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WBS Quiz 3
Terms in this set (59)
What is a standard drink?
What counts as one serving of the different kinds of alcohol. 1.25 oz hard liquor, 12 oz Beer, 5 oz Wine
What are the various effects alcohol has on a person at difference blood alcohol levels?
.3 Is alcohol poisoning, .1 is a safe physical limit, .16 is chance of blackout
What is a black out?
When the hippocampus, which is the part of the brain used for memory, does not function properly, the blackout victim does not remember parts of the night
Do men and women get drunk at the same rate? That is, are there gender differences which affect blood alcohol concentration? If there are differences, why?
Men typically weigh more than women, so they have more blood. Men have more alcohol dehydrogimine enzymes than women.Women have higher fat percentages than men.
How fast does a person typically metabolize alcohol?
One drink per hour, .016 BAC/hour
How does one's expectations influence one's experience of being intoxicated?
expectation of how alcohol will make you feel, expectations of good things that happen while drinking
What is the biphasic effect of alcohol?
cultural perception that "more is better" when if fact more is often worse. Some drinks will make you feel good, while lots of drinks will not make you feel better
What is the mechanism of ethanol metabolism/detoxification?
Gastric metabolism, rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine, most metabolized in liver
What immediate negative effects do ethanol and acetaldehyde have on the human body?
Immediate: headache, nausea, gastritis, dizziness (hangover)
For a given person, can one speed up or slow down the action of alcohol dehydrogenase and hence alcohol detoxification?
alcohol is metabolized at a constant rate by the body, only time will detoxify.
Are the effects of ethanol absorption and detoxification the same for men and women? Why or why not?
No, women are more effected by alcohol. They have a lower metabolism in stomach and a smaller volume of distribution. Lower amount of body water than men
What is the French Paradox?
Decreased risk of heart disease as a result of moderate wine consumption despite high fat diet
What is the "J-shaped" mortality curve that Dr. Murphy presented? What are its implications?
Risk Lowest with moderate use, and high with heavy alcohol use and high with no use.
In addition to reducing cardiovascular disease, what other diseases does moderate alcohol consumption impact either positively or negatively?
Cardiovascular disease is also decreased, decreased risk of coronary lesion with moderate alcohol consumption Type 2 diabetes risk is decreased. Dementia, and osteoporosis, and gall stone risk decreased. Stroke: mixed results, some show increased risk, some decreased.
When looking at similar consumption frequency, are there differences in health benefits in the different types of alcoholic beverages - wine vs. beer vs. distilled spirits?
No consistent evidence that wine creates a better benefit than beer, beer, wine , and spirits- none have superior benefits of consumption of the other.
What are the hallmarks of alcohol dependence (alcoholism)?
Hallmarks: dependence and tolerance. Craving- strong need or urge to drink. Loss of control- not being able to stop drinking once drinking has begun. Physical dependence- withdrawal symptoms (nausea, sweating, shakiness, anxiety after stopping drinking). Tolerance- the need to drink greater amounts of alcohol to get drunk.
When looking at average consumption data of the effects of alcohol on health, where does binge drinking fit in? That is, what are the health effects of binge drinking on the weekend versus moderate consumption throughout the week?
Binge drinking carries a marked increased risk of cardiovascular disease
What are some of the effects (i.e. diseases) resulting from chronic alcoholism?
May increase risk of breast cancer, liver cancer, oral cancer, pancreatitis, gastritis, cirrhosis, fatty liver, liver disease
How is sparkling wine production different from still wine production?
grapes are not destemmed or crushed, gentle pressing that is separated into "press fractions". second fermentation in bottle where sugar is added
What are the various means of producing sparkling wine and how do they differ?
riddling- process of getting yeast from the bottom of the bottle to the top. traditionally done by hand, but also can be done by machine. disgorging- process used to remove yeast from bottle. bladder presses, basket presses
traditional champagne press: looks like box, all sides press, gentle press
What are the different classifications of Champagne and what determines their difference? (scale)
not called champagne unless the grapes are grown in Champagne, France, otherwise called sparkling wine. The amount of sugar determines their classification.
0-6 grams per liter= "extra brut" (absolutely dry)
< 15= "brut" (very dry)
12-20= "extra dry", "extra sec"
17-35= "dry, sec" (semi dry)
33-50= demisec (semi sweet)
>50= "doux" (sweet)
What is the main difference between port and sherry?
Port is fortified wine from the Douro Valley in Portugal. Sherry is made from white grapes (palamino) in Andalusia, Spain. Port- aguardente (a neutral grape spirit) is added to wine in mid-fermentation.
Where did port originate?
Douro Valley in Portugal
How is sherry aged and what two main processes determine the style?
Aged in North American Oak. During barrel aging some sherries will allow flor yeast to grow, which protects against oxidation. Sherry and spirit. spirit is destillado mixed with sherry (mitad y mitad) and then added to the young sherry
How is red wine making different from white wine making? What are the basic steps for making each?
Red Grapes are fermented with skins and seeds, white grapes are pressed and the juice is fermented.
