POLS 1337 Test 2

prior to being shot, ______ was a supporter of gun rights and moderate gun-control measures, but after the shooting her and her husband founded Americans for Responsible Solutions
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_____ can raise funds from corporations, unions, interest groups and individuals without legal limitsSuper PACsSuper PACs are not allowed to coordinate ______ with candidates who they support, but often those who run a Super PAC are friends and former aides to the candidates making distinction questionabledirectlypeople who do not fall into either Rep or Dem campswing votersstates that might vote either Dem or Rep in an electionswing statesthe Electoral College is a ________ systemwinner-take-allPennsylvania has been a _______ state during electionsbattlegroundstate in which the outcome of the presidential election is uncertain and in which both candidates invest much time and money, especially if its votes are vital for a victory in the ECbattleground statenearly ___% of campaign visits by presidential candidates are to battleground close states90%microtargeting has become a boon to political parties andelectoral campaignsgathering detailed information on cross sections of the electorate to track potential supporters and tailor political messages for themmicrotargeting also called narrowcastingby combining information from polling surveys with political participation and consumer information obtained from data-gathering companies, ________ and ______ can establish profiles of many different types of voters and issues they supportpolitical parties and campaigns_____ issue is a vague claim to a goal, such as "strong economy" "improved education" or "greater national security" goals all candidates talk about and voters seekvalence issues______ issues provide limited insight into the policies a candidate might pursue once in officevalencea ______ issue shows a clear stance; offering specific policy choices and often differentiate candidates' views and plans of actionpositionsince taking clear positions on issues may drive some votes away, presidential candidates rely more heavily on ______ issuesvalence_____ issues usually involve controversial policy concerns, such as affirmative action, that divide people rather than build a consensus meant to break up the opposition's coalitionwedgeone of the most famous examples of negativity is the _________, a tv commercial aired only once by LBJso-called Daisy spotevery member of the House of Reps faces reelection every ____ years2although candidates do not have to declare intention to run for Congress until about a year before election, but incumbents and challengers generally begin campaigning nearly _____ years before Election Day2parties are forbidden by campaign finance laws from actively coordinating a specific individual's congressional or senatorial campaign, but local parties can engage in general activities such asvoter registration drives, partisan rallies, get-out-the-vote efforts on election day that help party endorsed candidates at every levelmany observers worry that campaigns are too long, candidates spend too much money and voters are notvery well informedeffect that the strength of the economy and popularity of sitting president have on the decision to run for Congressstrategic politician hypothesis______'s party typically loses seats in the midterm electionspresident's_____ lays out the party's thinking on key issues and can be usefully thought of as a set of promises the party makes about their plans for governingparty platforma key part of the electoral process is theparty platformWhen a popular president running for reelection brings additional party candidates into officepresidential coattailsdue to redistricting and individuals desire to live near those with similar values and political leanings, congressional districts are becoming heavilyDem or Rep resulting in fewer competitive races and incumbents are more successfulsome scholars claim Congress deliberately design bureaucratic agencies and programs in ways that ensure they will be unable to carry out tasks that constituents demand basically the bureaucracy is built to fail, so constituents have to contract their representative or senator to make it work, thus ensuring ______ in the next electionloyalty to the incumbent_____ would form members to retire after serving a maximum number of termsterm limitsconcerns about ______ advantage have led some observers to fear a lack of accountability and to call for term limitsincumbencynoncompetitive districts are often referred to assafe seatstrend marking the decline of competitive congressional electionsvanishing marginalsFEC sets limits on ______ elections toocongressionalsince it is difficult to establish personal relationships with constituents in large districts and states, congressional campaigns in these areas are less about the personal characteristics of the candidates and more about ____ and _____issues and party policiesMedian voter theorem argues that candidates in their quest for votes should adopt a _______ position on issuesmoderatecontests that occur in between the four-year presidential election cycles are calledmidterm electionsbest prediction models use a combination of 3 key structural factors1. the economy 2. presidential popularity 3. incumbent party's time in officeprediction models predict the national ______ votepopularto take a more systematic look at how campaigns work, political scientists have developed _______ that yield specific estimates of the vote shared in pres electionsprediction modelsimplication in the Daisy ad was that if Goldwater