Muscle Groups - Origin, Insertion, & Action

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Triceps
Origin: proximal half of dorsal humerus
Insertion: distal of elbow on the ulna
Action: extends elbow
Brachialis
Origin: anterior, distal half of humerus
Insertion: coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna
Action: flexes forearm at shoulder
Intercostals
Origin: none
Insertion: none
Action: moves rib cage, allowing for expansion and deflation of lungs
Serratus Anterior
Origin: lateral surface of ribs 1-8 (bone only)
Insertion: medial border of scapula
Action: helps move the scapula forward (ex. - baseball pitch or swimming stroke)
Pectoralis Minor
Origin: anterior surface of ribs 1-5
Insertion: coracoid process of scapula
Action: rotate shoulder forward (ex. - pushing open a door, shrugging shoulder forward)
Pectoralis Major - Abdominal Head
Origin: ribs 5-7
Insertion: lateral edge of most proximal part of humerus
Action: downward adduction/flexion of arm & shoulder (ex. - last part of tennis serve or volleyball spike)
Pectoralis Major - Sternal/Sternocostalis
Origin: ribs 1-5 on lateral EDGE of sternum (not on sternum)
Insertion: lateral edge of humerus, inferior to insertion of abdominal head
Action: adducts arm across chest (ex. - tennis forehand shot)
Pectoralis Major - Clavicular Head
Origin: medial half of inferior edge of clavicle
Insertion: lateral edge of the proximal humerus
Action: underhand motions (ex. - bowling or throwing an uppercut in boxing)
Rhomboideus Major
Origin: spinous process of T2-T5 vertebrae
Insertion: medial border of scapula inferior to spine
Action: retracts & elevates the medial border of scapula while i downward rotates he lateral edge
Rhomboideus Minor
Origin: spinous process of of C7-T1 vertebrae
Insertion: medial border of scapula superior to spine
Action: retracts & elevates medial border of scapula while it downwardly rotates the lateral edge
Levator Scapula
Origin: transverse process of the C1-C4 vertebrae
Insertion: medial border of scapula between spine & superior angle
Action: elevates medial border of scapula while downwardly rotating lateral angle; helps pull scapula upward & medially; bends neck laterally
Trapezius Pars Clavicularis
Origin: inferior portion of occipital bone
Insertion: superior border of inferior lateral third of clavical
Action: elevate & upwardly rotate scapula, extends neck
Trapezius Pars Acromalis
Origin: spinous process of vertebrae C6-T3
Insertion: medial margin of acromial process & distal end of scapular spine
Action: adducts (retracts) scapula
Trapezius Pars Spinalis
Origin: spinous process of vertebrae T4-T12
Insertion: posterior portion of the spine of the scapula
Action: depress and help to upwardly rotate scapula
Latissimus Dorsi
Origin: spines of lower 6 thoracic vertebrae, sacrum; lower 3/4 of ribs, & inferior angle of scapula
Insertion: floor of medial, proximal groove of proximal humerus
Action: adducts, medially rotates and extends arm at shoulder
Supraspinatus
Origin: medial, superior scapula
Insertion: most superior of humerus
Action: helps abduct arm at the shoulder
Infraspinatus
Origin: posterior, medial scapula
Insertion: posterior, superior humerus
Action: horizontal extension & lateral rotation of the arm at the shoulder
Teres Minor
Origin: middle part of lateral border of scapula
Insertion: inferior aspect of greater tubercle of humerus
Action: laterally rotates & weakly adducts arm at shoulder
Teres Major
Origin: lower lateral border & inferior angle of scapula
Insertion: medial lip of intertubercular groove of anterior, proximal humerus
Action: adducts, medially rotates, & extends arm at the shoulder
Flexor Pollicis Longus
Origin: lateral surface of proximal radius and medial border of coronoid process on ulna
Insertion: lateral base of distal phalanx of thumb
Action: flexes the thumb at the interphalangeal joint
Extensor Pollicis Longus
Origin: anterior surface of middle third of ulna
Insertion: base of distal phalanx of thumb
Action: estends humb at interphalangeal joint
Flexor Digitorium Superficialis
Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna; upper anterior surface of radius
Insertion: middle phalanges of digits 2-5
Action: flexes middle phalanges
Extensor Digitorium
Origin: lateral, most inferior of humerus
Insertion: distal phalanges of digits 2-5 (not thumb)
Action: extends wrist & digits 2-5
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Origin: distal 2/3 of posterior surface of fibula
Insertion: bast of distal 1st phalanx (big toe)
Action: flexes big toe, plantar flexes foot at ankle
Flexor Digitorium Longus
Origin: medial half of middle posterior surface of tibia
Insertion: bases of distal phalanges II-IV
Action: flexes phalanges 2-5; plantar flexes foot at ankle
Extensor Hallucis Longus
Origin: middle of anterior surface of fibula
Insertion: distal phalanx I (big toe)
Action: extends big toe; dorsiflexes foot at the ankle
Entensor Digitorium Longus
Origin: lateral condyle of tibia & superior 3/4 of anterior surface of fibula
Insertion: middle of distal phalanges II-V
Action: extends toes 2-5; dorsiflexes foot at the ankle
Rectus Femoris
Origin: anterior, inferior spine of ilium
Insertion: quadriceps tendon at base of patella & most superior tibia
Action: flexes thigh at hip; extends leg at knee
Vastus Lateralis
Origin: superior, lateral femur
Insertion: quadriceps tendon at base of patella & superior tibia by patellar tendon
Action: extends leg at knee
Vastus Medialis
Origin: superior, medial femur
Insertion: quadriceps tendon at base of patella & superior tibia by patellar tendon
Action: extends leg at knee
Sartorius
Origin: anterior, superior of spine at ilium
Insertion: proximal tibia
Action: flexes, abducts, & laterally rotates thigh at hip; flexes leg at knee
Gluteus Minimus
Origin: outer surface of ilium; lateral to gluteus medius
Insertion: anterior surface of greater trochanter (superior femur)
Action: abducts thigh at hip; anterior fibers medially rotate thigh
Gluteus Medius
Origin: posterior, superior surface of ilium
Insertion: lateral & superior surface of greater trochanter (most superior) at femur
Action: abducts thigh at hip; anterior fibers medially rotate thigh; posterior fibers laterally rotate thigh at hip
Gluteus Maximus
Origin: medial surface of ilium; posterior & inferior surface of sacrum and coccyx
Insertion: gluteal tuberosity of femur/lateral portion of superior, posterior femur
Action: extends & laterally rotates thigh at hip; helps abduct thigh
Biceps Femoris
Origin: most inferior posterior ischium
Insertion: head of fibula (most superior) and lateral condyle of tibia
Action: flexes leg at the knee; laterally rotates leg at the knee when flexed (also extends thigh at the hip)
Semitendinosus
Origin: most inferior posterior ischium
Insertion: proximal tibia; medial to tibial tuberosity
Action: flexes leg at knee; medially rotates leg at knee when flexed (also extends thigh at hip)
Semimembranosus
Origin: most inferior posterior ischium
Insertion: posterior, medial condyle (most superior) of tibia
Action: flexes leg at knee; medially rotates leg at knee when flexed
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