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a fibrous joint, the connective tissue is typically arranged either as a bundle or as a sheet.
type of synovial joint, a rounded or pointed surface on one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by a ligament.
contain a joint cavity, are freely moveable, articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, have ligaments holding the joint together
characteristics of a synovial joint.
range of motion
refers to the span, measured in degrees of a circle, through which the bones of a joint can be moved.
standing on your heals. bend your foot at the ankle in the direction of you foots superior surface.
occurs in your clavicles at your acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints when you cross your arms in front of your body
degenerative joint disease in which joint cartilage is gradually lost due to a combination of aging, obesity, wear and abrasion of the joints.
characterized by sodium urate crystals being deposited in the soft tissues of joints
results from a forceful wrenching or twisting of a joint that tears or stretches its ligaments but does not dislocate the bones.
disorders is characterized by the wasting away of muscles due to the progressive loss of myofibrils
tennis elbow/ tenosynovitis
condition in which the tendon sheaths, tendons, and synovial membranes of the elbow are inflamed
abnormal contractions fo skeletal muscle may be caused by holding a position for a prolonged period
abnormal contractions of skeletal muscle is caused by a twitch of an entire motor unit and is visible under the skin
abnormal contractins of skeletal muscle is caused by a single muscle fiber, is spontaneous, and is not visible under the skin
a period of sustained skeletal muscle contraction in which individual twitches cannot be detected
anterior cruciate ligament
limits hyperextension of the knee and prevents the anterior sliding of the tibia on the femur.
moving blood throughout the body, generating heat through contractions, stabilizing the movement of joints, promoting the movement of body structures
functions of muscle tissue
tropomyosin and troponin
reulatory proteins can be found in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle fibers
used to reinforce the sarcolemma and to help transmit the tension generated by the sarcomeres to the tendons.
during muscle contraction by the sliding filament mechanism, thin filaments are pulled towards this. used for actual muscle contraction.
calcium ions, phosphorus, and ATP
skeletal muscle contraction will continue to occur as long as the following chemicals are available in the cytosol of the muscle fiber
formed during muscle contraction when tyosin on the thick filaments binds to actin on the thin filaments
axon of neuron to the sarcolemma to the t-tubules
the action potentional sequence that excites the skeletal muscle contraction order is what?
torn sarcolemmas, damaged myofibrils, sore muscles, disrupted z-discs
exercise-induced muscle damage
dehydration, kidney dysfunction, decrease in the body's own synthesis of creatine
common side effect of creating supplementation
sterility, baldness, diminished testosterone secretion, and atrophy of testes
side effect of anabolic steroid use by male athletes
sterility, facial hair growth, menstrual irregularities, and deepening of voice
side effects of anabolic steroid use by female athletes
contraction of this muscle presses the cheeks against the teeth and lips as would be observed in whistling, blowing or sucking
insertion is found on the clavicle and acromion process of the scapula within the pectoral girdle
functions to elevate the hyoid bone and help press the tongue against the roof of the mouth during swallowing
external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis
abdominal muscles in order from superior to deep
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