Which are the two main forms of photosynthesis?
Multiple select question.
Photosystem I
Photosystem II
anoxygenic
oxygenic
Calvin cycle
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Which of the following (choose all that apply) are necessary for carbon fixation in the Calvin cycle? ATP Dark conditions Light conditions NADPHNADPH ATPThe cyclic reactions in carbon fixation do not require which of the following? ATP Light NADPHLightIn photosynthesis, CO2 is reduced to glucose using electrons from the oxidation of ______ ; in respiration, ________ is oxidized to CO2 using O2 as the final electron acceptor.water, glucoseThe third and final stage of photosynthesis is also known as which of the following? The light-dependent reactions The cyclic reactions The light-independent reactions The carbon reactionsThe light-independent reactionsSelect all that apply In the equation that summarizes photosynthesis, if 6 carbon dioxide + 12 water + light are the reactants, what are the products? 6 oxygen Glucose 6 water Hydrogen peroxide ATP6 oxygen Glucose 6 waterIn photosynthesis, glucose is produced via the reduction of which of the following? Chlorophyll Starch Water Carbon dioxideCarbon dioxideThe formation of organic molecules from carbon dioxide is called carbon fixation carboxylation decarboxylation carbon dioxide fixationcarbon fixationWhich of the following are chloroplast membranes? An outer membrane The thylakoid membrane The stroma membrane The lumen membrane An inner membraneAn outer membrane The thylakoid membrane An inner membraneThe inner (internal) membrane of the chloroplast is also called the ______________ membrane.thylakoidHow are the equation for photosynthesis in plants and the equation for cellular respiration related? They are completely unrelated. They are the reverse of each other. They are almost identical to each other - the only difference is in the number of water molecules.They are the reverse of each other.The _________ membrane contains pigment molecules, including chlorophyll.thylakoidWhen added to light in photosynthesis, how many molecules of carbon dioxide and water are needed to make one molecule of glucose? 12 CO2; 6 H2O 6 CO2; 6 H2O 1 CO2; 1 H2O 6 CO2; 12 H2O6 CO2; 12 H2ODuring photosynthesis, glucose is produced via the ___________ of CO2.reductionSimilar to a mitochondrion, a(n) ________ contains an outer and inner membrane, with an intermembrane space between the two. Unlike a mitochondrion, it also contains chlorophyll-containing membranes called ________ membranes.chloroplast thylakoidWhat does the stroma of the chloroplast contain? Carotenoid pigments. Enzymes needed for carbon fixation. Chlorophyll pigments. Electron transport chain complexes.Enzymes needed for carbon fixation.The internal membrane of the chloroplast is also known as the primary membrane. thylakoid membrane. lamellar membrane. stromal membrane.thylakoid membrane.Pigment molecules capturing photons in the chloroplast are organized in distinct structures called ________PhotosystemsWhich of the following membranes contains pigments in a green plant? The thylakoid membrane The chlorophyll membrane The outer chloroplast membrane The inner mitochondrial membraneThe thylakoid membraneAccording to the diagram, which of the following accelerate photosynthesis when light intensity is high?Increase in CO2 Increase in temperatureSelect all that apply In the equation that summarizes photosynthesis, if 6 carbon dioxide + 12 water + light are the reactants, what are the products? Glucose 6 water ATP 6 oxygen Hydrogen peroxideGlucose 6 water 6 oxygenWhich of the following are parts of the chloroplast? cristae stroma inner membrane grana thylakoids centromeresstroma inner membrane grana thylakoidsVan Niel proposed a generalized equation for photosynthesis: CO2 + 2 H2A + light energy → (CH2O) + H2O + 2A The substance H2A serves as the electrondonorThe chloroplast's ______ contains enzymes needed to assemble organic molecules from CO2.stromaAccording to the generalized equation for photosynthesis proposed by van Niel, CO2 + 2H2A + light energy yields which of the following? 