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Dr Rivers final study guide


occurs when members of one group marry those of other social or ethnic groups; blending of 2 cultures into a single culture


a process by which members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominant culture.


a system of tracing descent through both mother and fathers sides of the family

binuclear families

child goes to home of both parents alternatively

blended family

a family created from previous divorces or separations experienced by one or both spouses


a situation in which two people live together, and think of themselves as a couple, without being legally married


shared economic and child rearing responsibilities of single parents that live together

community divorce

involves reorganizing friendships and adjusting relations with family members who are accustomed to seeing them as a couple

comparable worth

the belief that wages ought to reflect the worth of a job, not the gender or race of the worker.

conflict-habituated marriages

unresolved conflict and tension are the norm

co-parental divorce

involves facing the issues of child custody; a current trend in joint custody, in which children divide their time between both parents

covert racism

hidden or subtle. Characterized by non-traditional racist beliefs but more subversive beliefs intertwined with current social, political and economic issues

crude divorce rates

the number of divorces per 1000 in the population; a faulty measure because it includes members of the population not at risk

cultural sexism

cultural subordination that perpetrate sexism, such as belief systems, value, norms and language

devitalized marriages

marriage has lost its zest, liveliness or excitement


actions or practices of dominant-group members (or their representatives) that have a harmful effect on members of a subordinate group.

divorce rates

Between 1960 and 1979, the refined divorce rate rose from 9.2 to 22.8 From 1979 to 1996, the rate dropped from 22.8 to 19.5 In 1997 the refined divorce rate was 19.8 Redivorces take place more rapidly than first divorces

economic divorce

involves dividing marital assets equally; may mean a higher standard of living for men, but financial hardships for women


a family structure in which both partners share power and authority equally.

emotional divorce

distancing oneself from the former spouse before the formal divorce


cultural norms prescribing that people marry within their social group or category.


a collection of people distinguished, by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics.


cultural norms prescribing that people marry outside their social group or category.

expressive role

providing affection and emotional support for the family


forced migration, majority group forces minority group

extended family

a family unit composed of relatives in addition to parents and children who live in the same household.


a relatively permanent group of people connected by blood, marriage or adoption that live together and share social and economic responsibilities

family of orientation

the family into which a person is born and in which early socialization usually takes place.

family of procreation

the family that a person forms by having or adopting children.


the belief that all people—both women and men—are equal and that they should be valued equally and have equal rights.

frustration-aggression hypothesis

people who are frustrated in their efforts to achieve a highly desired goal will respond with a pattern of aggression towards others

gay and lesbian families

family where parents are same sex


the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with "femininity" and "masculinity."

gender identity

a person's perception of the self as female or male.

gender role

the attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process.

gender role expectation

how society proscibes one should play their gender role

gender role specialization

gender division of labor

gender steroetype

broad generaling on which people think you should belong to based on masculine or femine


the deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation.

grandparent-headed families

children raised by grandparents


a person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete.

human capital hypothesis

individuals vary widely in their aquired education and job training, this is the source of a persons productivity and can be measured in terms of the return on investment

individual discrimination

behavior consisting of one-on-one acts by members of the dominant group that harm members of the subordinate group or their property.

institutional discrimination

the process in which the day-to-day practices, procedures and policies of social institutions promote differential treatment which is harmful to members of the minority group

instrumental role

tasks of providing economic support and making decisions


occdurs when members of subordinate racial or ethnic groups gain acceptance in everyday social interaction with member of the dominant group

internal colonialism

according to conflict theorists, a practice that occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are conquered or colonized and forcibly placed under the economic and political control of the dominant group.

legal divorce

involves a legal change of status; involves financial settlements

majority group

a group that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society.


a legally recognized and/or socially approved arrangement between two or more individuals that carries certain rights and obligations and usually involves sexual activity.


a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by women.


a system of tracing descent through the mother's side of the family.


married couple lives with or near the wife's family, same community or even same house

minority group

a social group that is singled out for differential treatment or discrimination due to physical or cultural characteristics and have traditionally been disadvantaged or experienced less access to resources. Also known as "subordinate groups" in society


a marriage between two partners, usually a woman and a man. Only legal marriage pattern within the US.

nuclear family

a family composed of one or two parents and their dependent children, all of whom live apart from other relatives.

number of divorces per year

not an accurate measure; does not take into account population increases

occupational or gendered segragations

concentration of women and men in different occupations, jobs and places of work

overt racism

blatant or "out in the open" (e.g., lynching of blacks in broad daylight)

passive-congenial marriages

utilitarian in nature; emphasizes practicality rather than emotional closeness


a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men.


married couple lives with or near the husband's family, same community or even same house


a system of tracing descent through the father's side of the family.

pay gap

a term used to describe the disparity between women's and men's earnings.


security that the marriage will last


the coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society


the concurrent marriage of one woman with two or more men.


the concurrent marriage of a person of one sex with two or more members of the opposite sex.


the concurrent marriage of one man with two or more women.


a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial and ethnic groups.


each partner wants to be primary in each other's lives

primary sex characteristics

the genitalia used in the reproductive process.

psychic divorce

involves regaining a sense of psychological independence as a result of emotional seperation from their former spouse


a category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, and eye shape.


a set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group.

ratio of current marriages to current divorces

faulty measure; marriages reported have all taken place in the current year and divorces occur over many years

refined divorce rates

best measure; the number of divorces per 1000 married women over age 15; no predictive use for individuals


a person or group that is incapable of offering resistance to the hostility or aggression of others.

secondary sex characteristics

the physical traits (other than reproductive organs) that identify an individual's sex.


the spatial and social separation of categories of people by race, ethnicity, class, gender, and/or religion.


the biological and anatomical differences between females and males.


the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.

sexual orientation

a person's preference for emotional-sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality).

single-parent family

composed of one parent and children

social distance

the extent to which people are willing to interact and establish relationships with members of racial and ethnic groups other than their own.

social oppression

the process in which minorities experience socially supported mistreatment, injustice, or experience high poverty rates


overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of particular groups.

structural or institutional sexism

institutional policies, structures that promote the subordination of women

total marriages

multifaceted marriages; all important aspects are included


a person who believes that he or she was born with the body of the wrong sex.


a male who lives as a woman or a female who lives as a man but does not alter the genitalia.

vital marriages

marriages that are full of life, enjoyment and pleasure

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