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Terms in this set (25)
Theory of Mind
Episodic Memory and Metacognition
Theory of Mind
other people think
and what other people think may be different from what you think.
Mental states involved in Theory of Mind:
Purpose or intention
Belief and False Belief
Developments During Preschool
Cognitive advances during early childhood
Ability to classify.
Initially, classification is based on physical properties.
Example: things that are red; things that are square.
Later, classification is based on more abstract properties.
Example: things that can fly; things you buy at the grocery store.
Immature thought during early childhood
Transformation between states.
Fail to understand conservation tasks.
two things that are equal remain equal even if their appearance
Differences in Development
Monolingual vs. bilingual children
False Belief Tests
People act on their beliefs even when their beliefs may be false
Appearance Reality Tests
the physical world may not be what it seems (and one's knowledge is false)
Level 2 Perspective Taking Tests
What something will look like from someone else's perspective
Success on these tasks usually appears at the same time.
Which doll is which? (Naming Question)
Where is the marble really? (Reality Question)
Where was the marble in the beginning? (Memory Question)
Theory of mind cont
AT 41 months and younger, children perform below chance. At 48 months and older, children perform above chance.
What factors affect performance on Theory of Mind tasks?
Deceptive motives lead to a performance increase in children of all ages.
In some tasks, children help set up the story props. This leads to a performance increase in children of all ages.
Salience--real presence of the object.
When the object is not physically present, children older than 44 months perform better.
The question asked.
What factors affect performance on Theory of Mind tasks? cont
The question asked.
To emphasize mental states (Where will Sally think her marble is)
To emphasize behavior (where will Sally look for her marble)
In terms of speech (where will Sally say her marble is)
To incorporate temporal markers (when Sally comes back, where will she look for her marble)
Compared to the U.S. and the U.K. children in Korea perform similarly, children in Australia and Canada perform somewhat better, and children in Austria and Japan perform somewhat worse.
Same developmental trajectory.
memories formed through unconscious learning, such as classical and operant conditioning.
Crib-mobile procedure shows implicit memory in infants as early as 2 months old.
memories available to conscious awareness.
Composed of Semantic memory and Episodic memory
memory for facts and similar general knowledge.
conscious memory of autobiographic events, including:
When, where they happened
Who else was there
Other contextual knowledge
a lack of episodic memories for events that happened before age 3 or 4.
Likely due to language abilities not being fully developed until then.
Confabulation (false memories)
knowledge about one's own knowledge (do we know what we know?)
2 types of metacognitive processes.
assessments of one's own knowledge.
Example: How did I do on the test"
how you use the assessment of your knowledge to guide behavior.
Example: Should I study this topic more, or move one?
How do we study
Read stories, ask children questions, ask children for their confidence in their answers.
Examine children's choices about what they choose to study (or how long they choose to study) when learning a difficult task
Some metacognitive skills appear to be in place by age 5.
some evidence that metacognitive skills improve from age 5 until age 10 (at which point, they are fairly like those of adults)
Problems measuring metacognition.
Children (and adults) tend to be overconfident in their answers.
Children are reluctant to say "I don't know"
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