA 2460 Dr. Parks
Terms in this set (34)
In the beginning, _______________ Chamberland filters were able to filter out bacteria and allow for the discovery of ______________.
_______________ microscopy is now used to see viruses. They are not considered part of the tree of life because they are ________________. They must infect a host, therefore are ________________ ______________ parasites.
electron, acellular, obligate intracellular
Most viruses can only affect certain cells. This is called a ___________ _________. For example, a virus that only affects bacteria is called a _______________________.
host range, bacteriophage
Viruses can be transmitted through direct or indirect contact, as well as through a _______________, which is a an animal that transmits the virus.
Mechanical transmission happens when a vector carries a pathogen on the ______________ of the body and spreads it through ______________ contact. Biological transmission happens when a vector carries a pathogen on the ______________ of the body and transmits it through ______________.
outside, physical, inside, biting
An ______________ virus has a phospholipid membrane surrounding the _____________.
A _______________ virus has only the _____________.
enveloped, capsid, naked, capsid
They have either ___________ or __________, but not both.
The genetic material is surrounded by a ______________, which is a ___________ coat.
Range from _____nm - 900 nm
DNA, RNA, capsid, protein, 20
Extending out and away from the capsid are _____________ structures called _____________. They allow for attachment.
For influenza, there are different _____________ that allow for identification, such as ____________________ or neuraminidase.
A helical capsid for the shape of a _______________ mosaic virus (a ____________ helical virus) and the __________ virus (an enveloped virus). The capsule is _____________ or rod shaped.
tobacco, naked, Ebola
Polyhedral capsids for the shapes of __________virus and ________virus, and consist of nucleic acid surrounded by a polyhedral capsid in the shape of an ____________________, or a 20-sided die.
polio, rhino, icosahedral
In the bacteriophage complex form, the genome is located within the polyhedral head and the ___________ connects the head to the _________ fibers and _________ that attach the virus to the host cell.
sheath, tail, pins
Viruses are classified into families and genera based on viral ___________, chemistry, morphology, and mechanisms of ______________.
Bacteriophages replicate only in the _____________, because prokaryotes don't have a nucleus. In eukaryotic cells, most _______ viruses replicate inside the __________.
cytoplasm, DNA, nucleus
Types of Bacteriophages
____________ phages: lead to cell death through cell ___________
Temperate phages, also called _________ phages, become part of the host _______________ and replicate with the genome until they are ready to make assembled viruses called _______________ viruses.
latent, chromosome, progeny
The Lytic Cycle (5 stages)
1. Attachment: where the bacteriophage interacts with specific surface _____________
2. Penetration: Contraction of the tail ________ and injects viral genome into the host cell.
3. Biosynthesis: bacteriophage DNA replicates and phage __________ are made
4. Maturation: new __________ are created
5. Lysis: ____________ viruses are released from the host cell
receptors, sheath, proteins, virions, progeny
The Lysogenic Cycle
Same first two steps as Lytic: ______________ and _____________
The phage genome becomes ______________ into the bacterial chromosome, this is called a ________________.
A bacterial host with this integrated genome is called a ______________.
During induction, the viral genome is __________ out of the host genome. It then completes the ______________ cycle and infects new cells.
V. cholerae and C. botulinum are _________ virulent without phages due to missing __________ genes.
Sometimes, during the lytic cycle, a piece of bacterial chromosome is ________ off with the viral genome and packaged. It is then transferred as if it were a virus to another ________________. This is called ___________________. This process may play an important role in the _______________ process of bacteria, allowing for _______________ exchange of genetic information.
Generalized transduction occurs during the ____________ cycle.
Specialized transduction occurs at the end of the ______________ cycle
cut, bacteria, transduction, evolutionary, asexual
In animal cells, the _____________ cycle is similar for viruses. The animal virus enters the cell through _________________ or membrane ____________. Most viruses are host specific, this is called __________ _____________. Eukaryotic cells go through __________________, where viral RNA enters the nucleus and replicated by RNA ________________. They are released by ____________ or lysis.
lytic, endocytosis, fusion, tissue tropism, biosynthesis, polymerase, budding
In ssDNA, host enzymes are used to synthesize a __________ _________ that is complementary, producing _____DNA.
second strand, ds
3 types of viral RNA
dsRNA: uses a polymerase to replicate the __________ strand of dsRNA to make ___RNA.