White Wine Making: extract juice from grapes, minimize contact with seeds and skins, which are undesirable phenolic compounds for white wine. Juice is then cold settled, fermentation in tanks at 55-60 degrees C. (chardonnay is barrel fermented though)
Red Wine Making: Skins desirable, fermented at higher temperature 80-90 degrees C. Requires mixing of "cap" to promote extraction and prevent high temperature. Punch down method, pump over method for mixing
What additions (excluding sugar) may a winemakers make to a grape juice and why?
In some wines, there is a high protein content, so bentonite is added in order to remove the protein, protein removal increases clarity
Why are sulfites used in winemaking?
Because sulfites inhibit spoilage microbes and oxidation
Why must red wine fermentations be pumped over?
To promote extraction and prevent high temperature and spoilage.
Why do you ferment red wine with the skins but not white wines?
Color and tannins (mouthfeel) present in skins and seeds
Why are white and red wines fermented at different temperatures?
Higher temperature and ethanol increases extraction for red wine. White wine is fermented at cooler temperatures to maintain desirable aromas
What is the purpose of the alcoholic fermentation and what microorganism performs this process?
Produces flavor aroma compounds, yeast performs this process
Can blush wines be made from white wines? How are they made?
Red grapes are pressed after a period of skin contact which causes a color extraction, can also be produced from a blending of red and white wine
What is the source of yeast for wine fermentation and how do winemakers begin their fermentations?
grape sugars for wild yeast, add Saccharomyces cerevisiae. through the addition of cultured yeast
What are the consequences of malolactic fermentation and what organism performs it?
secondary process of fermentation is the conversion of malic acid to lactic acid bacteria lowers acidity of wine and other sensory properties. Oenococcus oeni
Are winemakers concerned with pathogens in wine? Why or why not?
not concerned with pathogens, but spoilage microbes can ruin a wine
Post-fermentation, what processing steps are carried out before a wine is bottled?
Barrel aging, filtration, (white wines filtered for clarity, not all wines are filtered)
Why are high quality wines generally aged in oak barrels while low quality wines often are not?
Because oak provides flavor and aroma. Lower priced wines are not aged in oak because each barrel costs 600-1000 dollars.
What are the two major reasons for filtering wine?
Clarity and microbial stability
Why are some wineries using screw-top closures in place of cork closures for still wine?
due to varying public perceptions of screw caps
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Vitis vinifera and Vitus labrusca grape varieties to wine makers?
Vitis vinifera is not resistant to phylloxera, vitis labrusca is resistant
What are the common wine grape cultivars grown in Oregon and why?
Pinot noir, pinot gris, chardonnay, cultivars suitably driven by climate. these grow well in region I (cool climate) areas.
How are grape growing regions classified and what is a growing degree day?
Classified by regions. Region 1= cold, region 2= moderate, region 3= warm, region 4= hot, region 5= very hot. growing degree days measure the amount grapes grow within days in a month.
What factors should be considered when selecting a site to plant wine grapes?
Climate, period of mild season, soil, aspect (sun exposure) , rainfall- specifically the irrigation, amount of rain, and humidity.
Why are grapevines trained to a trellis?
promotes exposure to sunlight, allows grapes to not grow in their natural formation which would be in bushlike forms.
What is phylloxera and what impact did it have on the wine industry?
A pest that feeds on the roots and leaves of the grapevine
What is verasion and what happens to berry chemistry following verasion?
The change of color of grapes. It is the transition from grape growth to grape ripening. Sugars are accumulated and acidity decreases
What factors determine when to harvest grapes?
Sugar is not always a good indicator of wine quality. Factors: condition of fruit, vine condition, weather, presence of rot/mold, insect/bird damage.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of hand vs. mechanical harvesting?
Mechanical Harvesting picks everything, but is not selective of which grapes are picks, not optimal for every type of wine, but for some it is. Hand picking is slower but it is easier to focus on quality over quantity
What is one of the largest contributors to the differences in Pinot noir or Chardonnay made in Oregon versus that made in California?
California Chardonnay: Oaky, buttery. Oregon: chardonnay has more of a fresh flavor. because these chardonnays show attributes of cold climate wines rather than warm
The Old World grape vitis vinifera originated in what region of the world?
What was the main impact of the Romans to the wine world?
Romans brought wine to the rest of Europe. Romans brought vines and planted new vineyards or cultivated wild vines
How are grape growing regions classified and who were the first to use this?
A.J. Winkler and Maynard Amerine. Winkler scale. classifies into 4 regions. (coldest= region 1, hottest=4). April 1- October 31 is growing season, and the temperatures of each day are added to determine the region's classification.
Why was wine drunk over water in ancient times?
in 1400 after the black plague, wine was safer to drink than water
What impact did phylloxera have on the wine industry?
In the late 19th century the phylloxera epidemic destroyed most of the vineyards for wine grapes in Europe, most notably in France
How did the use of bottles change wine production?
Wine became more widely enjoyed, not exclusively for high class
What is terroir?
How the geography and climate of a certain area effects wine produced in said area
What was the historical event that was important for showcasing the quality of New World wines?
Judgement of Paris, 1976
Which country is the top producer and consumer of wine?
France is the top producer, France tied with U.S. for consumption
In the US which state produces more than 80% of the countries wine?
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