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diarthorsis, synarthrosis, and amphiarthrosis

what are the functional classes of joints?


which functional joint class is freely moveable?


which functional joint class is slightly moveable?


which functional joint class is immoveable?


a fibrous joint composed of a thin layer of dense irregular fibrous connective tissue.


a fibrous joint, the connective tissue is typically arranged either as a bundle or as a sheet.

pivot joint

type of synovial joint, a rounded or pointed surface on one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by a ligament.

contain a joint cavity, are freely moveable, articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, have ligaments holding the joint together

characteristics of a synovial joint.


what is made of dense regular connective tissue

bursae and synovial fluid

what is there to reduce friction in a synovial joint?

range of motion

refers to the span, measured in degrees of a circle, through which the bones of a joint can be moved.

saggital plane

along what plane does flextion and extension occur?


standing on your heals. bend your foot at the ankle in the direction of you foots superior surface.


occurs in your clavicles at your acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints when you cross your arms in front of your body


degenerative joint disease in which joint cartilage is gradually lost due to a combination of aging, obesity, wear and abrasion of the joints.

rheumatoid arthritis

an autoimmune disease that affects the joints

gouty arthritis

characterized by sodium urate crystals being deposited in the soft tissues of joints


results from a forceful wrenching or twisting of a joint that tears or stretches its ligaments but does not dislocate the bones.


a muscle or muscle and tendon is stretched or partially torn

muscular atrophy

disorders is characterized by the wasting away of muscles due to the progressive loss of myofibrils

tennis elbow/ tenosynovitis

condition in which the tendon sheaths, tendons, and synovial membranes of the elbow are inflamed

muscular hypertrophy

increase in disameter of muscle fibers


abnormal contractions fo skeletal muscle may be caused by holding a position for a prolonged period


abnormal contractions of skeletal muscle is caused by a twitch of an entire motor unit and is visible under the skin


abnormal contractins of skeletal muscle is caused by a single muscle fiber, is spontaneous, and is not visible under the skin

fused tetanus

a period of sustained skeletal muscle contraction in which individual twitches cannot be detected

planter aponeurosis

inflamed during ;painful heel syndrome


protusion of an organ through a structure that normally contains it

anterior cruciate ligament

limits hyperextension of the knee and prevents the anterior sliding of the tibia on the femur.

posterior cruciate ligament

prevents the posterior sliding of the tibia when the knee is flexed.


what functional class of joint does a suture fit into?


what is an example of syndesmosis?

decreased range of motion

what can happen if you stop using a limb?


hormone stimulates changes that lead to increased range fo motion in the pubic symphysis

moving blood throughout the body, generating heat through contractions, stabilizing the movement of joints, promoting the movement of body structures

functions of muscle tissue


property of muscle that gives it the ability to stretch without damage


outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle


means to shorten or come together


the ability to stretch

synaptic end bulbs

synaptic vesicles containing acetylcholine are found suspended in the sytosol


arranged in rows near the contractile muscle proteins


thread-like contractile organelles of a skeletal muscle fiber

sarcoplasmic reticulum

used for storing calcium

i band and a band

regions of a sarcomere contain thin filaments

tropomyosin and troponin

reulatory proteins can be found in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle fibers


used to reinforce the sarcolemma and to help transmit the tension generated by the sarcomeres to the tendons.

m line

during muscle contraction by the sliding filament mechanism, thin filaments are pulled towards this. used for actual muscle contraction.

calcium ions, phosphorus, and ATP

skeletal muscle contraction will continue to occur as long as the following chemicals are available in the cytosol of the muscle fiber

calcium ions

maintains smooth muscle tone its prolonged presence in the muscles cell's cytosol

synaptic cleft

acetylcholine must cross to stimulate skeletal muscle contraction

motor unit

consists of a somatic moter neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it stimulates

refractory period

the period of lost excitability in skeletal muscle fibers

cross bridges

formed during muscle contraction when tyosin on the thick filaments binds to actin on the thin filaments

synaptic cleft

space between the synaptic end bulbs and the muscle


what is relased into the synaptic cleft?

neuromuscular junction

where the nervous sytem and the muscular system connect

axon of neuron to the sarcolemma to the t-tubules

the action potentional sequence that excites the skeletal muscle contraction order is what?


plasma membrane of the muscle cell

muscular dystrophy

weak sarcolemmas are in what disease?

creatine phosophate, anaerobic cellualr respiration, aerobic respiration

three ways to produce ATP

slow oxidative fiber

least powerful type of skeletal muscle fiber

fast oxidative glycolytic

leg muscles

fast glycolytic


intercalated discs

microscopic structures is only found in the cardiac muscle tissue

torn sarcolemmas, damaged myofibrils, sore muscles, disrupted z-discs

exercise-induced muscle damage

dehydration, kidney dysfunction, decrease in the body's own synthesis of creatine

common side effect of creating supplementation

sterility, baldness, diminished testosterone secretion, and atrophy of testes

side effect of anabolic steroid use by male athletes

sterility, facial hair growth, menstrual irregularities, and deepening of voice

side effects of anabolic steroid use by female athletes

calcium ions

smooth muscle tone is maintained by what?


wasting away of muscles is what?


an increase in diameter of muscle fibers


most muscles cross atleast one _____.

when the effort supplied exceeds load

when will motion occur in a muscle?


the attachment of a muscle to a stationary bone


the attachment of a muscle to a movable bone


the muscle that serves as the "prime mover" during a movement


works by stabalizzing the origin of the agonist so that it can act more efficiently


muscle that works opposite the prime mover (agonist)


muscle that helps the prime mover


muscle that decreases the size of an opening


generates teh facial expression of pouting


contraction of this muscle presses the cheeks against the teeth and lips as would be observed in whistling, blowing or sucking


moves the mandible


insertion is found on the clavicle and acromion process of the scapula within the pectoral girdle

flexor carpi radials

used to flex and abduct the hand at the wrist joint

tibialis anterior

flexes the little toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint


moves the upper arm


functions to elevate the hyoid bone and help press the tongue against the roof of the mouth during swallowing

tensor facia latae, gluteus maximus

insertion on the iliotibial tract (IT tract)

external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis

abdominal muscles in order from superior to deep

superior rectus, lateral rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique

muscles that move the eyeball

rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus laterlis, vastus intermedius

quadriceps muscle group

in the abdomen

where is the internal oblique

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