2 CH2O + O2 2CH2O + ATP CH2O + H2O CH2O + H2O + 2ACH2O + H2O + 2APhotosynthetic pigments in the chloroplast are organized into distinct clusters known as photosystems grana thylakoids stromaphotosystems Reason: The thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast is organized in the shape of flattened sacs stacked on one another in columns. These columns are called grana.The oxygen produced by plants during photosynthesis comes from the splitting of ________ molecules.waterVan Niel demonstrated that purple photosynthetic bacteria convert _______ _______ into globules of pure elemental sulfur which accumulate inside them.hydrogen sulfideIn van Niel's generalized equation of photosynthesis, which of the following is the donor of electrons? CO2 2A O2 H2AH2Avan Niel introduced the term _____ ______ to denote the process of converting CO2 into organic matter using the electrons and protons resulting from the splitting of water.Carbon FixationPigments are molecules that absorb light energy of any wavelength absorb light in the visible range absorb any visible light energy except greenabsorb light in the visible rangeCarbon fixation involves using the protons and electrons generated by the splitting of what molecule to convert CO2 into organic matter?H2OA photon of light has properties of botha particle and a wave.Molecules that can absorb light in the visible range are called ________ .pigmentsThe energy content of a _____ is inversely proportional to the wavelength of the light.photonThe _____ nature of light produces an electromagnetic spectrum.waveThe human eye can detect light wavelengths between _______ and ________ nm, which represent the range of the visible spectrum.400 740Longer wavelength radiation contains ______ energy per unit time than shorter wavelength radiation.lessThe two most important classes of pigments in chloroplasts are chlorophylls and ___________carotenoidsGreen plants utilize ________ a and b to absorb light energy in photosynthesis.chlorophyllThe electromagnetic ________ encompasses all possible wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.spectrumWhich of the following statements about radiation is TRUE? Shorter-wavelength radiation carries more energy per unit of time than longer-wavelength radiation. Short-wavelength and long-wavelength radiation carry the same amount of energy. Longer-wavelength radiation carries more energy per unit of time than shorter-wavelength radiation.Shorter-wavelength radiation carries more energy per unit of time than longer-wavelength radiation.Which are the two most important kinds of pigments in chloroplasts? Chlorophylls and phytols Chlorophylls and porphyrin Chlorophylls and carotenoidsChlorophylls and carotenoidsWhich of the following are used by green plants to absorb light energy? Chlorophyll c Chlorophyll a Chloroplast c Chlorophyll b Xanthophyll bChlorophyll a Chlorophyll bIn photosynthesis, ___________ molecules preferentially absorb violet-blue and red light.chlorophyllChlorophyll b has which of the following effects on photosynthesis? ‣It greatly increases the proportion of the photons in sunlight that plants can harvest. ‣It has no effect on the proportion of the photons in sunlight that plants can harvest. ‣It diminishes the proportion of the photons in sunlight that plants can harvest.It greatly increases the proportion of the photons in sunlight that plants can harvest.How do carotenoids assist in the photosynthetic process? ‣By shuffling electrons between different photosystems in the thylakoid membrane depending on their needs. ‣By capturing light wavelengths that are not efficiently absorbed by chlorophylls. ‣By passing on the electron from chlorophyll to an electron acceptor. ‣By removing electrons from water and passing them on to chlorophyll with the help of light.By capturing light wavelengths that are not efficiently absorbed by chlorophylls.In the Fall, aspen leaves change from a green color to a lovely yellow color. Seasonal color changes in a leaf happen because ‣the quantity of chlorophyll in a leaf declines, unmasking the carotenoids. all pigments die seasonally, as the tree loses its leaves. ‣loss of pigments causes leaves to die. ‣the quantity of carotenoids in a leaf declines, unmasking the chlorophylls.the quantity of chlorophyll in a leaf declines, unmasking the carotenoids.Photosystems were discovered in Chlorella, which is what type of organism? Bacteria Fungi Alga PlantAlgaWhich of the following wavelengths of light are preferentially absorbed by chlorophyll molecules? Red Violet-blue Green YellowRed Violet-blueThe production of one molecule of O2 during photosynthesis requires how many chlorophyll molecules? One Four Thousands Two Between 4 an 100ThousandsWhich describes chlorophyll b? It is only found in photosystem I. It is responsible for cyclic electron flow. It is an accessory pigment. It is only found in photosystem II.It is an accessory pigment.Similar to other pigments, carotenoids assist photosynthesis by capturing energy from _______ , however, they absorb wavelengths that are not efficiently absorbed by _______. In addition, they scavenge ______radicals.light chlorophyll freeAccording