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Terms in this set (23)
What does assimilation mean in Piaget's theory?
This is what occurs when children interpret new stimulation in ways that fit with what they already know, sometimes distorting it as a result. As new information is assimilated, the child's existing knowledge may be modified somewhat, providing a better match or fit to what is new.
What does accommodation mean in Piaget's theory?
When a child's existing knowledge is modified somewhat by new information, providing a better match or fit to what is new. The new information is accommodated.
What is the basis of Piaget's constructivist theory of development?
The idea that knowledge is constructed by the developing child (and adult). This view takes the child to be an active participant in the learning process, constantly seeking out and trying to make sense of new information. Children are intrinsically motivated to learn. This active exploration is both organized and organizing -- they have an organized way of thinking, but new information reorganizes their way of thinking. It evolves.
What are some of the holes in Piaget's constructivist theory?
Infants and preschoolers sometimes show signs of understandings that Piaget believed to be possible only for much older children. And children's progress in understanding concepts from different domains of knowledge is not always organized or structured in the same ways at the same time. Rather, progress is often domain specific -- development can proceed at different rates in different domains.
What is object concept?
knowledge that objects have properties that can stimulate one's senses; that objects take up space and are distinct from oneself.
What is intersensory integration?
When an object is perceived in one way, an individual is able to construct some notion of the object's other perceptual characteristics; the tactile features of a pacifier (bumpy or smooth) enable babies to distinguish between pictures of a bumpy and smooth pacifier. Hence their tactile knowledge of the pacifier allows them to identify visual characteristics.
What is object permanence?
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
What is representational thought?
the capacity to think about things or ideas that are not currently stimulating our senses
What is the difference between recognition and recall?
Recognition requires a stimulus to be present whereas recall is the ability to form a mental image of an object that is not currently before us. Recall seems to emerge later in infancy than recognition.
What is deferred imitation?
Repeating actions observed at an earlier time. To do this, one must be able to mentally represent the actions they previously observed.
What is separation anxiety?
At about 8 months, a baby's recall ability strengthens to the extent that they begin to take notice of their parents' absence; they may show increasing distress at their absence and this distress may increase in intensity or frequency as they get older, indicating heightened recall ability.
What are some indications of intentional action by babies within the first year?
What Piaget referred to as "making interesting sights last" where a baby notices that a behavior causes an interesting effect in the environment and seeks to reproduce this effect; "means-end behavior" whereby babies have a goal in mind but take other actions as a means of achieving that goal, such as moving an object out of the way to retrieve a toy; by the 2nd year, babies are usually equipped with more advanced recall abilities and can begin planning as a strategy to solve a problem.
What are executive functions?
setting goals, planning, determining what to pay attention to, and strategizing are all forms of EFs.
What does Piaget mean by "centration?"
Centration refers to the tendency of early thought to be slow and centered on 1 salient feature of an experience at a given time; there is trouble understanding the "underlying realities" behind certain ideas or things.
What does Piaget mean by "decentering?"
When toddlers begin to consider multiple pieces of information simultaneously. Important relationships among their observations can be discovered and represented and their thinking becomes more logical and sensible from an adult's point of view.
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