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AP Psychology Unit 8 Flashcards
By Jacqueline Chau
Terms in this set (78)
MOTIVATIONAL CONCEPTS (heading)
How do psychologists define motivation? From what perspectives do their view motivated behavior?
-four perspectives; instinct theory (focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors, drive-reduction theory (how our inner pushes and external pulls interact), arousal theory (finding the right level of stimulation), and hierarchy of needs (how some of our needs take priority over others)
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior; arise from interplay between nature and nurture; four perspectives for viewing motivated behaviors include instinct theory, drive-reduction theory, arousal theory, and hierarchy of needs
INSTINCTS AND EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY (sub-heading)
-Early in 20th century, as the influence of Darwin's evolutionary theory grew, it became fashionable to classify all sorts of behaviors as instincts. The instinct theorists were simply naming human behaviors, not explaining it.
-Although instinct theory failed to explain most human motives, evolutionary psychology's assumption that genes predispose species-typical behavior remains strong
a complex, unlearned behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species; such as infants' innate reflex for rooting and sucking.
DRIVES AND INCENTIVES (sub-heading)
-when the original instinct theory collapsed, it was replaced by drive-reduction theory.
-we are pushed by need to reduce drives, but are also pulled by incentives
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. ; the physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis. ; Thus, if we are water deprived, our thirst drives us to drink and to restore the body's normal state.
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.; when there is both a need and an incentive, we feel strongly drive. The food-deprived person who smells baking bread feels a strong hunger drive.
OPTIMUM AROUSAL (sub-heading)
-Optimal arousal theory holds that some motivated behaviors actually increase arousal. Well-fed animals will leave their shelter to explore and gain information, seemingly in the absence of any need-based drive.; those who enjoy high arousal are likely to seek out risky behaviors and such. They are sensation seekers.
-Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of arousal.
the principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases ; Suggests that moderate arousal would lead to optimal performance.
A HIERARCHY OF MOTIVES (sub-heading)
-at the self-transcendence level, people strive for meaning and purpose
-his hierarchy is somewhat arbitrary; the order of such needs is not universally fixed
-some motives are more compelling than others
-some evolutionary psychologists note that the hierarchy of needs should have the motives to find a mate.
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active; proposed that some people also reach a level of self-transcendence or when people realize their own potential.
HUNGER MOTIVATION (heading)
-when we are hunger, it is hard to think about anything else
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF HUNGER (sub-heading)
What physiological factors produce hunger?
-there are stomach contractions whenever you feel hungry
-hunger can exist without stomach pangs, so the pangs of an empty stomach are not the only source of hunger.
-another way of triggering hunger is when your blood glucose levels drops, which will cause your stomach to signal to your brain to motivate eating. Your brain, then triggers hunger.
-in the hypothalamus is a neural arc that has a center that secretes appetite-stimulating hormones and another center that secretes appetite-suppressing hormones.
-blood vessels supply the hypothalamus , enabling it to respond to our blood chemistry. One of its tasks is monitoring levels of appetite hormones, like ghrelin, a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by the stomach.
- other appetite hormones are insulin, orexin, leptin, and PYY
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure; a measure of how much energy we use to maintain basic body functions when our body is at rest
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF HUNGER (sub-heading)
What cultural and situational factors influence hunger?
- part of our decision to eat is our memory of the time of our last meal
-both chemistry and environmental factors influence our taste preferences as well as when we eat. Our preference for sweet and salty tastes are genetic and universal
-we tend to avoid unfamiliar foods
- situations also control our eating-a phenomenon called the ecology of eating.
-we tend to eat more around others (social facilitation)
-portion sizes matter (unit bias)
-offered more variety, we eat more (food variety)
OBESITY AND WEIGHT CONTROL (sub-heading)
What factors predispose some people to become and remain obese?
-Our bodies store fat, which is an ideal form of stored energy.
-Significant obesity increases the risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, etc.
-once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our weight than we did to attain it. Fat takes less food energy to maintain than muscle. When an overweight person's body drops below its previous set, the person's hunger increases and metabolism decreases.
-People's weights closely resemble those of their biological parents.
- environmental factors play a big role in weight as well.
- those who suffered from sleep loss are more vulnerable to obesity
-there is a likely chance of becoming obese when our friend became obese.