were elected president he would start anuclear warcampaign strategy of telling voters why they should not vote for the opponent and of highlighting information that raises doubts about the opponentsnegativityin general, about half of the content of advertising in pres campaigns involves policy, a quarter concerning personal traits of candidates and the remaining quarter focusing on general values such asfreedom, hard work, patriotismthe real problem with Super PACs and issue ads they sponsor is that voters do not always know where the _______ is coming frommoneyGiffords Law Center focuses on proposing workable solutions to gun violence in America and support ______ who support those types of measurepolitical candidatesinterest groups serve as a mechanism of _______ in a democracy in that they translate individual opinions and outcomes in political systemrepresentation______ form for many reasons, to advance economic status, express an ideological viewpoint, influence public policy, or promote activism in international affairsinterest groups_______ noticed that Americans like to form groups and join associations as a way of participating in community and political life - groups were important to success of AmericansAlexis de Tocquevilleinterest groups try to influence ______ to benefit its memberspublic policy______ group arises when an enterprising individual sees an opening or opportunity to create the group for social, political, or economic purposesproactive_____ group forms to protect interests of members in response to a perceived threat from another group, to fight govt policy that members believe will adversely affect them, or to respond to unexpected external eventreactivegroups whose members share a number of common characteristics are described ashomogeneousgroups whose members come from varied backgrounds are described asheterogeneousright to assemble is the right ofassociationright of ____ gives individuals with a claim against the government the right to ask for compensation and also to ask for policy change or to express opposition to a policypetitionthe rights of association and petition most often take the form oflobbying______ is trying to persuade elected officials to adopt or reject a specific policy changelobbyingthe term lobbying comes fromfrom the lobby where petitioners used to wait to talk to British parliament memberswhen lobbying Congress or state legislatures, lobbyists meet withmember's staff aideslobbyists try to influence executive branch by meeting personally withkey bureaucrats and policy makerslobbying of the judicial branch takes the form oflawsuits against government policiescitizens who opposed slavery formed the _________ in 1833American Anti-Slavery Societyabolitionists held rallies, distributed pamphlets, and collected signatures on petitions to persuade ______ and _____ to abolish slaveryAmericans and members of CongressIn 1848, the women's suffrage movement was officially launched atSeneca Falls, NYthe ______ and _____ movements paralleled each other in relying on the principle of equality as a rationale for supporting their policy goalsabolitionists and women'sbusiness form interest groups based on common economic interests and in 1800s these groups gave _______ a disproportionate influence over public policywealthy owners of corporations______ protect workers interestsunionsTriangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire in NYC141 workers died because they were trapped on upper floor due to inadequate fire escapes and broken elevatorunion leaders saw the ________ as a chance to lobby the government to enforce manufacturers to improve worker safetyTriangle Shirtwaist Firedue to efforts from International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU) the ________ was created in 1913Department of LaborDepartment of Labor enforces mandatory standards for ________ and oversees bargaining agreements between ______ and ________worker safety; management and labor unionsNational Labor Relations Act (1935) allowed unions to engage incollective bargaining_______ provides that only ONE union can be selected to represent workers in a specific locationNational Labor Relations Act (1935)one study estimated that there are apprx ______ interest groups operating in the current American political system7,000_________ interest groups form to advance the economic status of their members and are defined by a specific set of financial or business concernseconomiceconomic interest groups tend to beexclusiveif economic interests groups grow too large or inclusive, then the members' benefits arenecessarily diluted___________ focus on particular businesses or industries, and make up a subcategory of economic interest groupstrade associationstrade associations form because business owners believe they will have more influence on the policy press _______ than _______collectively; individually_________ are formed by individuals who share similar jobsprofessional associationsprofessional associations are responsible for setting ______ and representing the members in the policy processguidelines for professional conduct (business practices to personal ethics)_________ are a type of economic interest group by trying to influence policy on their own and joining trade associations comprised of businesses with similar goalslarge corporations______ are economic interest group that aim to protect workers through safer working conditions and better wagesunionsunions are traditionally organized aslocal chapters part of a national organizationunions typically require dues from all people employed in a workplace that they represent in collective