to the graph, once saturation of photosynthesis has occurred, the amount of oxygen released increases decreases remains the samedecreasesIn all photosynthetic organisms studied to date, except one class of photosynthetic bacteria, light is captured by clusters of chlorophyll and accessory pigment molecules, which together are called _________photosystemsExperiments that led to the discovery of photosystems involved illuminating a Chlorella culture with an increasing intensity of light and measuring the yield of ________ per pulse.oxygenIn a photosystem, chlorophyll a molecules are found in a matrix of lipids proteins cholesterol carbohydratesproteinsThe production of one molecule of ______ from water during photosynthesis requires several thousand chlorophyll molecules.oxygenWhich of the following are the two components of a photosystem? An antenna complex. A reaction center. A carotenoid antenna. A chlorophyll center. A chlorophyll pair.An antenna complex. A reaction center.Almost all photosynthetic organisms capture light using individual chlorophyll molecules located in the membrane. photosystems. lipid-pigment complexes.photosystems.The role of the ___________-harvesting complex is to directly absorb photons of light.lightIn plants, each photosystem is a network of chlorophyll __ molecules, accessory __________ and associated proteins.a pigments, carotenoids or chlorophyllA photosystem consists of two components, a(n) complex and a(n) center.antenna or light-harvesting reactionIn chloroplasts, the light-harvesting complex is composed of a web of ___________ molecules linked together and held tightly in the thylakoid membrane by a matrix of proteins.ChlorophyllIn a photosystem, the ___________ complex captures light energy and passes it to the ___________ center where electrons are transferred out of the photosystem.antenna; reactionOnce a photon is captured by the light harvesting complex, the pigments in it transfer . ‣individual excited electrons. ‣photons with the same wavelength as the one that was initially captured by the photosystem. ‣the energy of excited electrons but not electrons themselves. ‣pairs of excited electrons.the energy of excited electrons but not electrons themselves.The reaction center in chloroplasts is a transmembrane __________ -pigment complex.proteinHow is the reaction center positioned in the membrane?It is a transmembrane complex.The role of the light-harvesting complex is to generate reducing power directly absorb photons of light generate ATP synthesize carbohydrates for the plantdirectly absorb photons of lightIn the reaction center, excited _____ (is)are transferred out of the photosystem.electronsDuring photosynthesis, a chlorophyll in the reaction center loses its excited electron. How is that electron restored? From a nearby molecule of NADPH From a nearby strong electron donor. From a nearby weak electron donor.From a nearby weak electron donor.In chloroplasts, several dozen of these kinds of molecules help comprise a light harvesting complex: pigments manganese clusters NADP+ reductases electron transport chains ATP synthasespigmentsThe excited chlorophyll in the reaction center transfers its electron to another chlorophyll molecule in the reaction center water the primary acceptor a carotenoid molecule in the reaction centerthe primary acceptorIn the light-harvesting complex of the chloroplast, it is excitation ___________, not the electrons themselves, that pass from one pigment molecule to the next.energyWhat is transferred out of the reaction center? Excited electrons. Protons. The energy of excited electrons but not the electrons themselves. Hydrogen atoms.Excited electrons.Click and drag on elements in order Order the steps in the conversion of light energy into chemical energy in the reaction center (RC) as they occur. Start at the top. 1. A chlorophyll molecule in the RC absorbs a photon of light 2. An electron in the chlorophyll molecule is excited to a higher energy level 3. A high energy electron is transferred to a primary electron acceptor 4. The oxidized chlorophyll molecule restores its electrons by oxidizing a donor moleculeAfter absorbing the energy from light, chlorophyll in the reaction center becomes a strong electron donor a weak electron acceptor a weak electron donor a strong electron acceptora strong electron donorWhere do the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur in the chloroplast? In the thylakoid lumen. In the thylakoid membrane. In the stroma In the outer chloroplast membraneIn the thylakoid membrane.In bacteria, light-dependent reactions take place in which of the following? Chloroplasts The