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93 terms

mary's review

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diarthorsis, synarthrosis, and amphiarthrosis
what are the functional classes of joints?
diarthrosis
which functional joint class is freely moveable?
amphiarthrosis
which functional joint class is slightly moveable?
synarthrosis
which functional joint class is immoveable?
suture
a fibrous joint composed of a thin layer of dense irregular fibrous connective tissue.
syndesmosis
a fibrous joint, the connective tissue is typically arranged either as a bundle or as a sheet.
pivot joint
type of synovial joint, a rounded or pointed surface on one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by a ligament.
contain a joint cavity, are freely moveable, articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, have ligaments holding the joint together
characteristics of a synovial joint.
ligaments
what is made of dense regular connective tissue
bursae and synovial fluid
what is there to reduce friction in a synovial joint?
range of motion
refers to the span, measured in degrees of a circle, through which the bones of a joint can be moved.
saggital plane
along what plane does flextion and extension occur?
dorsiflexion
standing on your heals. bend your foot at the ankle in the direction of you foots superior surface.
protraction
occurs in your clavicles at your acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints when you cross your arms in front of your body
osteoarthritis
degenerative joint disease in which joint cartilage is gradually lost due to a combination of aging, obesity, wear and abrasion of the joints.
rheumatoid arthritis
an autoimmune disease that affects the joints
gouty arthritis
characterized by sodium urate crystals being deposited in the soft tissues of joints
sprain
results from a forceful wrenching or twisting of a joint that tears or stretches its ligaments but does not dislocate the bones.
strain
a muscle or muscle and tendon is stretched or partially torn
muscular atrophy
disorders is characterized by the wasting away of muscles due to the progressive loss of myofibrils
tennis elbow/ tenosynovitis
condition in which the tendon sheaths, tendons, and synovial membranes of the elbow are inflamed
muscular hypertrophy
increase in disameter of muscle fibers
cramp
abnormal contractions fo skeletal muscle may be caused by holding a position for a prolonged period
fasciculation
abnormal contractions of skeletal muscle is caused by a twitch of an entire motor unit and is visible under the skin
fibrillation
abnormal contractins of skeletal muscle is caused by a single muscle fiber, is spontaneous, and is not visible under the skin
fused tetanus
a period of sustained skeletal muscle contraction in which individual twitches cannot be detected
planter aponeurosis
inflamed during ;painful heel syndrome
hernia
protusion of an organ through a structure that normally contains it
anterior cruciate ligament
limits hyperextension of the knee and prevents the anterior sliding of the tibia on the femur.
posterior cruciate ligament
prevents the posterior sliding of the tibia when the knee is flexed.
synarthrosis
what functional class of joint does a suture fit into?
semimembranosis
what is an example of syndesmosis?
decreased range of motion
what can happen if you stop using a limb?
relaxin
hormone stimulates changes that lead to increased range fo motion in the pubic symphysis
moving blood throughout the body, generating heat through contractions, stabilizing the movement of joints, promoting the movement of body structures
functions of muscle tissue
extensibility
property of muscle that gives it the ability to stretch without damage
epimysium
outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle
contractility
means to shorten or come together
elasticity
the ability to stretch
synaptic end bulbs
synaptic vesicles containing acetylcholine are found suspended in the sytosol
mitochondria
arranged in rows near the contractile muscle proteins
myofibrils
thread-like contractile organelles of a skeletal muscle fiber
sarcoplasmic reticulum
used for storing calcium
i band and a band
regions of a sarcomere contain thin filaments
tropomyosin and troponin
reulatory proteins can be found in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle fibers
dystrophin
used to reinforce the sarcolemma and to help transmit the tension generated by the sarcomeres to the tendons.
m line
during muscle contraction by the sliding filament mechanism, thin filaments are pulled towards this. used for actual muscle contraction.
calcium ions, phosphorus, and ATP
skeletal muscle contraction will continue to occur as long as the following chemicals are available in the cytosol of the muscle fiber
calcium ions
maintains smooth muscle tone its prolonged presence in the muscles cell's cytosol
synaptic cleft
acetylcholine must cross to stimulate skeletal muscle contraction
motor unit
consists of a somatic moter neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it stimulates
refractory period
the period of lost excitability in skeletal muscle fibers
cross bridges
formed during muscle contraction when tyosin on the thick filaments binds to actin on the thin filaments
synaptic cleft
space between the synaptic end bulbs and the muscle
acetylcholine
what is relased into the synaptic cleft?
neuromuscular junction
where the nervous sytem and the muscular system connect
axon of neuron to the sarcolemma to the t-tubules
the action potentional sequence that excites the skeletal muscle contraction order is what?
sarcolemma
plasma membrane of the muscle cell
muscular dystrophy
weak sarcolemmas are in what disease?
creatine phosophate, anaerobic cellualr respiration, aerobic respiration
three ways to produce ATP
slow oxidative fiber
least powerful type of skeletal muscle fiber
fast oxidative glycolytic
leg muscles
fast glycolytic
biceps
intercalated discs
microscopic structures is only found in the cardiac muscle tissue
torn sarcolemmas, damaged myofibrils, sore muscles, disrupted z-discs
exercise-induced muscle damage
dehydration, kidney dysfunction, decrease in the body's own synthesis of creatine
common side effect of creating supplementation
sterility, baldness, diminished testosterone secretion, and atrophy of testes
side effect of anabolic steroid use by male athletes
sterility, facial hair growth, menstrual irregularities, and deepening of voice
side effects of anabolic steroid use by female athletes
calcium ions
smooth muscle tone is maintained by what?
atrophy
wasting away of muscles is what?
hypertrophy
an increase in diameter of muscle fibers
joint
most muscles cross atleast one _____.
when the effort supplied exceeds load
when will motion occur in a muscle?
origin
the attachment of a muscle to a stationary bone
insertion
the attachment of a muscle to a movable bone
agonist
the muscle that serves as the "prime mover" during a movement
fixator
works by stabalizzing the origin of the agonist so that it can act more efficiently
antagonist
muscle that works opposite the prime mover (agonist)
synergist
muscle that helps the prime mover
sphincter
muscle that decreases the size of an opening
platysma
generates teh facial expression of pouting
buccinator
contraction of this muscle presses the cheeks against the teeth and lips as would be observed in whistling, blowing or sucking
masseter
moves the mandible
trapezius
insertion is found on the clavicle and acromion process of the scapula within the pectoral girdle
flexor carpi radials
used to flex and abduct the hand at the wrist joint
tibialis anterior
flexes the little toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint
infraspinatus
moves the upper arm
mylohyoid
functions to elevate the hyoid bone and help press the tongue against the roof of the mouth during swallowing
tensor facia latae, gluteus maximus
insertion on the iliotibial tract (IT tract)
external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis
abdominal muscles in order from superior to deep
superior rectus, lateral rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique
muscles that move the eyeball
rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus laterlis, vastus intermedius
quadriceps muscle group
in the abdomen
where is the internal oblique