bargaining whether or not theyvoted in support of unionizationIn June 2018, the SC ruled that _______ unions violate members' 1st amend rights by requiring to pay them any union duespublic sector_____ unions are not bound by the 1st amendprivatesectorunion's strength comes from their ability to call or threaten ____ and bargain collectively with employers over ____ and ____-strikes; wages, working conditionsover the past decade, _____ by public sector unions has come under attack by advocates for smaller governmentcollective bargainingthe biggest threat to unions is theloss of jobs in industries they representoverall, private sector union membership has been _____decliningdecline in privatesector union membership becausegovt now requires regulations that unions sought for (safe working conditions, nondiscrimination, overtime compensation)American unions are both _____ and _____ powerful bc they mobilize members to vote for candidates they see as favorable for higher minimum wages, standards for overtime pay, access to health insurance, international trade agreementseconomically and politically powerful______ form among citizens with same belief about specific issuesideological interest groupsideological interest groups subcategories (3)citizen's groups, single-issue groups, grassroot movement groups________ groups are sometimes called public interest groups and are typically formed to draw attention to public issues that affect all citizens equallycitizens'_____ groups form to present one view about a highly salient issue that is intensely important to memberssingle-issueideological groups can contribute political participation in democratic society while also contributing to thepolarization of the American publicbecause ideological groups get power from agreement, it discourages _____ and ______ within the groupdebate and disagreementideological groups not only balance each other out but alsoblock the way forward______ groups form to generate support for favorable US policies towards one or several foreign countriesforeign policy________ groups encourage citizens to provide voluntary assistance to people in need all over the worldinternational aidone of the best know organizations that seek to influence foreign policy is theAmerican Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC)________ are not affiliated with any government and work hard to preserve their neutrality so that they can operate in as many parts of the world as possiblenongovernmental organizations (NGOs)NGOs monitorhuman rights abuses and wartime violence around the world_______ is one of the most fundamental gateways for expressing views and securing a favorable response from government officialslobbyinginterest groups provide members with interpretations of how policy developments will affecttheir mission and goalsgroups also use the bureaucratic regulatory process to respond to regulations with comments to influence howlaws are carried about by the executive branchlobbyists either take a _____ or _____ stancepro or congroups can use their own employees as ______ or contract firms that specialize in _____lobbyists; lobbyinglobbyists are typically individuals who have held _____ jobs at some point in their careerspublic service3 common pathways to becoming a Washington lobbyist1. working on capital hill 2. working in the executive branch 3. working on a political campaignstereotype of lobbyistsrepresenting only the narrow interests of their clientsa decade has passed since ______ prohibited lobbyists to pay for trips and meals for members and staff of legislature / Congresscongressional ethics reformslobbying is a natural outgrowth because members expect their leaders toadvocate for them when necessaryinside lobbying strategydeal directly with legislators and staff to ask for specific policy benefit or try to stop policy they opposekey aspect of the ________ is to keep policy request narrowly tailored to groups' needs bc the broader the request, the more likely other groups become involved in negotiations and complications can ensueinside strategyif inside strategy does not work, groups adopt a more public or outside lobbying strategy bygetting press and their members more directly involvedgroups also try to promote _________ by encouraging actions by their own members and larger publicgrassroots lobbying_______ and _____ show strength in numbers to elected officials and generate publicity that can attract new people to join advocacy effortsmarches and rallies______ groups typically adopt an insider lobbying strategy and limit activity to key actors in Congress and executive brancheconomic_______ groups typically adopt outsider strategy to take advantage of the strength that comes from their large membershipscitizens'Groups with tax-exempt status, known as _________, are prohibited from engaging in any activity on behalf of a candidate or party in an election campaign501(c)(3) organizations_________ organizations are likely to be charities, religious organizations, public service organizations, employee benefit groups, fraternal societies501(c)(3)501(c)(3) can produce voter education guides or other nonpartisan educational materials that explain issues brought up during apolitical campaign and keep the public informed_______ are nonprofit and are supposed to be focused on public policy issues, not politics501(c)(4)Political Action Committee (PAC) and Super PACS raise funds to support ________ and are subject to ____________electoral candidates; campaign finance laws_______ serve as gateways for expanding interest groups' political influence through financial involvement in campaignsPACsBucky