Management Exam 2 Book Vocab

Management Exam 2 Book Vocab
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Terms in this set (...)

Human Capital
An individual's abilities and competencies
Social Capital
A person's social connections within and outside an organization
Expertise
Work-related knowledge and can come from formal education, self0directed learning, or on the job
Attraction
A source of personal power: Charisma, agreeable behavior, and physical characteristics. The ability to inspire followers with devotion and enthusiasm, an attractive aura, great charm, or a divinely conferred power or talent
Effort
Dependable, reliable human resources. most highly prized characteristics of an employee.
Legitimacy
Increases acceptance, and acceptance is key to personal influence.
Centrality
A broad network of tasks and interpersonal relationships. Access to information in a communication network.
Flexibility
Amount of discretion vested in a position
Visibility
Degree to which tasks performance is seen by influential people in the organization
Relevance
Alignment of assigned tasks and organizational priorities
Retribution
Force others to do what you say. Based on personal threat, which typically stems from formal authority. Coercion & Intimidation
Reciprocity
Help others want to do what you say. Extracts compliance from others. Satisfying the self-interest of both parties. Bargaining & Ingratiation.
Reason
Show others that it makes sense to do what you say. Based on managers persuasive ability. Present Facts & Appeal to personal values
Issue Selling
Draws attention to those issues or problems that concern you, notwithstanding the numerous other issues that compete for your superior's time and attention.
Micromanager
Obsessed with details and perfection
Inexplicit Direction with Decisive Delivery
Treats everything as a priority, requiring immediate, careful attention
Mercurial Mood Swings
Responses are very unpredictable
Obsession with loyalty and Obedience
Believes, "You are either for me or against me"
Status Derogation
Criticizes subordinates in public, to the point of ridicule
Capricious Actions
Known for arbitrariness and hypocrisy
Exercises Raw Power for Personal Gain
Feels entitled to the "spoils of victory"
Interview
A specialized form of communication conducted from a specific task-related purpose
Open Question
"How is your work going?
Closed Question
Where were you last employed?
Double-Barreled Question
If there's anything that would make you stay, what would it be?
False Bipolar Question
Did you vote yes or no to the union contract?
Leading Question
Of course, you want the best for your family, don't you?
Funnel Sequence
Begins with a general question and then moves toward increasingly specific questions
Inverted Funnel Sequence
reverses the order, beginning with a specific question and moving toward more open questions towards the end
Clarification Probe
What does job satisfaction mean to you? Used when the message is not clear or is ambiguous
Repetition probe
Simply rephrasing the question or repeat it verbatim
Positive Interpersonal Relationships
Key to creating positive energy in people's lives
Supportive Communication
When you have to correct someone else's behavior, when you have to deliver negative feedback, or when you have to point out shortcomings of another person, communicating in a way that builds and strengthens the relationship is more difficult.
Defensiveness
An emotional and physical state in which one is agitated, estranged, confused, and arises when one of the parties feels threatened or punished by the communication
Disconfirmation
Occurs when one of the communicating parties feels put down ineffectual, or insignificant because of the communication
Congruence
What is communicated verbally and nonverbally, matches exactly what the individual is thinking and feeling
Incongruence
Mismatch between what one is experiencing and what one is aware of. A mismatch between what one thinks or feels and what one communicates.
Evaluative Communication
Makes a judgment or places a label on other individuals or on their behavior.
Descriptive Communication
Designed to reduce the tendency to evaluate and to perpetuate a defensive interaction. It allows a person to be congruent and authentic as well as being helpful.
Validating Communication
Helps people feel recognized, understood, accepted, and valued
Invalidating
Arouses negative feelings about self-worth, identity, and relatedness to others.
Superiority-Oriented Communication
Can take the form of put-downs, in which others are made to look bad so that the communicator looks good.
Rigidity in Communication
Second major type of invalidation: the communication is portrayed as absolute, unequivocal, or unquestionable
Indifference
Communicated when the other person's existence or importance is not acknowledged
Imperviousness
The communicator does not acknowledge the feelings or opinions of the other person
Respectful, egalitarian communication
Important when a person with a higher status interacts with a person of a lower status
Flexibility in Communication
The willingness of a person to communicate an understanding that the other party may possess additional data and other alternatives that may make significant contributions both to the problem solution and to the relationship
Two-way communication
An implied result of respectfulness and flexibility
Conjunctive Communication
Joined to previous messages in some way
Disjunctive Communication
Disconnected from what was stated before
Owning Communication
Using first-person words, such as "I," "me," "mine"
Disowning Communication
Suggested by use of third-person or first-person-plural words
Advising Response
Provides direction, evaluation, personal opinion, or instructions
Deflecting Response
Switches the focus from the communicator's problem to one selected by the listener
Probing Response
Asks a question about what the communicator just said or about a topic selected by the listener
Elaborating Probe
When the communicator's statement does not contain enough information, or part of the message is not understood.
Repetition Probe
Works best when the communicator is avoiding a topic, hasn't answered a previous question, or a previous statement is unclear
Reflection Probe
Most effective when the communicator is being encouraged to keep pursing the same topic in greater depth
Reflecting Response
to mirror back to the communicator the message that was heard and to communicate understanding and acceptance of the person.
