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Terms in this set (19)
the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood
What parts of brain are involved in the endocrine system?
In the brain, endocrine activity is focuses primarily in the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary gland.
enter the target cells and have a direct effect on the DNA of the nucleus.
These hormones are non polar so they can cross the plasma membrane.
hormones composed of short chains of amino acids
large and hydrophilic and tend to bind to receptors on the cytoplasm
hormones that stimulate other glands to release their hormones
Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary
GH, PRL, ACTH, TSH, gonadotropic, FSH, LH, ICSH
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate maturation of the egg cell (ovum)
In women, FSH stimulates the ovarian follicle, causing an egg to grow. It also triggers the production of estrogen in the follicle. The rise in estrogen tells your pituitary gland to stop producing FSH and to start making more LH. In men, FSH stimulates testicular growth and enhances the production of an androgen-binding protein by the Sertoli cells, which are a component of the testicular tubule necessary for sustaining the maturing sperm cell.
Leutinizing Hormone (LH)
Hormone created by pituitary gland that is essential for reproduction. Stimulated ovulation.
In women, LH causes the egg to be released from the ovary, a process called ovulation. In men, LH stimulates testosterone production from the interstitial cells of the testes (Leydig cells).
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release a hormone called cortisol. Cortisol is a stress hormone, which increases blood sugars (amongst other things).
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
causes the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormone.
Thyroid hormone increases metabolism. So, someone with increased thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism), is going to be hot, experience weight loss and difficulty sleeping, and have a lot of energy.
Some with hypothyroidism is going to have weight gain, be lethargic and cold, and have difficulty thinking clearly.
Basically, things slow down with low thyroid hormone, and speed up with high thyroid hormone.
stimulates milk production
So far these hormones have all been tropic hormones (because they act on a gland, in this gland here to cause release of another hormone). Prolactin is not tropic. It directly causes breast development and milk production from the mammary glands.
Growth hormone is also not tropic, because it has a direct effect. It causes growth and development: muscle growth, bone growth, and protein synthesis. It also increases blood sugar
Hormones of the Hypothalamus
GHRH, GHIH, TRH, CRH, GnRH, PRH, PIH
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
released from the hypothalamus, and causes anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH. So obviously, this is a tropic hormone.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Promotes secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Thyroid Releasing Hormone (TRH)
promotes the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
Promotes secretion of growth hormone (GH)
a condition produced by hypersecretion of growth hormone during the early years of life
enlargement of the extremities
is an excess of growth hormone when the growth plates have already closed. And what this results in is instead of people being very tall, things grow longitudinally. So, very big boned people, and people who have later onset growth hormone, basically so they have acromegaly growth hormone, after the growth plates have closed, their face changes, the bones develop and they kind of have a characteristic face
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