-Genes mostly determine why one person is heavier than another. Environment mostly determines why people today are heavier than their counterparts 50 years ago.
SEXUAL MOTIVATION (Module heading)
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SEX (heading)
THE SEXUAL RESPONSE CYCLE (sub-heading)
What is the human sexual response cycle, and what dysfunctions disrupt it?
-during sex, the same subcortical brain regions glow under PET scans.
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution; during excitement, genital areas become engorged with blood; in the plateau phase, breathing, pulse, and blood pressure increase; during orgasm phase, the breathing, pulse, and bp further increases; during resolution, the male enters a refractory period, and females have much shorter refractory periods
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
SEXUAL DYSFUNCTIONS AND PARAPHILIAS (sub-heading)
-examples involve lack of sexual motivation
- for males, erectile disorder (inability to get an erection) and premature ejaculation
- for females, pain or female orgasmic disorder (distress over never experiencing orgasm)
-Men and women with sexual dysfunctions can often be helped through therapy.
- some people may have paraphilias such as exhibitionism, fetishism, and pedophilia. It is only a disorder according to American Psychiatric Association (APA) if a person experiences distress from their unusual sexual interest, or the sexual desire or behavior entails harm or risk of harm to others.
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning;
HORMONES AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (sub-heading)
How do hormones, and external and internal stimuli, influence human sexual motivation?
-sex hormones have 2 effects: They direct the physical development of male and female sex characteristics, and they activate sexual behavior
-male hormones are more constant, meaning that injecting male hormones does not easily manipulate sexual behavior of male animals. But, injecting estrogen in females actually stimulates receptivity.
-for females and males with abnormally low testosterone levels, there is a diminished sexual appetite
- in men, normal fluctuations in testosterone have little effect on sexual drive. But fluctuations in male hormones are partly a response to sexual stimulation.
-Although normal short-term hormonal changes have little effect on men's and women's desire, large hormonal shifts over the life span have a greater effect.
sex hormones, such as estradoil, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SEX (heading)
EXTERNAL STIMULI (sub-heading)
- Women as much as men exhibit as much as of the same arousal to erotic stimuli, but women have activity in the amygdala, while men have activity in the genitals.
-People may find sexual arousal either pleasing or disturbing. With repeated exposure, the emotional response to any erotic stimulus often lessens, or habituates.
-Perhaps reading or watching erotica creates higher expectations in partners
IMAGINED STIMULI (sub-heading)
-The stimuli inside out heads-our imagination-can influence sexual arousal and desire.
-About 95% of people experience sexual fantasies
SOCIAL MOTIVATION: AFFILIATION NEEDS (Module Heading)
What evidence points to our human affiliation need-our need to belong?
- we are a social animal, seeking affiliation with others.
THE BENEFITS OF BELONGING (heading)
-social bonds boosted our ancestor's chances of survival. Those who formed attachments were more likely to reproduce, and the group were more likely to be protected by sticking together
-when our need for relatedness is satisfied in balance with autonomy and competence, our self-esteem rises
-pictures of loved ones also activate a brain region associated with safety that dampens feelings of physical pain.
-some children exhibit insecure anxious attachment (or constantly craving acceptance but remain vigilant to signs of possible rejection) or insecure avoidant attachment (feeling discomfort over getting close to others that they employ avoidant strategies to maintain their distance)
-social isolation can put us at risk for mental decline and ill health
THE PAIN OF BEING SHUT OUT (heading)
-to experience ostracism is to experience real pain. It increases activity in brain areas, such as the anterior cingulate cortex, that also activate in response to physical pain
CONNECTING AND SOCIAL NETWORKING (sub-heading)
How does social networking influence us?
-those that spent more time online, spent less time with friends, and their offline relationships suffered
-social networking has also strengthened our connections with people we already know and others online
-Generally, however, social networks reveal people's real personalities
-those who score high on narcissism are especially active on social networking sites.
THEORIES AND PHYSIOLOGY OF EMOTION (module heading)
COGNITION AND EMOTION (heading)
How do arousal and expressive behaviors interact in emotion?
-the three components of emotion fit together, but how? A chicken-and-egg debate in which comes first: bodily arousal or emotional feelings?
-How do thinking and feeling interact? Does cognition come before emotion?
