APES Chapter 14 Water Resources
Terms in this set (65)
Three River Basins countries in the Middle East get their water from:
Nile, Jordan, and Tigris-Euphrates
What is the % of total freshwater?
How much of the total freshwater is locked up in ice caps and glaciers?
How much of the fresh water is ready to use?
Where does ready to use fresh water come from?
Lakes, Rivers, Soil Moisture, and water vapor
What is surface runoff?
Water that does not sink into the ground or evaporate back into the atmosphere and instead flows to bodies of water.
What bodies of water does surface runoff flow into?
streams, lakes, wetlands, and reservoirs
What is reliable runoff?
A water source that we can generally count on as a stable source of water from year to year.
What is a watershed also known as?
What is a watershed?
A region from which water drains into a body of water
What is ground water?
Water that infiltrates into the ground
What is a zone of aeration also known as?
What is a zone of aeration?
A zone above the water table, where pores of rock and soil contain air and may be moist but are not saturated by water.
What is a zone of saturation?
A zone where voids are completely filled with water.
What is a water table?
located at the top of the zone of saturation and it rises in wet weather and falls in dry weather.
What is an aquifer?
Water-saturated layers of sand, gravel, or bedrock through which groundwater flows
What is natural recharge?
When aquifers are replenished by precipitation.
What percent of the water in the US is used for Industry?
What percent of the water in US is used for power plant cleaning?
What percent of the water in the US is used for agriculture?
What percent of the water in the US is used for public use?
What percent of the World's runoff is used by humans?
What are the water uses in the Eastern US?
energy production, cooling, and manufacturing
What are the water problems of Eastern US?
flooding, occasional urban shortage, and pollution
What are the water uses of the Western U.S.?
What are the water problems in Western US?
low precipitation, high evaporation, and recurring prolonged drought.
What are the causes of water scarcity?
dry climate, drought, desiccation, and water stress
What is water stress?
when the demand for water exceeds the available amount during a certain period
What is water scarcity?
A lack of available safe water due to arid conditions
Currently how many people in the world live in countries that are water scarce or water stressed?
500 million people
By 2025 how many people will live in water scare or stressed countries?
2.4-3.4 billion people
Ways to increase freshwater supplies?
building dams and reservoirs to store runoff, bring in surface water from another area, withdraw groundwater, convert salt water to fresh water, waste less water, and import food to reduce water use
Advantages of large dams:
controlling floods, producing hydroelectric power, and supplying water for irrigation and for towns and cities, and for recreational activities.
What are the advantages of building large dams?
Controlling floods, producing hydroelectric power, supplying water for irrigation and for towns and cities, and for recreational activities.
Advantages of building numerous dams along the Colorado river basin:
electricity, water for more than 25 million people in seven states, water to produce livestock, and a multibillion dollar recreation industry
disadvantages of building numerous dams along the colorado river basin
threatens the survival of species in the river, destroys estuaries, and increases saltwater contamination
Purpose of the California Water Transfer Project:
would transfer water from water-rich areas to less fortunate areas.
Disadvantages of the California Water Project:
degrade the Sacramento River, threaten fisheries and increase pollutants.
Advantages of withdrawing groundwater:
can be removed as needed year round, is not lost by evaporation, and is usually less expensive to develop
disadvantages of withdrawing groundwater:
water table lowering, aquifer depletion, aquifer subsidence, intrusion of salt water, chemical contamination in groundwater, and reduced stream flow
What is saltwater intrusion?
The movement of salt water into a freshwater aquifer
What is saltwater intrusion caused by?
Harms of saltwater intrusion?
Can cause contamination of water causing it to be unsafe to drink.
Ways to slow groundwater depletion?
controlling population growth, shifting to crops that need less water in dry areas, wasting less irrigation water, and importing grain
What is desalination?
Removing the salt from salt water
Disadvantages of desalination?
expensive and produces large quantities of wastewater
What is brine?
wastewater that contains high levels of salt and other minerals
Advantages of desalination?
Ready alternative source of water and production of a high yield of water.
What percent of water used by people through out the world wasted?
To what percent could we reduce the wasted water by people in the world?
Causes of water waste?
water subsidy policies, water laws, and fragmental watershed management
Gravity Flow Irrigation method:
Water usually comes from an aqueduct system or a nearby river.
Drip Irrigation method:
Above or below ground pipes that deliver water to individual plant roots.
Center Pivot Irrigation method:
Water usually pumped from underground and sprayed from mobile boom with sprinklers
List of most efficient to least efficient irrigation systems:
Drip Irrigation-Center Pivot-Gravity Flow
Ways to reduce water use in irrigation:
Irrigating at night to reduce evaporation, polyculture, organic farming, importing water intensive crops and meats, irrigating with treated urban waste water
Ways to reduce water use in industry, homes, and businesses:
fix water leaks, landscape yards with plants that require little water, use water meters, raise water prices, collect and reuse household water to irrigate lawns
What is the doctrine of riparian rights?
This system of water law gives anyone whose land adjoins a flowing stream the rights to use water from the stream as long as some is left for downstream landowners.
What is the principle of prior appropriation?
first-come, first-served approach
What is the common law?
The subsurface water belongs to whoever owns the land above such water.
Benefits of flooding:
They provide the world's most productive farmland, recharges groundwater, and refills wetlands.
Disadvantages of flooding:
kills thousands, cause tens of billions of dollars in property damage and lost food crops
Ways in which humans increase the severity of flooding:
removing water-absorbing vegetation, draining wetlands, living on floodplains, and urbanization
4 ways to reduce the risks of flooding
Straightening and deepening streams, building levees, building dams, and restoring wetlands.
5 ways to use the world's water more sustainably:
not depleting aquifers, preserving water quality, marketing of water rights, slowing population growth, decreasing government subsidies for supplying water