v. Valeo (1976)in this 1976 case concerning campaign finance, the supreme court overturned limits on expenditures by both political parties and individual candidates ruling campaign spending is a form of speech and Congress must show compelling interest before it can pass laws to regulate itmany observers has expressed concern that ______ exert a disproportionate influence over legislators, creating an imbalance in govt responsiveness toward some groupsPACsthere is difficulty in establishing exactly what PACs are getting in returnfor their moneyThe Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 is a United States federal law that amended the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, which regulates the financing of political campaignsMcCain-Feingold Act (2002)Federal Election Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life, Inc ruling was that if a campaign advertisement could be reasonably viewed as issue-based,it was protected under the guarantee of free speech and could not be prohibited under the McCain-Feingold ActIn 2010, the SC removed virtually all limits on _____, letting individuals, corporations, and unions spend as much money as they want on themissue adsMcCutcheon et al. v. Federal Election Commission (2014) removed the overall limits on the amount of moneyone individual can contribute to all federal electionsMcCutcheon et al. v. Federal Election Commission (2014) still placed limits on how much money can be given toone candidateMcCutcheon et al. v. Federal Election Commission (2014) said an individual could now contribute to every singlecandidate running for federal office, as well as political partiesHow did David Truman view interest groups?when individuals had common interest, they naturally gravitate toward one another and form a group - when commonality disappears, so does the groupHow does Mancur Olson view interest groups?merely having something in common with others was not enough to give a group life and keep it going as an effective organizationgovernmental decisions that interest groups obtain are"public goods"Truman and Olson raise the fundamental issue of whether interest groups arenatural or artificialRobert Dahl argued that in a(n) ______________ society, the battles over public policy by the varied interest groups that emerge to represent their members will produce a consensus that serves the public's common interestpluralist societytraditionally, the narrow interest of focus groups has engendered a sense ofillegitimacy_______, a term with negative connotations that is more frequently used during campaign season to suggest that some groups exert a disproportionate amount of power in the American democracyspecial interestsA set of groups seeking a particular benefit for themselves in the policy process is known as ___________special interests_______ acts as a gate to equalityfinancial advantageif it often left to members of _________ and _________ to balance their own responses to interest group requests and still maintain responsiveness to constituents and the nation at largecongress, executive branch"iron triangle" describes the relationship amonginterest groups, members of Congress, and federal agenciesmilitary-industrial complex is a self-serving interconnection among branches of (3)US military, defense manufacturing machine, and federal agencies overseeing scientific researchIn his farewell address in 1961, ______ was greatly concerned that the defense agency had undue influence that would be used to unnecessarily increase spending on defense programsDwight D. EisenhowerHugh Heclo claims that the interconnection of interest groups and government is more benign, suggesting the term ______ is better than iron triangleissue networksthe term ________ has a negative connotation, suggesting that the iron triangle of influence consists of the same set of people moving from one branch of govt to another and then to private sectorrevolving doorfor groups that want to est an enduring voice in democracy, success is measured in four ways1. leadership accountability 2. membership outreach 3. financial stability 4. public influencein return for organizing the group, the _________ typically takes a leadership role in directing group activitiesinterest group entrepreneurRobert Salisbury called the trade-off between work and benefits of being a group leader the "____________""exchange theory of interest groups"having too many members in interest groups may cause internal disagreements about policy goals but having too few may weaken the group's ability toexert influence in the policy systemone way to attract and keep members in interest groups is to provide ________, exclusive to membersselective benefits__________ benefits, such as direct monetary benefits that policies that the group advocates, discounts on travel or prescriptions, maybe monthly magazinesmaterial________ benefits are less tangible and range from simple pleasure of being surrounded by people w similar interests and perspectives to networking benefits of interacting with people who share share professional or personal concernssolidary_______ benefits are the least tangible in that they consist of having a specific opinion expressed in the larger social or political sphereexpressivemost of the benefits that interest groups seek on behalf of their members are ______public goodsproblem faced by interest groups when a collective benefit they provide is so wide spread that members and nonmembers alike receive it, reducing incentive to joinfree rider problemgroups that try to counteract declining membership by creating new issues to rally members or portraying