plasma membrane Specialized photosynthetic granules The cytoplasmThe plasma membraneThe first stage of the thylakoid (or light-dependent) reactions is the ______ _______primary photoeventDuring the primary photoevent, a(n) _________ of light is captured by a pigment.photonThe first step in the conversion of light energy into chemical energy by the reaction center is transfer of an excited electron to a primary acceptor. oxidation of a weak electron donor by chlorophyll. oxidation of water by a chlorophyll molecule. absorption of a photon of light by chlorophyll in the reaction center.absorption of a photon of light by chlorophyll in the reaction center.During the electron transport stage of the thylakoid reactions electrons are shuttled along a series of electron carrier molecules, eventually reaching the final acceptor. This final acceptor is ______NADP+The light-_________ reactions of photosynthesis occur on membranes.dependentWhat happens during the chemiosmosis stage of the thylakoid reactions? ‣Protons are pumped against their concentrations gradient. ‣The light energy is converted into chemical energy. ‣ATP is synthesized. ‣Electrons are pumped across the membrane.ATP is synthesized.True or false: The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesizing bacteria take place in the chloroplasts.FalsePlace the four stages of the thylakoid reactions in the correct order starting with the first stage at the top. 1. primary photoeven 2. charge separation 3. electron transport 4. chemiosmosisHow many different types of photosystems are found in chloroplasts? Three One Two FourTwoProtons are pumped across the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the __________ ____________ stage of the thylakoid (or light-dependent) reactions.electron transportHow do plants benefit from having two linked photosystems? ‣It allows them to make ATP. ‣Having two photosystems also makes the light-independent reactions more efficient. ‣It allows them to use electrons from water to reduce NADP+.It allows them to use electrons from water to reduce NADP+.During the fourth stage of the thylakoid reactions, known as ____________, protons flow across the membrane down their gradient and in the process ATP is synthesized.chemiosmosisWhich of the following is associated with the reaction center of PS II? NADP+ reductase P700 RUBISCO (ribulose bis-phosphate carboxylase) P680 PigmentsP680The oxidation potential of PSII is high enough that it can oxidize ________ .waterPhotosystem II and photosystem I in the chloroplast are connected by a __________/b6-f complex.cytochromeThe enhancement effect states that the rate of photosynthesis is fastest when both photosystems are activated. Which wavelength(s) of light would be most appropriate to demonstrate the enhancement effect? 780 nm (infrared) 380 nm (violet) 680 nm (red) 700 nm (far red)680 nm (red) 700 nm (far red)Having two different linked photosystems in chloroplasts overcomes the limitations of anoxygenic photosynthesis by allowing the oxidation of ________waterPhotosystem I contains the pigment P700 P840 P680 P870P700Which of the following statements about the oxidation potential of photosystem II is true? ‣Its oxidation potential is not high enough so that it can oxidize water. ‣Its oxidation potential is high enough that it can oxidize water. ‣Its oxidation potential is low enough that it can oxidize water. ‣Its oxidation potential is not low enough so that it can oxidize water.Its oxidation potential is high enough that it can oxidize water.In chloroplasts, electrons ejected from the photosystems do not return to them, which is known as oxygenic photophosphorylation. NADPH based photophosphorylation. cyclic photophosphorylation. noncyclic photophosphorylation.noncyclic photophosphorylation.How are photosystem II and photosystem I in the chloroplast connected? By a chlorophyll b molecule. By NADPH. By a cytochrome/b6-f complex. By a quinone molecule.By a cytochrome/b6-f complex.Which of the following describes the photosynthetic enhancement effect? ‣The rate of photosynthesis is fastest in the presence of red and far-red wavelengths of light together. ‣The rate of photosynthesis is fastest in the presence of red wavelengths of light only. ‣The rate of photosynthesis is fastest in the presence of far-red wavelengths of light only. ‣The rate of photosynthesis is fastest in the presence of green wavelengths of light only.The rate of photosynthesis is fastest in the presence of red and far-red wavelengths of light together.The __ diagram describes the energy transitions of electrons as they move through the __ reactions. Multiple choice question. P ; dark P ; light Z ; light Z ; darkZ ; lightThe process in which electrons from water move through PSII and PSI and ultimately to NADPH is also known as ____________ photophosphorylation.NoncylicWhich photosystem's main function is to generate high-energy electrons for the synthesis of ATP? Photosystem II Neither photosystem Photosystem I Both photosystemsPhotosystem IIThe reaction center of photosystem II consists of a core of __ transmembrane protein subunits and __ P680 chlorophyll molecules. 