Personal Management Interview Program
A regularly scheduled, on-on-one meeting between a manager and his or her subordinates
Issue-focused Conflict
More like rational negotiations, which can be thought of as "an interpersonal decision-making process by which two or more people agree how to allocate scarce resources
Personal Differences
A common source of conflict because individuals bring different backgrounds to their roles in organizations
Informational Deficiencies
Conflicts based on misinformation or misunderstanding tend to be factual; hence, clarifying previous messages or obtaining additional information generally resolves the dispute.
Role Incompatibility
Conflict may overlap with those arising from personal differences or information deficiencies.
Environmentally Induced Stress
Conflicts stemming from Personal differences and role incompatibilities are greatly exacerbated by a stressful environment.
Forcing Response
An attempt to satisfy one's own needs at the expense of the needs of the other individual.
Accommodating Approach
Satisfies the other party's concerns while neglecting one's own. (Cooperative, Unassertive)
Avoiding Response
Neglects the interests of both parties by sidestepping the conflict or postponing a solution. (Uncooperative, Unassertive)
Compromising Response
Intermediate between assertiveness and cooperativeness. An attempt to obtain partial satisfaction for both parties, in the sense that both receive the proverbial "half load". (Center)
Collaborating Approach
An attempt to address fully the concerns of both parties. (Cooperative, Assertive.)
Negotiation Strategies
Commonly categorized according to two broad perspective: integrative and distributive.
Distributive Bargaining Perspective
Negotiators who focus on dividing up a "fixed pie"
Integrative Perspective
Search for collaborative ways of "expanding the pie" by avoiding fixed.
Mediator
Generally required to cool down the dispute, reestablish constructive communication, and help the parties reconcile their differences.
Imagination
The creation of NEW ideas, breakthroughs, and radical approaches to problem solving. Experimentation, Exploration, Risk taking, transformational ideas, revolutionary thinking, unique visions.
Improvement
The creating of BETTER ideas, incremental improvements, process control, systematic approaches, careful methods, clarifying problems.
Investment
The pursuit of rapid goal achievement and competitiveness. Be the FIRST. Faster responses than others, competitive approaches, attack problems directly.
Incubation
An approach to creative activity through teamwork, involvement, and coordination among individuals. Cohesion, empowering people, building trust. Be SUSTAINABLE.
Conceptual Blocks
Mental obstacles that constrain the way problems are defined, and they can inhibit us from being effective in any of the four types of creativity.
Constancy
Vertical thinking, defining a problem in only one way without considering alternative views, One thinking language, not using more than one language to define an assess the problem.
Commitment
Stereotyping based on past experience, present problems are seen only as variations of past problems. Ignoring commonalities, failing to perceive commonalities among elements that initially appear to be different.
Compression
Distinguishing figures from ground, not filtering out irrelevant information or finding needed information. Artificial constraints, defining the boundaries of a problem too narrowly.
Complacency
Noninquisitiveness, not asking questions. Nonthinking, a bias toward activity in place of mental work.
Left-hemisphere thinking
Concerned with logical, analytical, linear, or sequential tasks.
Right-hemisphere thinking
Concerned with intuition, synthesis, playfulness, and qualitative judgment.
Ambidextrous
Use both sides of their brain.
Preparation Stage
Includes gathering data, defining the problem, generating alternatives, and consciously examining all available information.
Incubation Stage
Involves mostly unconscious mental activity in which the mind combines unrelated thoughts in pursuit of a solution. Conscious effort is not involved.
Illumination
Occurs when an insight is recognized and a creative solution is articulated
Verification
Evaluating the creative solution relative to some standard of acceptability
Synectics
The goal is to help you put something you don't know in terms of something you do know, then reverse the process back again.
Personal Analogies
Individuals try to identify themselves as the problem.
Direct Analogies
The individuals apply facts, technology, and common experience to the problem.
Symbolic Analogies
Symbols or images are imposed on the problem.
Fantasy Analogies
Individuals ask the question "In my wildest dreams, how would I wish the problem to be resolved"
Fluency
Refers to the number of ideas or concepts produced in a given length of tie.
Flexibility of Thought
Refers to the diversity of ideas or concepts generated.
Brainstorming
Designed to help people generate alternative for problems solving without prematurely evaluating, and hence discarding, them.
Idea champion
The person who comes up with creative problem solutions
Sponsor/Mentor
The person who helps provide the resources, environment, and encouragement for the idea champion to work on his ideas
Orchestrator/Facilitator
The person who brings together cross-functional groups and necessary political support to facilitate implementation of creative ideas
Rule Breaker
The person who goes beyond organizational boundaries and barriers to ensure success of he creative solution.
Empowerment
Providing freedom for people to do successfully what they want to do, rather than getting them to do what you want them to do.
Self-Efficacy
A sense of personal competence
Self-determination
A sense of personal choice
Personal Consequence
A sense of having impact
Meaning
A sense of value in activity
Trust
A sense of security
Task Identity
The opportunity to accomplish a whole task.
Leading Positive Change
A management skill that focuses on unlocking positive human potential.
Compassion
Build in organization when managers foster: collective noticing, collective feeling, and collective responding.
Gratitude
Observing acts of compassion and forgiveness, crucial in organizations because it leads to reciprocal behavior, equity, and justice.
Metrics
Specific indicators of success
Measures
Methods for assessing levels of success
Milestones
Benchmarks to determine when detectable progress will have occurred.
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