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Terms in this set (164)
The fluid that removes cellular waste products, pathogens & dead blood cells from the tissues.
The capillaries, vessels, and ducts that return lymph from the tissues to the venous bloodstream.
Bean shaped structures of the lymphatic system where pathogens and other harmful substances are filtered from the lymph by specialized cells of the immune system.
Lymphoid structures of the lymphatic system that protect the entry to the respiratory system.
Sac like mass of lymphoid tissue with protective roles in both the immune and lymphatic systems.
Produces lymphocytes which are specialized leukocytes.
Specialized leukocytes that play important roles in the immune reactions.
Gland located in the upper chest with specialized roles in both the lymphatic and immune systems.
Specialized structures of the lymphatic system that absorb those fats that cannot be transported by the bloodstream.
Plasma from arterial blood that flows out of the arterioles and into the capillaries and then flows into the spaces between the cells of the tissues.
Made up of the remaining 10% of the returning interstitial fluid. Its clear, watery fluid containing electrolytes and proteins.
Lymphatic circulatory system
Second circulatory system.
Microscopic, blind ended tubes located near the surface of the body with capillary walls that are only one cell in thickness.
Located deeper within the tissues, they have valves to prevent backward flow of lymph.
Right lymphatic duct
Collects lymph from the right side of the head and neck, the upper right quadrant of the body and the right arm.
Largest lymphatic vessel in the body, collects lymph from the left side of the head and neck, the upper left quadrant of the trunk and left arm, the entire lower portion of the trunk and both legs.
Contains specialized lymphocytes that are capable of destroying pathogens.
Cervical lymph nodes
Located along the sides of the neck.
Axillary lymph nodes
Located under the arms in the area known as the armpits.
Inguinal lymph nodes
Located in the inguinal area of the lower abdomen.
Leukocytes that are formed in bone marrow as stem cells.
Natural killer cells
Play an important role in the killing of cancer cells and cells infected by viruses.
Specialized lymphocytes that produce antibodies. It makes a specific antibody that is capable of destroying a specific antigen.
Develop from B cells and secrete a large volume of antibodies coded to destroy specific antigens.
Group of leukocytes known as lymphocytes. Originate in the thymus, play a central role in cell mediated immunity.
Group of proteins such as interferons and interleukins released primarily by the T cells. Act as intracellular signals to begin the immune response.
Produced in response to the presence of antigens, particularly viruses or tumor cells. Activate immune systems, fight viruses by slowing or stopping their multiplication and signal other cells to increase their defenses.
Play multiple roles in the immune system, including directing B and T cells to divide and proliferate.
Three masses of lymphoid tissue that form a protective ring around the back of the nose and upper throat. They prevent pathogens from entering the respiratory system when breathing through the nose and mouth.
Nasopharyngeal tonsils. Located in the upper part of the pharynx.
Located on the left and right sides of the throat in the area that is visible at the back of the mouth. Hard and soft palates that form the roof of the mouth.
Located at the base of the tongue, not readily visible.
Mass of lymphoid tissues located above the heart, reaches its greatest size at puberty and becomes smaller with age.
Hangs from the lower portion of the cecum, which is the first section of the large intestine. May play an important role in the immune system.
Sac like mass of lymphoid tissue located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen just inferior to the diaphragm and posterior to the stomach.
Function of destroying worn out erythrocytes and releasing their hemoglobin for reuse.
Wraps the body in a physical barrier to prevent invading organisms from entering the body.
Trap breathed in foreign matter with nose hairs and the moist mucous membrane lining of the respiratory system.
Uses the acids and enzymes produced by the stomach to destroy invaders that are swallowed or consumed with food.
Specialized leukocytes work together in specific ways to attack and destroy pathogens that have succeeded in entering the body.
Involves binding antigens to antibodies. Labels a potentially dangerous antigen so it can be recognized and destroyed by other cells of the immune system.
Is any substance that the body regards as being foreign. Include viruses, bacteria, toxins and transplanted tissues.
Acquired unresponsiveness to a specific antigen. Decline in effective response to a drug.
Disease fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen.
Bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response. Also known as antibodies.
Specialized leukocytes that act as part of the antigen-antibody reaction by destroying substances such as cell debris, dust, pollen and pathogens by the process phagocytosis.
Leukocytes that provide immunological defenses against many infectious organisms.
Type of leukocyte that surrounds and kills invading cells.
