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(CH 11) ______ interacting with ______ turn ______ genes on or off in response to environmental changes

Proteins, DNA, prokaryotic

overall process of information flow from genes to proteins

Gene expression

level in which gene expression is controlled


gene is ____ ____ when it is being transcribed to produce mRNA that is translated to make its corresponding protein

"turned on"

organisms control gene expression in order to respond to _____ ____

environmental changes

group of genes under coordinated control in bacteria


active repressor binds to the operator. inducer binds to and inactivates the repressor

inducible operon

common example of an inducible operon

lactose (lac) operon

includes three adjacent genes for lactose-utilization enzymes. Promoter sequence where RNA polymerase binds

lactose (lac) operon

____ ____ is where a repressor can bind and block RNA polymerase

operator sequence

if the operon is turned off, transcription does occur or does not occur

does not occur

binds to DNA to block RNA polymerase action in forming mRNA


the ________ of lactose in the repressor causes the repressor to bind to the operator and prevent RNA polymerase transcription


a common example of a repressible operon

tryptophan (trp) operon

in a situation with a repressible operon the repressor is initially _____


in a situation with an inducible operon the repressor is initially _____


the operon is turned on and transcribed in the ______ of tryptophan


a cell (usually embryonic) that has not specialized yet

stem cell

a group of genes under coordinated control in bacteria (located all in one line on the DNA)


three adjacent genes for lactose-utilization enzymes, operator sequence where a repressor can bind and block RNa polymerase action

lac operon

allows cell to have glucose for cellular respiration, happens only in prokaryotic cells

lac operon

results from the expression of different combinations of genes. involves cell specialization, in both structure and function. Controlled by turning specific sets of genes on or off.


muscle cells and red blood cells are both very _____ cells


multiple levels of folding and coiling that is undergone by eukaryotic cells. helps with gene expression. Can prevent transcription

DNA packing

formed when DNA is wrapped around 8 histone proteins


proteins DNA wraps around in order to form nucleosomes


during what phase of meiosis and mitosis represents the highest level of packing?


in _____ mammals one X chromosome is inactive in each somatic cell


name for one X chromosome not being active in each somatic cell of a female mammal. Responsible for tortoiseshell fur coloration in heterozygous female cats

X-chromosome inactivation

In female mammals one of two X chromosomes is highly _____ and transcriptionally ______

compacted, inactive

the inactivation of either the maternal or paternal chromosome is _______


X chromosomal inactivation occurs _____ in embryonic development, and ____ cellular descendants have the same inactivated chromosome

early, all

inactivated X chromosome

Barr body

process of root cells cultured in nutrient medium, cell division within culture, plantlet, then adult plant.

plant cloning

plant cloning proves that differentiated cells may retain (all, some, or none) of their genetic potential


Gene that has its own promoter and terminator

Eukaryotic gene

promote RNA polymerase binding to the promoter

transcription factors

______ proteins bind to control sequences


where activator proteins bind to and interact with other transcription factors

DNA enhancers

repressors that inhibit transcription


can be used to clone animals. replacing the nucleus of an egg cell or zygote with a nucleus from an adult somatic cell

Nuclear transplantation

early embryo


take blastocyst and implant it in female species' uterus. implant embryo in surrogate mother for development. new animal will be genetically identical to nuclear donor

reproductive cloning

used to produce animals with desirable traits. animals could then produce agricultural products, therapeutic agents, or restore endangered animals

reproductive cloning

remove embryonic stem cells and grow in culture for medical treatments. induce stem cells to differentiate

therapeutic cloning

can produce stem cells with great medical potential

therapeutic cloning

a cell of an undifferentiated embryo

embryonic stem cell

a cell that can be induced to give rise to differentiated cells

stem cell

a cell that can differentiate into a variety of types

embryonic stem cell

a cell that can give rise to many but not all types of cells

adult stem cell

a process that can supply cells to treat human diseases

therapeutic cloning

results from mutations in genes that control cell division


first person to connect a job with the onset of a cancer (believed chimney sweeps developed scrotum cancer b/c of the dust getting in the skin)

Perceville Pot

rare form of cancer that is in the eye and can spread to the brain, traveling through the optic nerves to the back of your brain. Happens in 1 in 20,000 children. Showed cancer could be genetic b/c occurred 3 times in one family.


can cause skin cancer from being exposed to harmful rays through machinery. Marie Cury

X-ray radiation

can cause skin cancer from the sun

UV light

tell cell to keep dividing


mutation in this gene can enhance its normal function, causing cancer


inhibits cell division

tumor-suppressor gene

mutation in this gene allows uncontrolled cell division to occur

tumor-suppressor gene

_____ or more somatic mutations are usually required to produce a cancer cell


inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene causes formation of a ______

benign tumor

additional mutations can lead to a _______

malignant tumor

a tumor that does not spread

benign tumor

(CH 11 - eof) a tumor that spreads

malignant tumor

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