10; 2 10; 4 2; 10 4; 1010; 2Plastoquinone is a strong electron donor--it passes its electrons to a ferredoxin molecule NADPH the b6-f complex PSIthe b6-f complexA Z diagram illustrates how many electron-energizing steps? Three Two One FourtwoWhat is the function of the b6-f complex? To replenish the electrons in PSII To reduce NADP+ to NADPH To pump protons in the thylakoid spaceTo pump protons in the thylakoid spaceThe electron transport chain directly associated with photosystem II is used to generate __, while the electron transport chain directly associated with photosystem I is used to generate __. ATP; NADPH NADPH; water Water; ATP NADPH; ATPATP; NADPHThe reaction center of photosystem ___ consists of a core transmembrane complex made of 12-14 protein subunits and two bound P700 chlorophyll molecules.oneIn addition to chlorophyll molecules and proteins, the reaction center of photosystem II also contains four _________ atoms.manganese or MnPhotosystem I passes electrons to ferredoxin. plastoquinone. plastocyanin.ferredoxin.The primary electron acceptor for the excited electron leaving photosystem II is a _____________ moleculequinoneNADP reductase accepts two electrons from two molecules of __ and catalyzes the production of __. ferredoxin; NADP+ plastoquinone; NADPH ferredoxin; NADPH plastoquinone; NADP+ferredoxin; NADPHThe function of the b6-f complex is to pump protons into the __________ space.thylakoidOn the stromal side of the thylakoid membrane, two molecules of reduced _________ donate two electrons for the synthesis of one molecule of NADPH.FerredoxinThe reaction center of photosystem I consists of a core transmembrane complex made of ‣12-14 protein subunits and 4 bound P700 chlorophyll molecules ‣12-14 protein subunits and 2 bound P700 chlorophyll molecules ‣10 protein subunits and 4 bound P700 chlorophyll molecules ‣8-10 protein subunits and 8 bound P700 chlorophyll molecules12-14 protein subunits and 2 bound P700 chlorophyll moleculesAs protons pass through the ATP _____ channels, ADP is phosphorylated to ATP and released into the _________ of the chloroplast.synthase stromaThe iron-sulfur protein _________ accepts electrons from photosystem I.ferredoxinThe synthesis of NADPH is catalyzed by which of the following? NADPH oxidase NADP+ reductase Ferredoxin NADP+ dehydrogenaseNADP+ reductaseThe ATP synthases of chloroplasts and mitochondria are evolutionary related only in certain plants and algae evolutionary related evolutionary unrelatedevolutionary relatedWhich molecule donates electrons for the synthesis of NADPH in chloroplasts? Oxidized plastocyanin Reduced ferredoxin Oxidized ferredoxin Reduced plastocyaninReduced ferredoxinRoughly equal amounts of NADPH and ATP are generated in photosystem I. cyclic photophosphorylation. photosystem II. noncyclic photophosphorylation.noncyclic photophosphorylation.Plant cells can produce additional amounts of __________ to fuel the Calvin cycle in a process known as cyclic photophosphorylation.ATPThe ATP synthase enzymes of chloroplasts are located in the stroma. outer membrane. energy-producing membrane. thylakoid membrane.thylakoid membrane.In ____________ photophosphorylation, electrons from PSI are transferred back to the b6-f complex, which pumps protons into the thylakoid space, adding to the gradient that drives the chemiosmotic synthesis of __________.cyclic ATPRecent studies with the atomic force microscope have shown that PSI and the ATP synthase are not randomly distributed in thylakoid membranes, rather, they seem concentrated ‣primarily in the connections between grana (the stroma lamellae). ‣primarily in the grana. ‣primarily in the stretches of the thylakoid ‣membrane that surround the chloroplast and are in close proximity to the outer chloroplast membrane.primarily in the connections between grana (the stroma lamellae).True or false: The mechanism of ATP synthesis in the ATP synthase of chloroplasts is fundamentally different from the one used in the ATP synthase of mitochondria.falseThe ATP needed in the Calvin cycle comes from cyclic photophosphorylation only both cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation noncyclic photophosphorylation onlyboth cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylationIn noncyclic photophosphorylation, how much of each product is synthesized? Roughly equal amounts of ATP and NADPH About twice as much ATP as NADPH About twice as much NADPH as ATP Much more water than oxygenRoughly equal amounts of ATP and NADPHWhy is the Calvin cycle also known as C3 photosynthesis? ‣Because three CO2 molecules are needed to run the cycle once. ‣Because three molecules of 3GP are made in one run of the cycle. ‣Because the net products of the Calvin cycle are three molecules of glucose. ‣Because the first molecule in the cycle has 3 carbon atoms.Because the first molecule in the cycle has 3 carbon atoms.If the light reactions produce roughly equal amounts of ATP and NADPH, how can plant cells ensure that there is enough ATP for the Calvin cycle? ‣Because an H+ gradient is established between the stroma and the thylakoid lumen ‣Because of cyclic photophosphorylation ‣Because of noncyclic photophosphorylationBecause of cyclic photophosphorylation Reason: The H+ gradient is indeed used to produce all ATP during the light dependent reactions. However, simply having a proton gradient does not mean that the right proportions of ATP and NADPH are produced. This is achieved by shuffling some of the electrons from PSI through the cyclic pathway.In the Calvin cycle CO2 is attached to an organic molecule abbreviated as _____RuBPA key difference between noncyclic photophosphorylation and cyclic photophosphorylation is that in cyclic photophosphorylation, electrons are ‣passed back to the b6-f complex and from there ultimately back to photosystem II. ‣passed back to the b6-f complex rather than ‣passing on to NADP+. ‣transferred from ferredoxin to NADP+ reductase generating NADPH.passed back to the b6-f complex rather than passing on to NADP+.According to recent studies, where are PSII and the b6-f complexes located? ‣in the stroma lamellae and on portions of the thylakoid membrane that surround the chloroplast (together with the outer membrane) ‣in the stroma ‣In the grana and in borders between the grana and the stroma lamellaeIn the grana and in borders between the grana and the stroma lamellaePhotophosphorylation produces _______, which stores chemical energy that can be used for the Calvin cycle. Carbon fixation also requires reducing power, which is provided by ______ produced by photosystem I.ATP NADPHWhich of the following happens to the molecule formed by the addition of carbon dioxide to ribulose bisphosphate? ‣It is immediately split into two more stable three carbon molecules. ‣It is immediately stored within the chloroplast for conditions exclusive of photosynthesis. ‣It is the starting point for cellular respiration. ‣It is used to reduce three molecules of NADPH.The Calvin cycle is also known as _______ photosynthesis because the first intermediate of the cycle contains three carbon atoms.c3Where is rubisco located? In the outer chloroplast membrane In the chloroplast stroma In the thylakoid membrane In the inner chloroplast membraneIn the chloroplast stromaThe abbreviation, RuBP, stands for ________ 1,5-bisphosphate.RibuloseIn the Calvin cycle, ______ molecules of CO2 are bound to the same number of RuBP molecules to produce 12 molecules of PGA.6In photophosphorylation, ____ electrons from PSI are transferred back to the b6-f complex, which pumps protons into the thylakoid space, adding to the gradient that drives the chemiosmotic synthesis of _____________cyclic ATPWhat is the net gain of the Calvin cycle? One molecule of sucrose Twelve molecules of PGA One molecule of glucose Two molecules of G3PTwo molecules of G3PIn the process of carbon __________ , carbon dioxide is incorporated into a molecule of ribulose biphosphate forming an unstable 6 carbon intermediate that immediately splits into two 3-carbon molecules.fixationTrue or false: Glucose is the primary output of the Calvin cycle.False; G3PWhat is the name of the enzyme that incorporates CO2 into organic matter during the Calvin cycle? Multiple choice question. calvinase fixase rubisco Calvin cycle carboxylaserubiscoHow many molecules of CO2 need to be bound to molecules of RuBP to produce 12 molecules of PGA in the Calvin cycle? 24 12 3 66__________ molecules of G3P made during the Calvin cycle can be used to make one molecule of _______________two glucoseWhen you take into account the net equation of the Calvin cycle, how many ATP molecules are needed to synthesize two G3P molecules? 