Specialized leukocytes that patrol the body searching for antigens that produce infections.
Group of proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive form. They complement the ability of antibodies to ward off pathogens by combining with them to dissolve and remove pathogenic bacteria.
The state of being resistant to a specific disease. This resistance can be present naturally or it can be acquired.
Resistance to a disease present without the administration of an antigen or exposure to a disease. Present at birth or passed through child through breast milk.
Obtained by having had a contagious disease, being vaccinated against a contagious disease provides protection against the disease. Without having been exposed to the risk of actually having the disease.
Specializes in diagnosing and treating conditions of altered immunologic reactivity, such as allergic reactions.
Specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the immune system.
Physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the lymphatic system.
Physician who specializes in the diagnosing and treatment of malignant disorders such as tumors and cancer.
Inflammation of the lymph nodes.
Any disease process affecting a lymph node or nodes.
Benign tumor formed by an abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels due to a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system.
Abnormal enlargement of the spleen.
Bleeding from the spleen.
Diagnostic test that is performed to detect damage or malformations of the lymphatic vessels.
Swelling of the tissues due to an abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid within the tissues.
Hereditary condition of the lymphatic system that develops with swelling beginning in the feet and progressing into the ankles and in an upward direction along the legs.
Caused by damage to lymphatic vessels that is most frequently due to cancer treatment, surgery, trauma or burns.
Noninvasive method of diagnosing lymphedema.
Occurs when the body's immune system reacts to a harmless allergen such as pollen, food or animal dander as if it were a dangerous invader.
Overreaction by the body to a particular antigen.
Substance that produces an allergic reaction in an individual.
Localized allergic response
Includes redness, itching and burning where the skin has come into contact with an allergen.
Systemic reaction or Anaphylaxis
Severe response to an allergen.
Medications administered to relieve or prevent the symptoms of hay fever.
Any of a large group of diseases characterized by a condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues, making healthy cells, tissues or organs for antigens. q
Occurs when the immune response is compromised, weakened or not functioning properly.
Human immunodeficiency disorder
Bloodborne infection in which the virus damages or kills the T cells of the immune system, causing it to progressively fail, thus leaving the body at risk of developing many life threatening opportunistic infections.
Caused by a pathogen that does not normally produce an illness in healthy humans.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Most advanced and fatal stage of an HIV infection.
Example of an opportunistic infection that is frequently associated with HIV. Cancer causes patches of abnormal tissue to grow under the skin, in lining of the mouth, nose and throat, or other organs.
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, blood test used to screen for the presence of HIV antibodies.
Western blot test
Blood test that produces more accurate results than the ELISA test. This confirms the ELISA test if it comes up positive.
Disease treatment that involves either stimulating or repressing the immune response.
Used as a post exposure preventive measure against certain viruses, including rabies and some types of hepatitis.
Used in treatment of multiple sclerosis, hepatitis C and some cancers.
Are any of a class of antibodies produced in the laboratory by identical offspring of a clone of specific cells.
Treatment to repress or interfere with the ability of the immune system to respond to stimulation by antigens.
Substance that prevents or reduces the body's normal immune response. Prevent rejection of donor tissue and to depress autoimmune disorders.
Hormone like preparation administered primarily as an anti-inflammatory and as an immunosuppressant.
Medication that kills or damages cells.
Microorganism that causes a disease in humans.
One celled microscopic organisms.
Rod shaped spore forming bacteria.
Is a contagious disease that can be transmitted through livestock infected with bacillus anthracis.
Small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks and mites.
Long, slender spiral shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement.
Caused by spirochete, affects the joints, heart and central nervous system. Transmitted by a deer tick. Blacklegged tick.
Group of about 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes.
Form of staphylococci that often infects wounds and causes serious problems such as toxic shock syndrome or food poisoning.
Bacteria that form a chain.
Serious condition that occurs when an overwhelming bacterial infection affects the body.
Antibiotic resistant bacteria
When antibiotics fail to kill all of the bacteria they target.
One of several types of bacteria that are now resistant to most antibiotics.
Simple parasitic organism. Some are harmless to humans and others are pathogenic.
Fungal infection that develops between the toes.
Type of fungus.
Plant or animal that lives on or within another living organism at the expense of that organism.
Caused by a parasite that lives in certain mosquitoes and is transferred to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito.