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. So we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, and afraid because we tremble.
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) the physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion; so our hearts pound as we experience fear. My pounding heart did not cause my feeling of fear, nor did my feeling of fear cause my pounding heart. ; but this theory has been challenged with people with severed spinal cords. Those who had lost sensation in their legs reported little change in their emotions' intensity. Those who could not feel anything below the neck did report changes, as their emotions were felt more intensely; Our bodily responses seemingly feed our experienced emotions.
COGNITION CAN DEFINE EMOTION: SCHACHTER AND SINGER (sub-heading)
To experience emotions, must we consciously interpret and label them?
-Schachter and Singer believed that an emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of arousal: Our physical reactions and our thoughts together create emotion
-Arousal fuels emotion; cognition channels it.
the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal ; the spillover effect is one in which emotions tend to spill over from one event to the next.
COGNITION MAY NOT PRECEDE EMOTION: ZAJONC, LEDOUX, AND LAZARUS (sub-heading)
-Zajonc contended that we have many emotional reactions apart from, or even before, our interpretation of a situation.
-We have a sensitive automatic radar for emotionally significant information, such that even a subliminally flashed stimulus can prime us to feel better or worse about a follow-up stimulus
-Our emotions either take the high road or the low road. (LaDoux)
-Complex feelings like love and hatred travel the high road; would travel to the brain's cortex, where it would be labeled before the command is sent out, via the amygdala, to response. (LaDoux)
-Emotions like simple likes/dislikes or fear, take the low road; it bypasses the cortex, and goes directly to the amygdala. This shortcut, enables our really quick emotional response before our intellect intervenes. (LaDoux)
-Lazarus conceded that our brain processes vast amounts of information without our conscious awareness, and that some emotional responses do not require conscious thinking. Emotions arise when we appraise an event as harmless or dangerous, whether we truly know it or not.
-Can affect voting as we may vote for the candidate that we like rather than for their platform.
-Highly emotional people are intense partly because of their interpretations. They may personalize events at being somehow directed at them, and may generalize by blowing incidents out of proportion.
EMBODIED EMOTION (heading)
EMOTIONS AND THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (sub-heading)
What is the link between emotional arousal and the autonomic nervous system? How does arousal affect performance?
-The sympathetic division of your autonomic nervous system mobilizes you body for action, directing your adrenal glands to release stress hormones. Heart rate and blood pressure increase. When the crisis passes, the parasympathetic division gradually calms your body, as stress hormones leave your bloodstream.
-Without any conscious effort, your body's response to danger is coordinated-preparing your for flight or fight.
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF EMOTIONS (sub-heading)
Do different emotions activate different physiological and brain-pattern responses?
-Different emotions do not have sharply distinct biological signatures. Nor do they engage sharply distinct brain regions.
-In the brain is the insula, which is activated when we experience various emotions.
-Researchers have pinpointed some subtle physiological differences among emotions. Different facial muscles are acted on, and different hormones are secreted sometimes.
-More negative emotions tend to trigger right prefrontal cortex, while more positive moods tend to trigger left frontal lobe.
-It's still hard to see differences in emotions from tracking heart beat, breathing, and perspiration.
EXPRESSED EMOTION (module heading)
DETECTING EMOTION IN OTHERS (heading)
How do we communicate nonverbally? How do the genders differ in this capacity?
-Most of us read nonverbal cues well. Hard-to-control facial muscles reveal signs of emotions you may be trying to conceal. Our brains are rather amazing detectors of subtle expressions.
-Introverts tend to excel at reading others' emotions, while extroverts are generally easier to read
GENDER, EMOTION, AND NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR (heading)
-women generally do surpass men at reading people's emotional cues when given "thin slices" of behavior. Women can also generally tell if a male-female couple is genuine or not
-Women's skill at decoding others' emotions may also contribute to their greater emotional responsiveness
-There is one exception: Anger strikes most people as a more masculine emotion. (experiment with gender-neutral face, people though angry one was male and happy one was female)
-Women are far more likely to describe themselves as empathetic.
-Women are more likely to express sympathy especially when observing someone in distress, and are better at remembering the scene/simulation three weeks later
CULTURAL AND EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION (heading)
How are nonverbal expressions of emotions understood within and across cultures?