serious threats to issues most important to members can be criticized as "______"disinformation campaignsthe financial challenge for many interest groups is to keep their operating costs in line with theirexpected incomeinterest groups face constant pressure to signal to members and the public that they have significant role inpolicy formation on issues about which members are most concerned_________ serve as a counterweight to the influence of interest groupspolitical partiespotential danger of relying on political parties is that sometimes parties only become interested inwinning office, not in serving interests of the peoplegroup of individuals who join together to choose candidates for elected office whether by informal group voting or formal nominating processpolitical partya document that lays out the party's core beliefs and policy proposalsparty platformat the national level, the party issues its platform duringpresidential election yearsa formal step of party identification is stating party affiliation whenregistering to votevoter registration rules vary by state, but they typically require a citizen toshow proof of identity and address to an official government officecandidate recruitment involves party leaders at all levels trying to identify people who would make good candidates for elected office because they are (3)well known in community, have personal wealth, or have professional record that speaks to current issues and would appeal to votersparty caucuses consistently votes for policies thatparties promise in their platformsgroup of party members in a legislatureparty caucus_______ are at the top of party organization and their members are chosen by each state party organizationnational committeesmain job of the _________ is to do everything possible to elect the party's nominee every four yearsnational committeenational party can spend its money on ________ and make _________coordinated expenditures; independent expendituresfunds spend separately on general efforts to increase voter turnout for party's nomineeindependent expenditurescoordinated expenditures are in cooperation with thepresidential campaignessential functions of ___________ are to recruit candidates for lower-level elected offices, register voters, and ensure voters get to polls on Election Daylocal party organizationselection in which voters select the candidates who will run on the party label in the general electionprimary elections; also called direct primary_______ is when voters must affiliate with a party before casting a vote (either by registering before election or on day of primary)closed primary_______ is one in which voters registered as Rep, Dem, or another party casts votes in their party's primary and voters with no registered party preference can choose a party's primary ballot at the pollssemiclosed primaryin a _________ voters do not have to affiliate with a party before votingopen primaryin an open primary, voters are given _______ with each party's list of candidates and they can choose which to use but are restricted to voting for only one party's nomineesballotin a ________, voters are given ballots from all parties and allowed to cast votes for any party's candidates as long as they cast one vote per elective officeblanket primaryin 2000, SC ruled that _______ were unconstitutional if the parties themselves wished to keep their nominations to actual party membersblanket primaries________ is when all candidates, from all parties, who are running for office are identified without party affiliation and if no majority winner emerges, top two vote-getters face each other in runoff electionnonpartisan blanket primaryin _________, voters cast a vote for particular candidate, but really choosing delegates who will support that nominee at party's national nominating conventionpresidential primaryless informal meeting of party members in town halls, schools, and private homes to select a presidential nomineecaucuscandidate who wins a majority of the delegates from the primary and caucus elections is selected at the _________ as the party's nominee for presidentnational conventionwinner-take-all systemwhoever wins the majority of the primary or state nominating convention votes win entire state delegates_____________ in 1972 recommended changes in the way that delegates were chosen and awarded to candidates during the primary seasonMcGovern-Fraser Commissionnumber of delegates that a candidate receives is based on percentage of the vote received in the primary or caucus, either at state level or congressional districtproportional representationIn 1981, the ________ required that each state's delegation comprise an equal number of men and women and created superdelegatesDemocratic Party_____________ are not chosen through primary voting process but rather active members of party who will be instrumental in turning out party voters in the general electionsuperdelegates_______ party rarely faces internal demand for more diverse representation and so did not need to significantly change nominating systemRepublican_______ have no requirements as to the racial or gender composition of states delegates and they have no superdelegatesRepublicans_________ is the phase of the process between the period of time when candidates announce their run for nomination and the first party caucuses and primary electionsinvisible primary________ is when networks of party activists, donors, and elected officials from respective parties begin the informal sorting of potential candidates and winnowing of field of viable nomineesinvisible primary_______ occupied the White House for 28 years from 1801 - 