+ssRNA: can be ______________ directly to make proteins.
-ssRNA: must be replicated into ______RNA by the __________ enzyme.
A retrovirus, where ______RNA is used, carries a reverse ___________________ within their capsid, which synthesizes a complementary _______ using their original genome as a template. The integrated viral genome is called a __________________. It can now establish a _____________ infection, and, unlike a prophage, it does not undergo excision after integrating into the genome.
+ss, transcriptase, ssDNA, provirus, chronic
Latent Infections: may cause an initial, __________ infecion before becoming _______________ and hidden.
EX. ________________ simplex virus
Chronic Infections: the host doesn't fully _____________ the virus. Host has recurring symptoms over a long period of time.
EX. ___________ becomes ________ after latency period
cleared, expression, immune
eradicate, HIV, AIDS
Plant viruses are more similar to ___________ viruses than to __________________. The majority have a ____-RNA genome. They are normally transmitted between plants, ____________, nematodes, insects, or other ______________ vectors.
animal, bacteriophages, +ss, fungi, mechanical
Viral Growth Curve
1. _________________, an inoculum of the virus binds to host cells.
2. ____________ stage: the virus binds and penetrates the cells, but no _____________ are detected yet.
3. ____________ stage: virions are released from the __________ host cells.
4. The number of virions per bacterium released is the ___________ size.
Viruses can be grown ___ _______, which is inside a living organism, or ____ _______, which is outside in an artificial environment. Bacteriophages can be grown on a dense layer of bacteria called a ___________ ________.
in vivo, in vitro, bacterial lawn
Animal virus cultivation is important for _______________ and diagnosis of a virus in clinical setting, the production of _______________, and for basic ____________ studies. Normally the (flu) virus is inserted into a _________ egg embryo and allowed to _____________. Then, for a vaccine, it is genetically ____________ so people can develop _______________.
identification, vaccines, research, hen, replicate, weakened, antibodies
Primary cultures are used for in ________ studies. They have a limited life span due to contact ______________ and need for constant nutrients. A ____________ culture is established by taking some cells and putting them into a fresh medium.
HeLa cell line of cervical ___________ cells. They kept growing because the cells don't have contact _____________ or anchorage-____________.
vitro, inhibition, secondary
tumor, inhibition, dependence
Cytopathic effects are observable cell ________________ due to a viral infection. They include loss of _____________ to a container, the ____________ of membranes, and the formation of ________________ cells. Further changes include alteration of cells into ________________ or sarcomas.
abnormalities, adherence, fusion, multinucleated, carcinomas
A hemagglutination assay is used to detect the presence of certain types of viruses using a patient serum. ______________________ is the agglutination of red blood cells. In blood, _______________ will bind to hemagglutinins found on viruses. Agglutination would be inhibited if there are _________________ bound to the hemagglutinins. This is an ______________ assay for agglutination inhibition.
hemagglutination, antibodies, antibodies, indirect
Nucleic acid amplification tests are used to detect unique ____________ ________ sequences of viruses in a patient sample. It uses ___________ chain reaction for DNA and ____________ _____________ PCR for RNA.
nucleus acid, polymerase, reverse transcriptase
Enzyme immunoassays detect when an antibody attaches to a target _____________. If the test is positive, there will be a __________ change.
Viroids are a short strand of _________ capable of self-replication. Viroids do not have a ____________ coat to protect their genetic information.
EX. __________ __________ spindle disease
Virusoids are non-self-replicating, pathogenic _____________. They need a "____________" virus in order to replicate.
EX. subterraneas _______ ________ virus, affects clovers (plant)
RNA, ssRNA, helper
Prions are acellular ____________ that do not contain RNA or DNA. They are a ____________ rogue form of a normal protein. They cause _______________ spongiform encephalopathy, which effects the _________ and ____________ system. It causes degeneration of nerve tissue and there is no _____________. It is transmitted through contaminated _______________ or through transfusions. Standard ________________ procedures do not ensure destruction of these.
proteins, misfolded, transmissible, brain, nervous, cure, meat, sterilization
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