CRPC | Principles and Strategies When Investing for Retirement

Objective of an investment policy?
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As an investor, you are optimistic about the near-term prospects of the market. To enhance portfolio returns you would:Choose securities with betas greater than 1.0. Securities with betas higher than the market beta of 1.0 should show greater upward price movement as the market rises.A bond has a duration of eight years. If market interest rates rise by 1%, the percentage price change of the bond is approximately:An 8% decline. The approximate percentage price change in the bond is: %Δ Price=-8%x1%=-8%Dollar cost averaging:Is the purchase of shares with equal, periodic contributions. The number of shares purchased depends on the purchase price, but the total periodic amount invested remains the same.Graham recommended that nonprofessional investors apply which one of the following rules of thumb?Buy stocks for two-thirds or less of their net current assets. Graham recommended buying stocks for two-thirds or less of their net current assets, the earnings-price ratio should be twice the current AAA bond yield, and the dividend yield should be no less than two-thirds of the AAA bond yield.Systematic Risk:It is a risk that is common to an asset class.Unsystematic risk:Is the risk associated with owning a particular security and can be nearly eliminated after acquiring 12-18 unrelated stocks.Cash equivalents include:Cash equivalents include bank deposits (such as checking accounts, savings accounts, and money market accounts) and debt instruments issued with maturities of one year or less, called money market instruments. These include Treasury bills, negotiable certificates of deposit, commercial paper, and bankers' acceptances. Treasury notes mature in 1-10 years. They are not considered money market or cash equivalents.Portfolio rebalancing involves:selling those assets that have appreciated significantly and reinvesting in assets that have not performed well in order to get back to your original asset allocation.Strategic asset allocation is:Strategic asset allocation establishes a target allocation for a given asset class (such as 60% to common stocks) and rebalances the portfolio when necessary to maintain that target allocation.Unsystematic riskis affected by the nature of how a firm finances its operations. Financial risk is one of the types of unsystematic risk.Which one of the following can be used to measure a mutual fund's risk-adjusted return as measured by total risk?The fund's standard deviation. The Sharpe ratio measures total risk, as measured by standard deviation.Sources of risk include which of the following?1. Fluctuating exchange rates. 2. Higher interest rates, and 3. Loss of purchasing powerA measurement of total risk is:Standard deviation. Standard deviation is a measure of total risk; that is, both systematic and unsystematic risk. Beta measures systematic risk only.Investors who want to bear the least amount of risk should acquire stocks with beta coefficients:When seeking investments that have the least amount of risk, the lowest beta should be selected.Assume Stock IJK has a mean of 5% and a standard deviation of 3.42%. From this information, what can you conclude regarding the stock's expected future returns?There is a 68% chance that returns will fall between positive 1.58% (5% - 3.42%) and positive 8.42% (5% + 3.42%). There is a 99% chance that returns will fall within three standard deviations on either side of the mean.Contrarian strategy uses such indicators as:1. put-call ratio. 2. specialist's sentiment. 3. short selling. Short selling is a contrarian indicator, as are specialist's sentiment and the put-call ratio.A bond portfolio strategy that splits the portfolio between _____________ bonds is referred to as a barbell strategy.short-term and long-term A barbell strategy splits the bond portion of a portfolio between short-term and long-term bonds. Both ends may then stagger maturities similar to the ladder strategy. For example, the short-term end may be constructed with bonds of maturities five years or less and the long-term end may be constructed with bonds of maturities greater than 10 years.Under value investing, if an investor desired to increase his or her investment by $1,000 per month and the asset value had declined by $250 from the previous month, the investor would invest ______ the next month, assuming the price of the investment did not change.$1,250 To increase the value by $1,000 per month, the loss from the previous month must be made up in addition to the following month's contribution: $250 + $1,000 = $1,250.__________ is a coherent set of guidelines for managing financial assets according to the client's goals and the realities of the investment market.Investment policy The investment policy statement is a blueprint for the financial management process that is aligned with the goals of the client but also in line with market reality.The lower the coupon rate,the greater the price volatility of a bond. Total return cannot be determined without knowing the purchase price. The coupon rate is inversely related to the bond's price volatility.Small firm investorsShould have a long time horizon. The small firm effect is an anomaly to the efficient market hypothesis since greater returns over time have been realized commensurate with the associated risk. Small firm investors sell when 40% of the company's shares become owned by institutional investors. Small firm investors should have a long time horizon due to the increased risk/volatility associated with this investment strategy.