1829Democratic-RepublicsDemocratic-Republican presidents includeJefferson, Madison, Monroe, Quincy AdamsDem-Rep nominees in 1824 (4) due to 1/4 members of party caucuses showing up to cast vote and no nominee had a majorityAndrew Jackson John Quincy Adams William Crawford Henry ClayIn 1824, __________ chose John Quincy Adams as presidentHouse of RepsIn 1828, using a ________ strategy to attract support of state legislature and voters, Jackson worked with Martin Van Buren to challenge Adams for nomination of Dem-Reps, and won both nomination and presidential electiongrassroots state-level strategyJackson and Van Buren made their party more accessible to __________ and attracted voters of ever-expanding nationgeneral publicJackson and Van Buren shorted the name of the party to "______" to signal that they were building a new kind of party organizationDemocratic Partyby the end of Jackson's first term in office, politics had changed in fundamental ways because of the nation's rapid __________ and ___________ growthgeographic, populationanti-Jackson wing of old Dem-Reps took on the nameNational Republicans and then later the WhigsHenry Clay encouraged members of the National Republicans to join forces with others who opposed Andrew Jackson and to form the __________, who objected to what they viewed to be Jackson's abuse of presidential power for partisan gainsWhig Partyminor political parties that represent an alternative to the two dominant political parties in the American political systemthird partiesthird parties typically focus on a single issue, such as Liberty Party and ________ and Green Party with _______LP: antislavery GP: environmental protection_________ era provided many opportunities to bring federal govt into state and local arena by establishing programs to build forts, post roads (for mail delievery), customhouses, and lighthousesJacksonianwhen jobs build party loyalty and those hired often had to declare political allegiance to politician who arranged for job and promised to vote for himpatronage systemthose who controlled distribution of public funds and made sure to reward supporters and withhold funds from opponentsparty bosseskey element of _______ was the loyalty of supporters who voted for boss's preferred set of candidates on Election Daypatronage system / party bossvoter support in party-boss / patronage system was so reliable and predictable it became known asmachine politics, it ran like a well-oiled machinelocal parties in the late 19th century printed their own ballots called ________, which listed only their candidates and gave them to voters on way into polling placesparty-strip ballotsthree developments that eroded party organizations' control over government jobs and elections1. creation of merit-based system of government employment 2. introduction of ballot reforms 3. change in way nominees for elected office were selected___________ were those in late 19th century who believed government had been captured by corrupt elites and were who were using governmental resources to enrich themselves rather than serve citizensProgressives, coalitions of Dem and Repin 1883, the _______ reformed civil service by requiring that government jobs be filled based on merit, not on political connectionsPendleton Actbetween 1888 and 1911, voting procedures were reformed when states replaced party-strip ballots with the ______Australian ballot system_________ ballot system introduced the secret ballot; each ballot listed all candidates of all parties running for office and voters marked choices in privateaustralianAustralian ballot system greatly reduced ________ control over election outcomesparty bossAnthony Downs' ________ proposed that in a two-party race, if voters select candidates on the basis of ideology and everyone participates equally, the party closer to the middle will winmedian voter theoremIn the median voter theorem, _____ have a great deal of potential political influence in a two party systemmoderatesthe ______ of each party in US allows little opportunity to make moderate views knownextremityAmerican electoral system is asingle-member plurality system_________ is in which one legislative seat represents citizens who live in a geographically defined district and to win a seat the candidate only needs a plurality of votes, not a majoritysingle-member plurality systemother democracies assign number of seats a party wins according to ________, based on the percentage of votes it receives in a particular election encouraging smaller parties to form around specific issuesproportional representationTheodore Roosevelt ran for president as a ________ party candidateprogressiveUnder Teddy Roosevelt, the progressives were successful in ratifying the ____ amendment17thin 2010 and 2012, the _______ movement was very effective at supporting challengers to incumbents in primary elections in the Rep Party of supporting third candidate in gen electionTea Partythird parties do not have to stand by themselves to have impact on party politics, they can also be an influential force within one or more parties; exTea Party Movement and Republican PartyDem and Reps have controlled state leg and Congress for so long that they have successfully established gates within state electoral laws that favor a _______ system over a ______ systemtwo-party system over a multiple party system_____ is a large grassroots group and one of the most effective in the nationNational Rifle Association (NRA)when independents gain seats in congress, they must pledge to support one of the two major parties in order to sit on ______ and perform their responsibilities as legislatorscommitteeswhen