Another example of a parasite that is most commonly transmitted from the pets to humans by contact with contaminated animal feces.
Small infectious agents that live only by invading other cells.
Flu, highly contagious viral respiratory infection that usually occurs in seasonal epidemics.
Acute, highly contagious infection that is transmitted by respiratory droplets of the rubeola virus.
Acute viral infection that is characterized by the swelling of the parotid glands.
Viral infection characterized by a low grade fever, swollen glands, inflamed eyes and a fine, pink rash.
Acute viral infection that is transmitted to humans through the bite or saliva of an infected animal.
Found in most body fluids. Silent infection. Usually no signs or symptoms but can get serious with weakened immune system.
Chicken pox, caused by herpes virus and is very contagious.
Shingles, an acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of an inflamed nerve.
Mono, caused by the epsteinbarr virus.
Medications capable of inhibiting growth killing pathogenic bacterial microorganisms.
Substance that causes the death of bacteria.
Agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi.
Acyclovir, used to treat viral infections or to provide temporary immunity.
"Neoplasm" means new or strange. Abnormal growth of body tissue, the mass multiplication of the cells is uncontrolled, abnormal, rapid and progressive.
Malignant tumor derived from muscle tissue.
Process through which a tumor supports its growth by creating its own blood supply.
Form of treatment that disrupts the blood supply to the tumor.
Class of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues, either by invasion through direct growth into adjacent tissue or by spreading into distant sites by metastasizing.
Process by which cancer spreads from one place to another.
New cancer site that results from the spreading process.
Malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue.
Carcinoma in situ
Malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding tissues.
Any one of a large group of carcinomas derived from glandular tissue.
Malignant tumor that arises from connective tissues, including hard, soft and liquid connective tissues.
Hard tissue sarcoma that usually involves the upper shaft of the long bones, pelvis or knee.
Tumor of the tissues surrounding a synovial joint such as the knees or elbows.
Cancer of the white blood forming cells in the bone marrow.
Process of classifying tumors by how far the disease has progressed.
General term applied to malignancies affecting lymphoid tissues.
Distinguished from other lymphomas by the presence of large cancerous lymphocytes.
Non hodgkins lymphoma
Describe all other lymphomas other than hodgkins lymphoma.
Carcinoma that develops from the cells of the breast and can spread to adjacent lymph nodes and other body sites.
Ductal carcinoma in situ
Breast cancer at its earliest stage before the cancer has broken through the wall of the milk duct.
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma
Starts in the milk duct, breaks through the wall of that duct and invades the fatty breast tissue.
Infiltrating lobular carcinoma
Cancer that starts in the milk glands, breaks through the wall of the gland and invades the fatty tissue of the breast.
Inflammatory breast cancer
Rare but aggressive form of breast cancer, grows rapidly, includes pain, rapid increase in breast size, redness or a rash on the breast and swelling of nearby lymph nodes.
Professional palpitation of the breast
Performed to feel the texture, size and consistency of the breast.
Radiographic examination of the breasts to detect the presence of tumors or precancerous cells.
Initial follow up test when an abnormality is found by mammography.
Needle breast biopsy
Technique in which an x ray guided needle is used to remove small samples of tissue from the breast, less painful and disfiguring than a surgical biopsy.
Removal of a small piece of tissue for examination to confirm a diagnosis.
Lymph node dissection
Surgical procedure in which all the lymph nodes in a major are removed to determine or slow the spread of cancer in the area.
Surgical removal of only the cancerous tissue with the surrounding margin of normal tissue.
Surgical removal of the entire breast and nipple.
Surgical removal of entire breast and many of the surrounding tissues.
Modified radical mastectomy
Surgical removal of the entire breast and all of the axillary lymph nodes under the adjacent arm.
Use of chemical agents and drugs in combinations selected to destroy malignant cells and tissues.
The use of natural or synthetic substances such as drugs or vitamins to reduce the risk of developing cancer or to reduce the chance of a reoccurrence.
That blocks the development, growth, or proliferation of malignant cells.
Used in the treatment of some cancers.
Use of radioactive materials in contact with or implanted into the tissues to be treated.
Radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body.
Developing form of anti cancer drug therapy that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells.
Agent intended to increase the effectiveness of a drug.
Involving testing new and promising cancer treatments that have not yet received food and drug administration approval on patients who agree to be part of the research.
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