Childhood Quiz Questions
Terms in this set (159)
According to DSM-5, Which of the following conditions is NOT an anxiety disorder?
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is different from other anxiety disorders because...
GAD is characterized by worry more than the other anxiety disorders
According to Barlow's triple-vulnerability model, which of the following is NOT a primary risk factor for developing an anxiety disorder?
ethnicity and socio-cultural background
Which type of phobia is associated with an unusually sensitive vasovagal response?
fear of injections
According to Mowrer's two-factor theory, phobias develop through ____ and are maintained through ______.
classical conditioning; negative reinforcement
Agoraphobia is best described as...
fear of places where escape is difficult or embarrassing
Which of the following statements regarding Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is true?
children and adolescents with SAD report different fears, depending on their level of development
Which of the following provides the best example of apprehensive expectation?
a girl is nervous the night before she takes the SAT
In a review for the treatment of pediatric phobias, _____ and _____ were shown to be most effective in reducing children's anxiety symptoms.
contingency management; participant modeling
PANDAS theory asserts....
OCD can develop after streptococcus infection
One main difference between acute stress disorder and PTSD is...
people can be diagnosed with Acute SD if the show any 9 PTSD symptoms
Which of the following statements is true regarding the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for PTSD in children 6 and under?
preschoolers need to show fewer symptoms than older children to be diagnosed with PTSD
While traveling home from work in a large city, Kat's subway car derailed. She was thrown from her seat and broke several bones in her wrist. Although the accident only lasted a few seconds, Kat felt like it lasted a few minutes- time seemed to move very slowly. Which term described Kat's perception of the accident?
Which of the following is a part of the HPA axis?
Following a traumatic event, first responders might use "psychological debriefing" to help children and families cope. Which statement best describes research on psychological debriefing?
psychological debriefing is probably not effective and may sometimes be harmful
Which of the following describes an essential component of Trauma-Based CBT?
children exposed to trauma are encouraged to talk about the traumatic event in increasingly greater detail
Which of the following is a chief drawback to EMDR
researchers do not know exactly how EMDR works to reduce PTSD symptoms
The most frequently occurring form of child maltreatment in the US is...
Infants and young children who experience physical abuse are at particular risk for...
The primary goal of supportive therapy for children who have experienced physical abuse or neglect is...
to help children foster a sense of basic trust in their caregivers
Epidemiologists often report the prevalence of a medical or psychological disorder. What is "prevalence?"
the percentage of people in a population with a given disorder
Which of the following is the most common psychiatric disorder among children and adolescents in the US?
Which of the following is NOT an essential component of the DSM-5 definition of a mental disorder?
the behavior goes against the standards or norms of the society
What does "probabilistic epigenesis" mean?
biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors cause development to unfold over time in a manner that is not predetermined
Dora. Elaine and Fatima all had fathers who abused alcohol and other drugs. Dora and Elaine develop depression and anxiety in early adolescence, but Fatima did not. These three girls illustrate the principle of...
What is the scientist-practitioner model approach to understanding and treating child psychopathology?
psychological research and clinical practice are important, connected professional activities
Wakefield's concept of "harmful dysfunction"...
provides criteria for differentiating normal from abnormal behavior
In which of the following situation is it probably NOT ethical to violate the client's confidentiality?
a teacher asks a therapist to provide information about her student so that she can help improve his reading and math skills
A psychologist is about to begin therapy with an adolescent and her family. Which of the following is NOT a component of informed consent?
the therapist should tell the family her theoretical orientation
Which of the following scenarios provides the best description of a "multiple relationship?"
a psychologist agrees to provide therapy to his best friend's son
Miller believes that children who play violent video games will show more aggressive behavior at school than children who do not play violent video games. What is Dr. Miller's null hypothesis?
children who play violent video games will show the same level of aggression as children who do not play violent video games
Medina wants to examine changes in children's depressive symptoms over time. He measures the same children's depressive symptoms at the beginning of the academic year and again several months later. What kind of study did he conduct?
a prospective longitudinal study
Davidson observes that children who show academic problems in the 3rd grade often develop antisocial behavior problems in junior high. She hypothesizes that early academic problems cause children to be rejected by classmates and befriend older, antisocial peers. These peers introduce them to antisocial behavior. Dr. Davidson hypothesizes that children's association with her antisocial peers ____ the relationship between early academic problems and later antisocial behavior.