-The meaning of gestures varies with culture. Facial expressions do not generally have different meanings in different cultures. Children generally cry when distressed and smile when they are happy.
-We share a universal facial language, but it has been adaptive for us to interpret faces in particular contexts. Those countries that encourage individuality display mostly visible emotions, and those that encourage people to adjust to others like in China, tend to have less visible displays of personal emotions. People judge an angry face set in a frightening situation as afraid.
-Emotion is best understood not only as a biological and cognitive phenomenon, but also as a social-cultural phenomenon.
THE EFFECT OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS (heading)
How do our facial expressions influence our feelings?
-William James believed that we control emotions by going through the outward movements of any emotion we want to experience. To feel cheerful, sit up cheerfully and act cheerfully. (studies have proven it to be quite right)
-Expressions not only communicate emotion, they also amplify and regulate it.
-emotions can surely be contagious as explained by natural mimicry of other's emotions
facial feedback effect
the tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or happiness; just activating one of the smiling muscles make cartoons seem more amusing.Smile warmly on the outside and you feel better on the inside.; a study in which Botox was given to patients so that their frowning muscles were paralyzed, and they felt less depressed; works with behavior feedback as well. Walk with your head down with short steps , then with your head up with long strides. You'll feel better after doing the second scenario.; another study in which if you read with your middle finger, the story if hostile, while if you read with your thumb, it is more positive.
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
STRESS AND HEALTH (module heading)
-Stress often strikes without warning. (Ben Carpenter and that wheelchair stuck to a truck's grill!!!)
STRESS: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS (heading)
What events provoke stress responses, and how do we respond and adapt to stress?
-When short-lived and perceived as challenges, stressors can have positive effects in that it can mobilize the immune system to fend off infection and arouses us to conquer problems.
-Those who had were stressed but not depressed were satisfied with their lives.
-Extreme or prolonged stress can harm us, putting us as risk of chronic disease. Troops with PTSD can later suffer with many diseases
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging. ; stress arises less from events themselves than from how we appraise them.
STRESSORS-THINGS THAT PUSH OUR BUTTONS (sub-heading)
-Stressors fall into three categories: catastrophes, significant life changes, and daily hassles. All can be toxic.
-Catastrophes are unpredictable large-scale events such as wars, earthquakes, and floods. In the first 4 months after Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans' suicide rate reportedly tripled.
-Significant life changes are often keenly felt. Leaving home for college, losing a job, or having a loved one die are all examples. Studies have shown that people recently widowed, fired, or divorced are more vulnerable to disease.
-Reports indicate highest stress levels among young adults
-Daily hassles can also cause stress. Examples include rush-hour traffic, long lunch lines, and too many things to do. Many people face more significant daily hassles, especially among impoverished people due to unemployment and solo parenting.
-Prolonged stress takes a toll on our cardiovascular system.
THE STRESS RESPONSE SYSTEM (sub-heading)
-Cannon proposed the flight or fight response as an adaptive response to stress
-Stress hormones released are epinephrine and norepinephrine. Another stress hormone is released, which are glucocorticoid hormones, like cortisol.
-Fortunately, there are other options to deal with stress. One is a common response to a loved one's death: Withdraw. Pull back. Another stress response is to seek and give support
-Facing stress, men tend to socially withdraw, turn to alcohol, or become aggressive. Women usually deal with stress by nurturing and banding together. This is in part due to oxytocin, a stress-moderating hormone associated with pair bonding in animals and released by cuddling, and the like. It is reflected in brain scans, in which under stress, women's brains become more active in areas important for face processing and empathy; men's become less active.
general adaption syndrome (GAS)
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases- alarm, resistance, exhaustion; He proposed that the body's adaptive response to stress is so general that, like a single burglar alarm, it sounds, no matter what intrudes. ; let's say for example you suffer an emotional trauma. In Phase 1, you have an alarm reaction, as your sympathetic nervous system is suddenly activated. Your heart rate zooms and the like. You are now ready to fight back. In Phase 2, resistance, your temperature, BP remain high. Your adrenal glands pump hormones into the blood, and you are fully engaged. As time passes, your body's reserves being to run out. You have reached Phase 3, exhaustion. With exhaustion, you become more vulnerable to illness or even death!
-His point was that prolonged stress can damage it.
under stress, people (especially women) often provide support to others (tend) and bond with and seek support from others (befriend).