Republicans and Democrats switched their ideologies in 20th century after the stock market crash, this is known asparty realignmentAmerican Association of Retired Persons (AARP)the American Association of Retired Persons, AARP is the nation's leading organization for people age fifty and olderPACs can give up to $______ per candidate but can spend unlimited expenditure on advertisement and campaigning$5,000LBJ continues the policies set priorly byRoosevelt______ is when voters identify with the same party in repeated electionsparty alignmentIn 1932, ______ built a coalition of white southerners, working-class ethnic northerners, advocates for liberal social policies and northern African Americans who had previously been RepublicansRooseveltRoosevel'ts coalition in 1930s spurned party realignment and was able to maintain it withgovernment benefitsToday the __________ viewpoint builds on the New Deal perspective by favoring government redistribution of income through higher taxes on the wealthy to provide social benefits, such as health care, unemployment insurance, and welfare payments to the poorliberalthe _____ seized what they saw as the main weakness of the New Deal, which was high cost for all these newly created programs and reshaped their party platform to exploit the Democrats' weaknessRepublicansIn the early 1960s, the _______ Party established itself as the party of civil rights for AfAmDemocratic_____'s presidency saw acts that gave fed govt strong enforcement powers to guarantee AfAm the fullest extent of civil rights afforded to every American and served as key gateway for political participation by AfAmLBJLBJ's policies brought a second dimension to the _____ ideology, now the fed govt was granted power to help individuals in need economically and affirmative steps to overrule state and local govt to prevent discrimination on all levelsliberalLBJ's set of policies was called ________ and was founded on idea that fed expansion would strengthen Am society by helping all citizens reach their potentialGreat SocietyIn 1980, the Republicans employed a so-called ________ strategy, presenting themselves as southern white voters as holding views on civil rights and race that were opposite those of the Demssouthern_____ extended their philosophy of limited govt by asserting that each state was responsible for enforcing civil rights and fed govt was overstepping bounds by interfering at state and local levelrepublicanswhen ______ won the Rep Party's presidential nomination, he moved the party more firmly into the anti-abortion campReagan_______'s campaign strategy was designed to attack conservative Dems who were alienated by their party's official position on abortion and attract growing numbers of active evangelical Christian voters, especially in the SouthReagan________ made it clear that under his administration the US would work to undermine Communist political and economic system that was dominant in USSR, eastern Europe and CubaReagan_______ voting made it hard for parties to sustain complete voter allegiance at all levels of elected officesplit-ticket________'s policies moved Dems away from liberal policies, but he still ran under the established Dem party label appealing to wider range of voters and recapture some electoral territory Dems had lost in southern statesClintonIn 2006, corruption scandals and Iraq War put voters in a particularly sour mood towardincumbent Republicanspolitical parties that take responsibility for offering the electorate a distinct range of policies and programs, thus providing a clear choiceresponsible partieswhen Obama and Dems took charge of govt in 2009, they set out to build on the _________ legacy of govt social policy by passing ACAGreat Societywhen Trump won the presidency and Reps retained control of House and Senate, US had a _______ for the first time since 2009united party govtDems and Reps together claim allegiance for almost ___% of voters90%in terms of responding to changes in public opinion, political parties fall short of meeting their responsibilities asagents of democratic govtbreadth of ________ makes it difficult to reach internal consensus on issues at every level of govtnational partiescombination of intraparty divisions with interparty polarization and conflict has produced a ______ democracy that is not consistently responsive to voters' interests and opinionsparty-dominatedFramers wanted to set up barriers against _____ democracy; so they made public role in elections for pres and senate indirect and complexdirectthe _______ was intended to stand above party politics, doing what was right for the nation rather than supporting one faction over anotherpresidencythe electoral college is _____ and ______indirect and confusingthe formal selection of the president is in the hands of electors, who collectively constitute theelectoral collegethe idea for the Electoral College was that it would serve as a gatekeeper against ______ or _______ votersrash or ignorant_____ remain the formal decision makers for choosing the president. They meet in Dec to formally vote for pres, 5 or so weeks after election day in Novemberelectorsbefore the election, each party lines up _____ for its nomineeelectorsonce a candidate wins the most election votes in a state, their ______ are then eligible to vote in Dec meeting of Electoral Collegeelectorsmany states allow electors to vote their _______, meaning they are not legally bound by results of election in their stateconscienceelectors rarely ______ from supporting for candidate to whom they are pledgeddeviateEach state receives a number of electoral votes equal to the number