2 18 6 1218Typically, it is considered that the net gain of the Calvin cycle is(are) _____ molecule(s) of G3P.twoWhich of the following are phases of the Calvin cycle? Multiple select question. Polymerization of glucose Carbon fixation Reduction and carbohydrate production ATP investment Regeneration of ribulose bisphosphateCarbon fixation Reduction and carbohydrate production Regeneration of ribulose bisphosphateWhich of the following is the primary output of the Calvin cycle? Ribulose biphosphate Starch Glucose G3PSequence the phases of the Calvin cycle from first (on top) to last. carbon fixation reduction and carbohydrate production regeneration of ribulose bisphosphateWhere is rubisco located? In the thylakoid membrane In the outer chloroplast membrane In the inner chloroplast membrane In the chloroplast stromaIn the chloroplast stromaHow many molecules of G3P are needed to make one molecule of glucose? 6 3 2 12Consider the net equation that describes the Calvin cycle. How many NADPH are needed to synthesize the two net G3P molecules that can be used to make a glucose molecule? 6 2 12 1812The G3P produced during the Calvin cycle is transported into the cytoplasm where it is usually converted into ____________ 6-phosphate and __________1-phosphate.fructose glucoseThe Calvin cycle begins with carbon fixation using Rubisco the reduction of PGA to G3P the regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate the splitting of watercarbon fixation using RubiscoMost plants transport the fixed carbon in the form of the transport sugar fructose mannose glucose sucrosesucroseWhen photosynthesis results in the accumulation of G3P in the stroma faster, the G3P is used to make glucose 1-P which is then used to make _________ grains.starchGlyceraldehyde 3-phosphate formed during the Calvin cycle is an important compound in which of the following stages of cell respiration? Electron transport chain Krebs cycle GlycolysisGlycolysisAfter it is transported into the cytoplasm, the G3P made during photosynthesis is usually used to synthesize fructose 6-phosphate and glucose 1-phosphate, which can be used to form galactose. glycerol. sucrose. mannose.sucrose.The enzyme rubisco has more than one activity. Because of this, most plants also perform _________ , which consumes oxygen and liberates carbon dioxide. This process can lower the net benefit from photosynthesis.photorespirationMost plants combine glucose and fructose to produce ___________ which is the major transport sugar.sucroseDuring times of intensive photosynthesis, chloroplast can store glucose in the form of starch grains. cellulose fibers. sucrose filled vesicles.starch grainsPhotorespiration is considered "wasteful" because Multiple select question. ‣it results in rubisco breakdown, so the plant must invest energy to produce additional rubisco molecules. ‣reduces the ability of a plant to make carbohydrates. ‣it reduces the yield of photosynthesis. ‣it may indirectly stimulate the growth of the plant in the absence of adequate growth conditions.‣reduces the ability of a plant to make carbohydrates. ‣it reduces the yield of photosynthesis.Why do hot and dry conditions favor photorespiration? ‣Because photosynthesis is less efficient in hot and dry conditions ‣Because plants close their stomata, inhibiting CO2 uptake and increasing O2 ‣Because the opening and closing of stomata are regulated by the Calvin cycle ‣Because rubisco, the most abundant enzyme in the Calvin cycle, has a higher affinity for O2Select all that apply Which of these statements are true about the relationship between photosynthesis and cell respiration? ‣The products of cell respiration are the reactants of photosynthesis. ‣The products of photosynthesis inhibit cell respiration. ‣The products of photosynthesis are the same as the products of cell respiration. ‣The products of photosynthesis are the reactants of cell respiration. ‣The reactants of photosynthesis are the same as the reactants of cell respiration.‣The products of cell respiration are the reactants of photosynthesis. ‣The products of photosynthesis are the reactants of cell respiration.Plants that only fix carbon using the Calvin cycle are also known as __________ plants.C3What molecule is released during photorespiration? Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Oxygen WaterCarbon dioxideWhat is the name of the enzyme that catalyzes the addition of CO2 to a molecule of phosphoenolpyruvate? Rubisco CAM PEP carboxylasePEP carboxylaseWhich of the following differentiates PEP carboxylase from rubisco? The function of PEP carboxylase is to add a CO2 molecule PEP carboxylase fixes CO2 PEP carboxylase does not bind oxygenPEP carboxylase does not bind oxygenPhotorespiration has which of the following effects on photosynthesis? It reduces the yield of photosynthesis. It has no effect on the yield of photosynthesis. It increases the yield of photosynthesis.It reduces the yield of photosynthesis.In hot, arid conditions, specialized openings in the leaf called _______ close to conserve water, cutting off the supply of carbon dioxide entering the leaf.stomataWhich of the following is a difference between C4 and CAM plants? ‣C4 plants also use C3 photosynthesis, while CAM plants do not use C3 photosynthesis. ‣C4 plants use C3 photosynthesis in different cells, while CAM plants use C3 photosynthesis at certain times. ‣CAM plants can also generate ATP from photophosphorylation at night, while C4 plants cannot.C4 plants use C3 photosynthesis in different cells, while CAM plants use C3 photosynthesis at certain times.A C3 plant can only fix carbon using the Calvin cycle is any plant that has the ability to use the Calvin cycle is a plant that fixes carbon using the Calvin cycle in all of its mesophyll cells, not just the bundle-sheath cellscan only fix carbon using the Calvin cycleTrue or false: Photorespiration can completely negate the efficiency of photosynthesis.FalseThe enzyme that catalyzes the addition of CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate is _______ called carboxylase.PEPIn which type of plant does carbon dioxide capture occur at night, and decarboxylation occur during the day? C3 plants C4 plants CAM plantsCAM plantsBoth PEP carboxylase and rubisco can fix carbon dioxide. However, PEP carboxylase: does not bind oxygen also binds oxygen binds oxygen with less affinitydoes not bind oxygenWhich of the following plants are C4 plants? Soybeans Sorghum Sugarcane Corn Evergreen treesSorghum Sugarcane CornDo C4 and CAM plants also use C3 photosynthesis? C4 plants use C3 photosynthesis, while CAM plants do not No, they do not use C3 photosynthesis Yes, both C4 and CAM plants also use C3 photosynthesis CAM plants use C3 photosynthesis, while C4 plants do notYes, both C4 and CAM plants also use C3 photosynthesisIn hot and dry conditions, the process of __________ can reduce the efficiency of photosynthesis by 25-50%.photorespirationWhere does the Calvin cycle occur in a C4 plant? In the bundle-sheath cells In the stomata In the mesophyll cellsIn the bundle-sheath cellsIn which type of plant does carbon dioxide capture occur in one cell, and decarboxylation occur in an adjacent cell? C3 plants CAM plants C4 plantsC4 plantsThe C4 pathway has a cost to plants, because the conversion of ________ to PEP requires the expenditure of ATP.pyruvateIn C4 plants PEP carboxylase is only active in _______ cells.mesophyll________ plants avoid water loss by closing their stomata during the day and opening them at night.CAMWhich of the following accurately describes C4 photosynthesis? ‣PEP is synthesized in the mesophyll cells, while the Calvin cycle occurs in the bundle-sheath cells. ‣PEP is synthesized in the mesophyll cells at night, while the Calvin cycle occurs in those same cells during the day. ‣PEP is synthesized in the bundle-sheath cells at night, while the Calvin cycle occurs in those same cells during the day. ‣PEP is synthesized in the bundle-sheath cells, while the Calvin cycle occurs in the mesophyll cells.PEP is synthesized in the mesophyll cells, while the Calvin cycle occurs in the bundle-sheath cells.Why does CO2 enter CAM plants at nighttime? Because CAM plants fix carbon dioxide before it enters the leaf during the day Because the stomata of CAM plants are only open at night Because CAM plants contain only mesophyll cells Because CAM plants photosynthesize at nightBecause the stomata of CAM plants are only open at nightCompared to the C3 pathway, the C4 pathway has an additional cost to a plant, because ATP is required to transport acids to and from the mesophyll cells ATP is required to decarboxylate malate ATP is required by PEP carboxylase ATP is required to convert pyruvate to PEPATP is required to convert pyruvate to PEPHow are the C3 and the C4 pathways separated in CAM plants? ‣The C4 pathway occurs at night, while the C3 pathway occurs during the day. ‣The C3 pathway occurs at night, while the C4 pathway occurs during the day. ‣The C3 pathway occurs in the bundle-sheath cells, while the C4 pathway occurs in the mesophyll cells. ‣The C4 pathway occurs in the bundle-sheath cells, while the C3 pathway occurs in the mesophyll cells.The C4 pathway occurs at night, while the C3 pathway occurs during the day.__ plants only uptake CO2 at night because they close their __ during the day. C4; stomata CAM ; stroma C4 ; stroma CAM; stomata C3 ; stomataCAM; stomata