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chromosome that determines the sex of the organism , and may contain genes for other characteristics
cells that have two sets of chromosomes, each has two copies of each autosome and two sex chromosomes
creates new cells with genetic material that is identical to the genetic material of the original cell
the time between cell division, which is one phase of the cell cycle, but has three stages- G1, S, and G2
the first phase of mitosis and meiosis in cell cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes, the dissolution of the nuclear envelope, and formation of the spindle fibers
the second phase of mitosis and meiosis during which all of the chromosomes move to the cell's equator
the third phase of mitosis and meiosis in which the spidle fibers cause the chromosomes to separate
the final phase of mitosis and meiosis in which the nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes, the chromosomes decondense and the spindle fiber dissociate
occurs only in plant cells- the vesicles from the Golgi apparatus join together at the midline of the dividing cell
the process of portions of chromatids breaking off and attaching to adjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosome
the process of crossing-over that permits for the exchange of genetic materical between maternal and paternal chromosomes; results in a new mixture of genetic material
the random separation of the homologous chromosomes, resulting in genetic variation
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