Which of the following is the best example of a child's phenotype?
his blue eyes
Which of the following is probably an example of a non shared environmental factor that might influence a child's development?
the fact that the child's mother was seriously ill during her pregnancy with him
Anne Catherine's parents are both highly intelligent; her mother is a scientist and her father is an accountant. Early in life, her parents read her many books and send her to high quality schools. By early childhood Anne Catherine shows signs of above average intelligence. This illustrates...
passive gene-environment correlation
How might an infant with secure attachment behave in the strange situation?
the infant might become very upset when the mother leaves the room and crawl to her for comfort when she returns
Which of the following is the best example of a distal risk factor?
tha family's socioeconomic status
According to Bronfenbrenner's bioecological systems theory, which of the following best illustrates the "mesosystem?"
a parent's involvement at his child's school
According to Baumrind, which parenting type is characterized by low responsiveness and high demandingness?
Which of the following is the best example of multi method assessment?
a psychologist observes a child at school and then asks a teacher to complete a rating scale about the child's behavior at school
Brian is an 11-year-old boy with Intellectual Disability who picks at his skin or nails whenever he appears bored or worried. When his parents notice his skin-picking, they tell him to stop and give him attention or treats. Dr. Keller performs a behavioral analysis of Brian's behavior. In her analysis, the consequences of Brian's behaviors might be...
positive reinforcement by parents
Sullivant suspects that one of his clients has a learning disability because she has significant problems with reading and writing. To assess this client, Dr. Sullivan would likely administer a...
test of achievement
Which of the following best illustrates an internalizing disorder?
The developers of DSM-5 used criteria established by Robins and Guze to determine which disorders should be grouped together. Which of the following is NOT one of he three criteria that they used?
disorders that are treated in the same way should be grouped together
DSM-5 sought to correct several limitations in its predecessor, DSM-IV-TR. Which of the following is one of these limitations?
there was a very high co-morbidity among disorders is DSM-IV-TR
Which of the following provides the best example of a dimensional classification system?
rating a child's level of depression on a seven-point scale
According to Albert Ellis, an adolescent client who states, "I need to get into my first-choice college. If I don't I'm just going to die" is displaying a...
Which of the following would probably NOT be the primary focus of attention for a structural family therapist?
What is the difference between a psychotherapy efficacy and a psychotherapy effectiveness study?
effectiveness refers to research conducted under real-world conditions
Michelle is a 4-year-old girl with a history of gastrointestinal problems that cause her stomach cramps and gastric reflux (i.e., stomach acid burning her esophagus) and throat. These problems cause her considerable pain and discomfort. Consequently, she often avoids eating many solid foods that have caused her pain in the past. For which DSM-5 disorder might she qualify?
Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder
Adam is a 5-year-old boy with developmental delays and Intellectual Disability who also engage in Pica. Adam will chew leaves, cigarette butts, and other debris that he finds on the street if not monitored by his parents. Before leaving the house, his father gives Adam a stick of gum to chew. When chewing gum, Adam usually does not engage in Pica. His father's use of gum illustrates....
Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior
Which of the following provides the clearest example of the use of overcorrection to treat a child with Rumination Disorder?
The child must brush her teeth and wash her face after she ruminates
What is the main difference between Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder in adolescents?
Adolescents with Bulimia Nervosa always engage in compensatory behavior to avoid weight gain, but adolescents with Binge Eating Disorder do not
Which of the following is a major change in the diagnostic criteria for Anorexia Nervosa from DSM-IV to DSM-5?
Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa are no longer required to show amenorrhea
Which of the following best illustrates diagnostic migration?
Ellen formerly met diagnostic criteria for Anorexia -Binge Eating/Purging Type; now she meets diagnostic criteria for Bulimia
According to the cognitive-behavioral model of eating disorders, Bulimia Nervosa is often maintained by...
According to the tripartite influence model for eating disorders, which of the following is NOT a risk factor for eating disorders in adolescent girls?
A girl who is rejected by her peers
Inpatient behavioral treatment for Anorexia Nervosa is based on the notion that...
patients are afraid of food and their avoidance is maintained through negative reinforcement
Which of the following statements regarding interpersonal therapy (IPT) for Bulimia Nervosa is NOT true?
