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Unit 2 Psychology
Terms in this set (74)
Passing of traits from parents to offspring
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
identical twins formed when one zygote splits into two separate masses of cells, each of which develops into a separate embryo
twins who are produced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
the biological distinction between females and males
our sense of being male or female
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
Kholberg's Levels of Moral Thinking
Stage 1: Moral decisions based on fear of punishment. Stage 2: Moral reasoning guided by self-interest. Stage 3: Moral decisions are guided by conforming to standards of those we most value. Stage 4: Moral reasoning is determined by conforming to social norms.
our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships
for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
learning by observing others; also called social learning
refers to the gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results in the behavior decreasing or disappearing
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
A small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled.
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.)
the administration of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior's recurring
the removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior's recurring
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial reinforcement schedule
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
retention independent of conscious recollection
Memories of general knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts, and propositions.
memories of personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
the inability to remember events from early childhood
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
a mental image or best example of a category
a cognitive process used to organize information by placing it into larger groupings of information
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information
basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
ability to comprehend speech
ability to produce words
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
condition resulting from damage to Broca's area, causing the affected person to be unable to speak fluently, to mispronounce words, and to speak haltingly
condition resulting from damage to Wernicke's area, causing the affected person to be unable to understand or produce meaningful language
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
the worldview of a culture is shaped and reflected by the language its members speak
Recommended textbook explanations
Richard A. Kasschau
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
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