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BSCI 202 Lab Practical 2
Terms in this set (79)
Identify major arteries arising from the aorta and indicate the body region supplied by each
Identify the major veins draining into the vena cavae, and indicate the body regions drained
Know the path of blood flow through the circulatory system (heart large arteries medium arteries, etc)
Microscopic structure of veins and arteries and capillaries, be able to identify and names and function of the tunics
Know special circulations: Pulmonary, cerebral, hepatic portal, fetal, coronary
Describe the circle of Willis (cerebral arterial circle) and discuss its importance in the body
Know what structures of the fetal circulation system are absent in newborns; know what the fetal structures become in the newborn circulatory system
Know what organs are associated with the hepatic portal circulation system
Know various slides with pathologies: know the cause and effect of all pathologies of blood vessels.
Be able to identify different vessel types: know characteristics and special features and adaptations
Know the phases of the cardiac cycle
Know pulse and heart rate, where pulse can be measured
Blood pressure - SBP and DBP
How blood pressure is determined, the units, and what each number means
Define mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and stroke volume
Understand how pressure in the heart is associated with the flow between the chambers
Know what the "lub" and "dub" of the heartbeat means in terms of what is happening in the heart
Be able to define blood pressure
The difference between systole and diastole and how they are related to blood pressure readings
Calculate overall blood pressure, cardiac output, pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure
Define the stages of hypertension and the blood pressures they include
Know how to auscultate heart sounds
Define heart murmur
abnormal heart sounds due to leaky valves; indicates a problem with the heart valves; can sometimes make a whooshing sound
Processes involved in respiration (pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of respiratory gases, and internal respiration)
pulmonary ventilation: breathing
external respiration: involves lungs (pulmonary circuit)
transport of respiratory gases:
internal respiration: involves body tissues
Know what the upper and lower respiratory divisions contain
Upper: nose, nasal cavity and passageways, trachea, pharynx
Lower: everything below the larynx?
larynx, lungs, bronchi, alveoli
Know location, function and structures within the: Nasal cavity
Location: nose (nostrils)
Function: warms air as it enters body, resonance chamber, smell
Structures: internal, middle, and superior conchae (chambers with nerves for smelling, blood in there to heat the air)
Know location, function and structures within the: Pharynx
Know location, function and structures within the: Larynx
Function: voice box?
Structures: vocal folds?? epiglottis?
Know location, function and structures within the: Trachea
Function: medium where air can move
Know location, function and structures within the: Bronchi
Location: between the trachea and the lungs
Know location, function and structures within the: Alveoli
Function: sites of gas exchange on lungs
Structures: alveolar sacs, capillary beds on top of them, alveolar...
Know location, function and structures within the: Lungs
Structures: several lobes (primary,
What are the mechanism of respiration (inspiration and expiration)?Which muscles are involved? What is their role?
Understand respiratory volumes and capacities; know how to calculate each of these
What are the difference between obstructive diseases and restrictive disease? Give examples of each
Understand Forced Vital Capacity and Forced expiratory volume
What are respiratory sounds? Be able to identify various sounds and possible pathologies associated with various sounds
Understand acid-base balance in blood, Understand how pH scales work
Understand the role of Co2 in blood pH homeostasis
Understand this equation and its biological relevance:
CO2CO2+ H2O—>H2CO3- HCO3- + H+
What is the chloride shift? What is its relevance?
How does hyperventilation and hypoventilation effect pH?
Know how to use a spirometer
Be able to read a spirograph
Be able to identify various respiratory pathologies: cause and effect
What is the innermost tunic of a blood vessel?
What is the uppermost region of the pharynx?
Which type(s) of cartilage could you find in the larynx?
o Thyroid cartilage: biggest one in larynx, made of hyaline cartilage (Adam's apple)
o Cricoid cartilage: directly below, hyaline cartilage
o Epiglottis: elastic cartilage (as we breathe in, it opens up and allows for airflow; closes as we swallow)
What type of tissue would you find in the tunica media?
If a patient is hyperventilating, what would you predict about the pH of their blood?
alkalosis (high pH)
If there is a blockage in the anterior communicating artery, what might happen?
What are the three tunics of blood vessels? What tissues make up each tunic? What is the function of each tunic?
What is the largest artery in the body? What are the major blood vessels branching off of this artery?
On figures of the blood vessels of the body, label each blood vessel without checking your notes. Start with the full body figures in the review sheet at the end of the blood vessels chapter. Figures of the head, brain, limbs, abdomen, lungs, and fetal circulation will also be useful. Coronary circulation is covered in the chapter on heart anatomy.
Define systole and diastole.
What is the order of events in the cardiac cycle? Be able to relate this to diastole and systole.
What event produced the "lub" sound during the cardiac cycle? The "dub" sound?
What tool would you use to listen to heart sounds?
At what points on the body (at what arteries) can pulse be measured?
What tool would you use to measure blood pressure?
What are the basic steps for measuring blood pressure in a subject at rest?
What is the equation that can be used to measure arterial blood pressure? What are the roles of cardiac output and peripheral resistance on blood pressure?
What are the structures of the upper respiratory system?
Some of the structures of the upper respiratory system have both respiratory and digestive functions. What are these structures? What are the structures that have only respiratory functions?
There are a number of different cartilaginous structures in the respiratory system. What are they? What are the different types of cartilage in each of these structures?
What are the structures of the lower respiratory system?
How are the left and right main bronchi different?
What tool would you use to measure respiration volumes?
What are the average respiratory volumes for males and females? What about the average respiratory capacities?
How would you use a spirometer to measure tidal volume? Inspiratory reserve volume (only possible with iWorx spirometer in this class)? Expiratory reserve volume?
What factors influence the rate and depth of respiration?
How does breathing impact pulse?
What buffer system operates in blood plasma and red blood cells? Which component of the buffer system resists a drop in pH? What resists a rise in pH?
Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
To resist a drop in pH, carbonic acid splits to form a bicarbonate buffer to raise pH
To resist a rise in pH,
Briefly explain how the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffers system of the blood operates?
What is the role of the chloride shift?
The chloride shift balances out the amount of CO2 in red blood cells through diffusion. The carbonate ion diffuses out of the red blood cell while the chloride diffuses into the cell (higher amount of CO2 inside cell than outside cell)
What is hypoventilation? Hyperventilation?
What happens to the amount of carbonic acid in the blood during hypoventilation? During hyperventilation?
What is respiratory acidocis?
short, slow breathing occurs which doesn't allow for CO2 to be expelled from the body properly; too much CO2 yields too much carbonic acid (acidic blood)
fast, deep breathing occurs which causes there to be more oxygen than CO2 in the body; since erythrocytes have an affinity for CO2 and there is of enough of it, it causes a decrease in carbonic acid production (basic blood)
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