Interpersonal therapists believe that interpersonal stressors often cause eating disorders
What is the difference between primary and secondary enuresis?
Children with primary enuresis have never been able to stay dry through the night.
The first-line treatment for most instances of nocturnal enuresis is...
Most instances of encopresis are caused by....
The most rapid form of treatment for infants and toddlers with sleep refusal is ___.
Many over-the-counter medications used for insomnia act on receptors for GABA, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. These medications, which include zolpidem (Ambien) and eszopiclone (Lunesta) are known as ___.
Benzodiazepine receptor agonists.
Which of the following scenarios most closely describes an adolescent with Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorder?
Since beginning high school, Kate has problems waking up for her first class at 8:00AM and has difficulty falling sleep before 1:00AM.
What is a main difference between Sleep Arousal Disorders and Nightmare Disorder?
Sleep arousal disorders occur during deep sleep, whereas Nightmare Disorder occurs during REM sleep.
Hendricks is a pediatric psychologist who helps children recently diagnosed with cancer cope with their diagnosis and learn about their illness. She also addresses the questions and concerns of the family members of these children. Which of the following terms best describes Dr. Hendricks' professional role?
Vanessa is an 8-year-old girl with Cystic Fibrosis. Her pediatric psychologist, Dr. Blackburn, might help Vanessa by....
Helping her adhere to exercises to clear foreign particles from her lungs.
Group therapy is often recommended to help children cope with a chronic medical illness. Based on the results of a recent meta-analysis, what can we conclude about the effectiveness of group therapy for children with medical disorders?
Group therapy that focuses on children's problem-solving skills is most effective.
Children with Intellectual Disability typically earn...
IQ scores <70 and adaptive functioning scores <70
Why might a child be diagnosed with Global Developmental Delay rather than Intellectual Disability?
He was too young to be administered an IQ test.
Which of the following is NOT a cause of Down syndrome?
At which of the following tasks would a boy with Fragile X syndrome likely perform best?
Completing a jigsaw puzzle
Which of the following is usually NOT a characteristic associated with Angelman's syndrome?
Mark is a carrier of PKU; Sandra is not. If they have a child, their offspring has a __ chance of developing PKU.
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?
Meredith wants her fetus to be tested for possible genetic disorders in utero. Which of the following procedures usually carries the least risk to the developing embryo or fetus?
One of the main obstacles in implementing the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), that likely reduced its effectiveness, was...
that many mothers offered the free services did not participate in the program.
Tony is a four-year-old boy with Intellectual Disability who bites his nails at school. Tony's classroom aide wants to decrease the frequency of Tony's nail biting because his nails sometimes bleed and cause him discomfort. She gives Tony with a gold star every minute he keeps his hands on his desk and away from his mouth. Which of the following behavioral techniques is the aide probably using to modify Tony's behavior?
Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI)
The current definition of learning disabilities is included in...
the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act.
The most common type of learning disability among school age children is...
According to information presented in the text, the prognosis of children with learning disabilities is predicted by all of the following EXCEPT:
the child's IQ.
Phonemic awareness refers to...
children's understanding that spoken language can be broken down into sounds.
Which of the following provides the clearest example of phonemic mediation.
Children sound out words and determine whether the word makes sense in the sentence.
Based on information presented in the text, children with reading problems show the best outcomes when...
they participate in systematic instruction in phomemic awareness and phonics.
Before asking her students to read a story about hieroglyphics, a teacher presents her students with information about ancient papyrus and the history of writing. Then, she asks them to recall all that they know about ancient Egypt. Which of the following statements is true?
The teacher is using "activating background knowledge" to improve reading comprehension.
Self-Regulated Strategy Development is an evidence-based intervention used to improve children's....
Which of the following procedures does NOT reflect higher-order math skills?
Awareness of numerosity
According to Geary and Hoard's (2005) developmental model for Mathematics Disorder, children's difficulty with mathematics may be due to all of the following EXCEPT:
children's sensory integration skills.
Which of the following statements about the DSM-5 definition of ADHD is NOT true?
Children cannot be diagnosed with ADHD unless they meet diagnostic criteria before age 12 years.
The prevalence of ADHD is highest among...
