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rod shaped structures made of DNA and protein


the DNA in eukaryotic cells wrapped around tightly around the proteins


a half of a chromosome, so there are two chromatids to each chromosome


the point where chromatids are attached


the less tightly wound DNA-protein complex where transcription and translation occurs

sex chromosome

chromosome that determines the sex of the organism , and may contain genes for other characteristics


all chromosomes other than sex chromosomes

homologous chromosomes

chromosomes that have the same size, shape, and genetic information


photomicrograph of trhe chromosomes in a normal dividing cell found in a human


cells that have two sets of chromosomes, each has two copies of each autosome and two sex chromosomes


sperm and egg cells, which only contain one set of chromosomes

binary fission

the division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells


creates new cells with genetic material that is identical to the genetic material of the original cell

asexual reproduciton

production of offspring from one parent


reduces the chromosome number by half in the new cells to create gametes


haploid reproductive cells


the time between cell division, which is one phase of the cell cycle, but has three stages- G1, S, and G2


the division of a cell's cytoplasm


the first phase of mitosis and meiosis in cell cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes, the dissolution of the nuclear envelope, and formation of the spindle fibers

spindle fiber

made of microtubules and radiate from the centrosomes in preparation for metaphase


the second phase of mitosis and meiosis during which all of the chromosomes move to the cell's equator


the third phase of mitosis and meiosis in which the spidle fibers cause the chromosomes to separate


the final phase of mitosis and meiosis in which the nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes, the chromosomes decondense and the spindle fiber dissociate

cell plate

occurs only in plant cells- the vesicles from the Golgi apparatus join together at the midline of the dividing cell


the pairing of homologous chromosomes only in meiosis 1 (prophase 1), not in mitosis


the name for each pair of homologous chromosomes

crossing- over

the process of portions of chromatids breaking off and attaching to adjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosome

gentic recombination

the process of crossing-over that permits for the exchange of genetic materical between maternal and paternal chromosomes; results in a new mixture of genetic material

independent assortment

the random separation of the homologous chromosomes, resulting in genetic variation


the production of sperm cells


the production of mature egg cells, or ova

polar body

extra three products of meiosis that eventually degenerate

sexual reproduction

the production of offspring through meiosis and the union of a sperm and an egg cell

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