of itssenators and members of House of Reps_____ and ______ are the only states that do not participate in a winner-take-all system for electoral votes, instead they allocate votes by congressional district and so can spilt their electoral votesNebraska and Maineto win the presidency, a candidate needs to win a majority of the 538 electoral votes, which is270if no presidential nominee wins a majority of electoral votes, the election is thrown to theHouse of Repswhen House of Reps have to determine president, each state delegation gets a single vote and the candidate who wins majority becomes next president, but the last time this occurred was in1824in the first four presidential elections, electors cast ballots for their top two choices, the winner became _______ and second-place finisher became ______president; VPFramers viewed ______ as contest between individuals, not political partiespresidencythe initial goal of electing president was to select themost qualified person____ amendment, adopted in 1804 combined the vote for president and VP into one ballot, with the person running for each office named12thin the beginning, states were free to select their own rules for selecting electors and there was no ______ for holding these electionsagreed upon timenow states hold elections all on the same day, ________, and electors meet in December to choose the next presidentfirst Tuesday after the first Monday in Novbiggest problem with the Electoral College occurs when winning the nation's _______ does not automatically translate into a win in the ECpopular voteif a democracy rests on the idea of majority rule, that is president wins based on popular vote, then about __% of our presidential elections have been undemocratic10% 5 timeseliminating the Electoral College would decrease the role of the ______, dampening the significance of ______ interestsstates; statethe presidential election of 2000 came down to _______'s electoral votesFloridain punch card ballots, the machine would not read a ballot unless the chad is completely removed but a hand count could determine the voter's intent from a"hanging" "dimpled" or "pregnant" chadIn Bush v. Gore (2000) SC ruled 7-2 that absence of specific standards for gauging the interest of voter was so arbitrary as to violate the ________ clauseequal protectionSenators serve _______ termsstaggered 6-yearHouse of Rep members serve _____ terms2-yeardirect election of senators became a reality with adoption of the ____ amendment17thHouse members have always been electeddirectly by the peoplepopulation is counted every ____ years in a census10every 10 years, states draw new ______ following a censusdistrict linesstate legislatures are responsible for drawing district lines in a process known asredistrictingpoliticization of drawing districts is calledgerrymanderingonly type of election mentioned in the Constitution in which people could directly participate is the election of membersof US House of Repsno other developed country has as many election asUSthe public views elections as _________ devices for making political choiceslegitimateUS elections has heavy reliance on the _____ballotthe current focus on the presidency would have surprised the Framers since they expected the ________ branch to be the center of attentionlegislativein 1789, the vote for president _______ was unanimousGeorge Washingtonuntil the start of the 20th century, candidates allowed their political parties to campaign on their behalf but avoided looking too personallyambitiousIn 1896, William McKinley stayed home in Canton, OH to speak to well-wishers from his front porch. This front porch campaign proved successful but only becausehis campaign manager and Rep party were raising funds and securing votes behind the scenesin the past, participation in election campaigns had much more of a _______ component than nowsociala worry that politicians, especially presidents spend too much time working toward reelection and not enough time governing is calledpermanent campaign______ is the highest elective office in land and the position offers chance to influence course of a nation and leave legacy as leader of the free worldpresidencyin the ______, no votes are cast, but candidates are jockeying for position and typically line up party support, financial backing and credibility with journalists in news mediainvisible primaryto win a party's nomination, a candidate must secure a majority of ______ to the national party conventiondelegatesabout ____% of states use some form of primary election where citizens go to polling booths, and the other __% use caucuses70%; 30%because caucuses demand more time from voters, the rate of participation is _____ than in primarieslowercaucuses and primaries take place over six months, from _____ through _____ of the election yearJanuary through June"________" includes current officeholders, party officials, and interest groups attached to the parties like unions or business organizationsparty organization______ provide a chance for activists and party leaders to get together to discuss strategy and policy behind the scenesnational conventionsnational conventions approve ______ and ________party platform and VP nomineehighlight of the 4 days of _______ is when party's nominee speaks directly to the nation, laying out vision for the countrynational conventionnational convention is both an advertisement for the party and its candidate and an important springboard for thefall campaignfirst televised presidential debate was betweenJFK and Richard Nixonmany felt that Kennedy's performance at the _____ was critical to his narrow winpresidential debate