In DSM-IV, children with ADHD were classified into one of three subtypes, based on their symptom presentation. In contrast, in DSM-5 does not use subtypes; instead children with ADHD are described in terms of their predominant symptom presentation. Why did the creators of DSM-5 make this change?
The three subtypes had low reliability over time; children often switched from one subtype to another.
ADHD is most closely associated with genes that regulate...
the dopamine neurotransmitter system.
According to Gray's neurological systems theory, children with ADHD show...
overactivity of the BAS and underactivity of the BIS
Which of the following is NOT a component of Barkely's neurodevelopmental model for ADHD.
One main difference between clinical behavior therapy and direct contingency management is...
clinical behavior therapy is administered primarily to parents whereas direct contingency management is administered primarily to children.
Results of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD showed...
Behavioral treatment is efficacious in reducing children's ADHD symptoms.
Psychostimulant medications, used to treat ADHD, are most likely to affect which part of the brain?
Which of the following is NOT a feature of Language Disorder?
A child's articulation is so poor, adults cannot understand her.
Which of the following provides the best example of receptive language?
A child gets his coat from the closet when asked by his mother.
Leigh's daughter, Olivia, was diagnosed with Language Disorder. When Olivia speaks, she often omits the plural /s/ in words. For example, she says "I like to ride horse" instead of "I like to ride horses." Olivia also omits the past-tense /ed/ in words. For example, she says "I play at the playground yesterday" instead of "I played at the playground yesterday." Like many children with Language Disorder, Olivia shows marked problems with ____.
What is the difference between conversational recast training and conversational repair?
Conversational recast training is used to treat Language Disorder whereas conversational repair is taught to children with Social Communication Disorder.
Which of the following statements about augmentative/alternative communication (AA) is NOT true.
AAC is used to replace verbal expressive language in youths with severe Language Disorder.
What is the most common cause of voice problems in children and adolescents?
Max is a 13-year-old boy who stutters. He is participating in speech therapy. His goal in therapy is to develop deliberately fluent speech. Which of the following statements best describes his goal?
Max wants to learn strategies to reduce (but probably not eliminate) disfluencies in his speech.
Davis is a nine-year-old boy who shows problems with social communication and repetitive, stereotyped behaviors (e.g., rocking in place, hand flapping when excited or nervous). He has symptoms of both Social Communication Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder. According to DSM-5, what is his proper diagnosis?
Autism Spectrum Disorder only
Which of the following provides the best example of "narrative skills?"
A boy tells his teacher about his weekend trip to the zoo.
How might a therapist use "scripts" to help a boy with Social Communication Disorder?
The child and the therapist role play a trip to a restaurant.
According to DSM-5, adolescents can develop Substance Use Disorders for all of the following drugs EXCEPT...
Which of the following statements describes a major change between DSM-IV and DSM-5 in the conceptualization of Substance Use Disorders?
DSM-5 no longer differentiates between Substance Abuse and Substance Dependence.
Which of the following is NOT a major difference between alcohol use problems shown by adolescents versus adults?
Adolescents are more likely to show internalizing disorders than adults.
Amotivational syndrome refers to...
the lack of goal-directed behavior shown by some chronic users of marijuana.
Which of the following provides the best example of dual diagnosis?
Daphne is diagnosed with both Alcohol Use Disorder and Depression.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the epidemiology of adolescent Substance Use Disorders?
African American adolescents are less likely than White adolescents to develop Substance Use Disorders.
According to the enhanced reinforcement model of alcohol use...
adolescents overestimate the positive effects and minimize the negative effects of alcohol.
The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy media campaign...
may have actually increased children's risk for using alcohol and other drugs.
One of the primary limitations of inpatient treatment for adolescents with Substance Use Disorders is...
most adolescents relapse after discharge.
The results of the Cannabis Youth Treatment Study showed that...
most adolescents either did not respond to treatment or relapsed after treatment completion.
Which of the following is NOT an essential feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder?
Impairments in language.
According to DSM-5, which of the following would probably NOT be considered a "restrictive, repetitive pattern of behavior, interests, or activities?"
Consistently avoiding eye contact
According to the most recent data from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, approximately ___ of children in the United States meet criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder.
1 in 88
Which of the following statements is true regarding the epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder?
Autism Spectrum Disorder is more prevalent among White children than African American children.
Which of the followed provides the clearest example of abnormal prosody?