STRESS AND ILLNESS
How does stress make us more vulnerable to disease?
-Experiments reveal the nervous and endocrine systems' influence on the immune system. Four types of cells are active in the search and destroy missions of the immune system. Two are types of white blood cells: B and T lymphocytes. The third is the macrophage, which identifies, pursues, and ingests harmful invaders and worn-out cells. The last one are the natural killer cells (NK cells) which pursue diseased cells (such as those infected by a virus or cancer).
-When you immune system doesn't function properly, if responding too strongly, it may attack the body's own tissues, causing an allergic reaction or arthritis. Underreacting may allow a dormant virus to erupt or cancer cells to multiply.
-Women are immunologically stronger than men, making them less susceptible to infections, but this also makes them more susceptible to self-attacking diseases
-The brain regulates the secretion of stress hormones, which suppress the disease-fighting lymphocytes.
-Surgical wounds heal more slowly in stressed people
-Stressed people are more vulnerable to colds
-It takes energy to keep the immune system up. During aroused fight-or-flight reaction, your stress responses divert energy from your disease-fighting immune system and send it to your muscles and brain. This renders you more vulnerable to illness.
-The bottom line: Stress does not make us sick, but it does alter our immune functioning, which leaves us less able to resist infection
literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches
the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
STRESS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY (heading)
STRESS AND AIDS (sub-heading)
-Stress cannot give people AIDS, but it could speed the transition from HIV infection to AIDS in someone infected. HIV-infected men who experience stressful events, exhibit somewhat greater immune suppression and travel a faster course in this disease.
-Efforts to reduce stress could help control the disease. But the benefits are small, compared with available drug treatments.
-Although AIDS is now more treatable, preventing HIV infection is a far better option.
STRESS AND CANCER (sub-heading)
-Stress does not create cancer cells.
-When stressed, it can weaken a person's ability to fight off cancer. Some studies find that people are at increased risk for cancer within a year after experiencing depression. Other studies, however, have found no link between stress and human cancer. Concentration camp survivors for example do not have elevated cancer rates.
-Research constantly indicates that psychotherapy does not extend cancer patient's survival
STRESS AND HEART DISEASE (sub-heading)
Why are some of us more prone than others to coronary heart disease?
-Stress is more closely linked to coronary heart disease, North America's leading cause of death.
-Friedman and Rosenman tested the idea that stress increases vulnerability to heart disease by measuring the blood cholesterol level and clotting speed of accountants. During tax-season, when they were scrambling to meet deadlines these levels rose to dangerous heights, then when business was slow, the levels returned to normal.
-Friedman and Rosenman also classified two type of people: Type A or Type B
-When people like Type A people get mad, the sympathetic nervous system redistributes blood flow to our muscles, pulling it away from our internal organs. One of the organs, the liver, which normally removes cholesterol and fat from the blood, can't do its job.
-They found that most of the men that had suffered heart attacks were Type A people. Similar studies on pessimists showed that they were twice as likely to develop heart disease. Depression, too, can be lethal.
-After a heart attack, stress and anxiety increase the risk of death or of another attack
coronary heart disease
the clogging of vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries ; hypertension and a family history of the disease increase the risk of coronary heart disease. So do many behavioral, physiological, and psychological factors.
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people
constructed the hierarchy of needs. At the base were physiological needs, then safety needs, then belongingness and love needs, then esteem needs, then self-actualization needs, then self-transcendence needs.
came up with the sexual response cycle in collaboration with Johnson; in the 1960s, he and Johnson made headlines by recording the physiological responses of volunteers who masturbated or had intercourse. They monitored or filmed more than 10,000 sexual "cycles"
was a collaborator on the sexual response cycle; in the 1960s, she and Masters made headlines by recording the physiological responses of volunteers who masturbated or had intercourse. They monitored or filmed more than 10,000 sexual "cycles"
He believed that feeling came before conscious awareness. He said that "We feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble."
With Singer, came up with the two-factor theory. He believed that an emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of arousal: Our physical reactions and our thoughts together create emotion.
studied animals' reactions to various stressors, such as electric shock, to help make stress a major concept in psychology and medicine. He proposed that the body's adaptive response to stress is so general no matter what intrudes. He named this response the general adaption response.
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