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Microbiology Chapter 9 (Exam 2)
Terms in this set (43)
How do restriction enzymes cut DNA sequences?
They cut DNA at sites, called recognition sites, that have specific nucleotide sequences
In general, how might recombinant DNA technology be used to prevent a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in a single gene?
To insert a desirable gene, remove an undesirable gene, or replace a defective gene with a functioning gene
Which of the following attaches the target gene to a desired location?
Why would a recombinant DNA molecule be inserted into a host cell?
It can be copied, transcribed, and translated into a desired protein
Which of the following best describes the purpose of primers in PCR?
To provide a structure from which DNA can be synthesized
What does a thermocycler do?
Subjects samples to temperature changes
In PCR, it is important to use Taq DNA polymerase, as opposed to other DNA polymerases. This is because Taq is capable of synthesizing DNA _________.
after exposure to 94 C
(Most enzymes are damaged at 94∘∘C, whereas the Taq polymerase is heat-tolerant and stable)
After the 94 C step, why must the thermocycler reduce the temperature to 55C?
To allow primers to bind to the DNA template strands
Which of the following best describes why PCR protocols contain numerous cycles of the denaturation/annealing/extension steps?
Each cycle of PCR doubles the amount of DNA synthesized, but the number of copies starts out small. Numerous cycles are required to produce a sufficient number of copies
Suppose the thermocycler is INCORRECTLY programmed to omit the 72 C step in each cycle of an otherwise normal PCR run. Which of the following would most likely occur?
DNA polymerase would synthesize DNA more slowly
Which of the following best describes a clone in the context of genetic modification procedures?
a culture of genetically identical cells
Which of the following best describes why a vector is used in genetic modification procedures?
Cells usually won't copy an isolated gene sequence
Recombinant DNA techniques typically involve generating a clone. Why?
Producing a clone generates many copies of the gene of interest
What is the purpose of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?
To amplify small quantities of DNA present in a sample
Recombinant DNA technology is commonly used
to move DNA from one type of cell to another
Which statement best describes restriction enzymes?
They are important for cloning applications because they can be used to cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences
Which method involves the formation of microscopic pores in the cell's membrane?
A population of genetically identical cells carrying a desired vector is called a
Recombinant DNA technology is also known as
In nature, organisms with characteristics that enhance survival are more likely to survive and reproduce than variants that lack desirable traits is known as
A DNA molecule that transports foreign DNA into a cell is called a
The procedure during which cells can take up DNA from the surrounding environment is called
Which technique amplifies small samples of DNA to qualities that are large enough for analysis?
The technique that separates DNA fragments of different lengths by applying a charge is known as
If a restriction enzyme makes a staggered cut in DNA, then ___ ends are created
Restriction enzymes are naturally produced and isolated from
Which one of the following would NOT be used in a PCR
(uses: primers, target DNA, DNA polymerase)
Which of the following is NOT a method for inserting foreign DNA into cells?
restriction digestion (includes: transformation, microinjection, electroporation)
Which of the following is a microbial eukaryote used in rDNA techniques?
An artificial gene made of complementary DNA
contains only exons
In the blue-white screening procedure, a library of bacteria is cultured in a medium containing
X-gal and ampicillin
Which enzyme is used to synthesize complementary DNA from an mRNA template?
In plants, the Ti plasmid can cause
crown gall disease
Using molecule-sized robots to detect good contamination, plant disease, or biological weapons is known as
Discovering the function of a gene from a genetic sequence is known as
In gene silencing, which type of RNA bind to mRNA, which is then destroyed by RISC proteins?
Which bacterium, using rDNA technology, is used to make human insulin?
The Ti plasmid naturally occurs in
The method of using RFLPs to identify bacterial or viral pathogens is called
Bacillus. thuringiensis produces a toxin that can be used
as an insecticide
Treatment for hemophilia involves. the use of
The development of which process greatly speeded the process of the Human Genome Project?
One surprising finding in the Human Genome Project was that what percentage of the genome encodes a functional product?
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Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
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