A child speaking in a robotic tone-of-voice.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a neuroimaging technique that has been used to examine possible brain abnormalities associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder. What does DTI measure?
Water molecules in brain tissue
Which of the following statements about tics is true?
Tics and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) may have similar underlying causes.
Which of the following provides the best evidence supporting Baron-Cohen's (1995) theory of mind-blindness?
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder often show a lack of empathy.
Which of the following differentiates Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) from Pivotal Response Training (PRT)?
In EIBI, the therapist selects the focus of the interaction whereas in PRT the child directs the action.
Which of the following therapies has the most support as a treatment for autism in school age children?
Pivotal response training
According to information presented in the text, why was Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder added to DSM-5?
Many children were being misdiagnosed with Bipolar Disorder.
According to DSM-5, how long must a child or adolescent experience depressive symptoms to be diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder?
Which of the following is not a diagnostic criterion for MDD in adolescents?
People with depression who fail the dexamethasone suppression test display...
high levels of cortisol.
Which of the following is probably NOT an example of a negative automatic thought that might be associated with depression?
"I would have liked to have done better!"
Several studies have examined the safety of antidepressant medication for children and adolescents with depression. The FDA found that the risk for suicidal thoughts was approximately ___ for youth taking these medications.
What does the term "cognitive restructuring" mean?
Challenging children's cognitive biases and distortions.
The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) demonstrated...
that youths who received CBT alone showed similar outcomes as youth who received placebo.
According to Nock and Prinstein's (2004, 2005) four-factor model for NNSI...
NSSI is usually maintained by operant conditioning.
Marsha Linehan developed Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) to help individuals with mood disorders, personality disorders, and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury. Upon what model/theory is DBT based?
The emotional dysregulation model
Which of the following is NOT a DSM-5 diagnostic feature of Conduct Disorder?
Using alcohol or other drugs
Rufus is first diagnosed with CD at the age of 15 years. However, his mother reports that he showed several conduct disorder symptoms when he was eight- or nine-years-old. The proper diagnosis for Rufus would be ___.
CD, Childhood-Onset Type
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a child with "limited prosocial emotions?"
Few displays of positive affect
According to the dual failure model....
Children with CD are at risk for depression because of their problems with peers and academics.
Which of the following provides the clearest example of relational aggression?
A girl spreads a rumor around her school in order to ruin the reputation of a classmate.
As many as 80% of clinic-referred children with ODD later develop CD. However, only about 25-33% of nonreferred children with ODD later develop CD. Why?
Clinic-referred children with more severe and persistent problems are more likely to be referred to treatment.
How might low emotional arousal contribute to the development of conduct problems in some children?
Children with low emotional arousal often do not respond to punishment.
Which types of parental attributions for children's misbehavior are associated with hostile and coercive parenting behavior?
internal, global, stable
In parent management training, most therapists begin treatment by...
positively reinforcing children's appropriate behaviors.
Which of the following is usually NOT one of the three primary systems targeted in Multisystemic Therapy?
The child's neighborhood
A primary difference between Bipolar I and Bipolar II disorders is...
the person must never have experienced a manic episode for Bipolar II Disorder.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the presentation of mania in children and adolescents?
Children with bipolar disorder often appear irritable, touchy, or angry rather than elated.
The most frequently-occurring disorder among children with Bipolar Disorder is...
Imagine that your 12-year-old cousin has been recently diagnosed with a bipolar disorder. His mother (your sister) wants to know what his outcome might be. Based on the results of the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study, what might you tell your sister?
Most youths recover from their initial mood episode but experience additional episodes later only, usually depression.
Social rhythm therapy involves...
helping adolescents with bipolar disorders maintain regular sleep-wake cycles.
Based on the most recent studies, presented in the text, which class of medication is most effective in treating children and adolescents with Bipolar Disorder?
Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., Risperdal)
In Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (PEP), what is "naming the enemy?"
Children view their mood problems as something external to themselves - something that must be targeted in treatment.
Which of the following is the most common symptom shown by children and adolescents with Schizophrenia?
A recent meta-analysis investigating the effectiveness for cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for youths with Schizophrenia showed....
CBT is generally not more effective than supportive therapy.
Which of the following provides the best example of expressed emotion in a family of an adolescent with Schizophenia?
Mom says, "Why can't you act responsible, like other kids your age?"