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A&P 2 lab Lesson 10 A
Terms in this set (82)
what is the women's number one function in the reproductive system?
to produce eggs
what added function does the male reproductive system have on top of producing sperm?
delivery of the sperm to the female reproductive tract
what must the female reproductive tract have if fertilization occurs?
must provide a suitable environment for the development of the embryo/fetus
what are the internal features of the female reproductive system?
ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina & fornix
what are the ovaries?
paired structures that produce eggs
- release the eggs
what are the fallopian tubes?
located on the lateral wall of the pelvis between the internal & external iliac arteries
conduct mature eggs from the ovary to the uterus
- connect the ovaries to the uterus
what are the 2 subparts of the uterine tubes?
infundibulum & fimbriae
what are the 3 names for the tubes that connect to the ovaries?
uterine tubes, fallopian tubes & oviducts
what does the infundibulum of the oviducts do?
it is a funnel shaped lateral portion of the uterine tube
open up over the ovaries & connect to the ovaries
what do the fimbriae of the fallopian tubes do?
finger like projections at the edge of the infundibulum
going to wave around & set up a current to make sure that the eggs released from the ovary goes into the fallopian tubes to make it to the uterus
what are the 3 parts of the uterus?
fundus, body & cervix
what is the fundus of the uterus?
superior domed shape portion
what is the body of the uterus?
main portion, implantation of the embryo occurs here
(where the baby is developing)
what part of the uterus does the baby develop in?
what is the cervix of the uterus?
inferior, tapered end
projects into the vagina
lower 1/3rd of the uterus
what is the vagina?
muscular tube connecting the cervix to the vaginal opening
2nd opening after the urethra
what is the fornix?
the recess that forms between the cervical & vaginal walls
connects the cervix of the uterus to the vagina
(think of these blind pouches as the corner of a smile)
what are the associated ligaments inside the female reproductive tract?
suspensory ligament of the ovary
what does the suspensory ligament of the ovary do?
attaches the superior aspect of the ovary to the pelvic wall
(attaches ovary to the wall of the pelvis)
what does the broad ligament do?
a fold of peritoneum that supports the ovaries uterine tubes and uterus
what are the three components of the broad ligament?
mesosalpinx, mesovarian, & mesometrium
what does the mesosalpinx of the broad ligament do?
hold the uterine tubes in place (fallopian tubes or oviducts)
what does the mesovarian of the broad ligament do?
holds the ovaries in place
what does the mesometrium of the broad ligament do?
hold in the uterus in place against the body wall
what ligament is the main support for the female reproductive system?
the broad ligament
what is the uterosacral ligament?
a band of tissues within the broad ligament that attaches the cervix to the sacrum
- directly posterior - hides in the broad ligament
what does salpinx mean?
what does ova refer to?
female reproductive system (the ovaries)
what are the female organs of the cat?
uterus , cervix, oviducts, ovaries, infundibulum, the vagina, urogenital sinus & vulva
what is the vulva in a female cat?
the chamber formed around the urogenital sinus
what does the vagina and urethra of a cat fuse together to form?
the urogenital sinus
how does the uterus of a female cat look like?
Y-shaped and is divided into two uterine horns joined together by a short uterine body
what is the cervix in a female cat?
caudal end of the uterus
what is the vagina like in a female cat?
is straight muscular tube that passes caudally from the cervix
what are the oviducts (fallopian tubes and uterine tubes) like in a female cat?
narrow distal ends of the uterine horns that connect the uterus to the ovaries
what are the parts of a male urethra?
prostatic, membrane & penile urethra
what is the prostatic urethra in a male?
portion inside the prostate gland
passes through or by the bladder
what is the membrane urethra in a male?
portion between the prostate gland and the penis
- doesn't pass through anything
what is the penile urethra?
portion inside the penis
passes through the penis
where does pluming through the penis occur?
in the urethra
what are testes?
paired oval structures that reside in a skin covered sac
where are testes located?
outside the body
why are testes located outside the body?
because temperature outside are slightly lower than the body's temperature
what does production of viable sperm require?
what is the skin covered sac called that the testes reside in?
how does sperm get back into the body to reach the ejaculatory duct?
each spermatic cord passed through an opening in the floor of the pelvis known as the inguinal canal/ring
what is in charge of producing sperm?
where is sperm stored until it is needed?
when sperm is needed where does it go to?
enters a duct called the vas (ductus) deferens
what forms the spermatic cord?
the vas deferens, nerve & blood vessels that are wrapped in connective tissue
when in the pelvis canal, what does the vas deferens separate from?
the spermatic cord & empties into the ejaculatory duct
once sperm is needed, how does it get back inside the body to be ejaculated?
once needed, it will transport back inside the body by up the vas (ductus) deferens inside the inguinal canal. All the veins/arteries, muscles, lymphatics, etc. travel through the inguinal canal that is wrapped in the spermatic cord, and then everything side goes to its specific area. The ductus deferens empties into the ejaculatory duct where it will then come out of the penis
what are the sex accessory glands in males?
seminal vesicles, prostate gland & bulbourethral glands
what are the seminal vesicle glands?
paired glands that empty along the vas deferens into the urethra
what is the prostate gland?
encircles the prostatic urethra just inferior to the urinary bladder
secretions enter the prostatic urethra
what are the bulbourethral glands?
located at the base of the penis
secretion enter the membranous urethra
what does the seminal vesicles secrete?
produces secretions that have 3 functions: fructose, prostaglandins & proteins
what does fructose in the seminal vesicles provide?
it is the energy source for the sperm
simple sugar (monosaccharide)
what does prostaglandins in the seminal vesicles do?
increase mobility/viability of the sperm
what do proteins in the seminal vesicle do?
cause slight coagulation (clotting) in the semen after ejaculation
- help the sperm from falling out of the vagina
what does the prostate gland secrete?
fluids to enhance motility (ability of the sperm to move independently, using metabolic energy) of the sperm
what does the bulbourethral glands secrete?
fluids that serve 2 functions: neutralize acid in the male urethra and female vagina & lubrication for the tip of the penis
what does sperm run?
what percentage of sperm come from the seminal vesicles?
what percentage of sperm comes from the prostate gland?
what percentage of sperm comes from semen?
remaining 10% that is not from the accessory sex glands
what percentage of sperm comes from the bulbourethral glands?
what do the accessory sex organs do?
produce secretions to help sperm move
what are the 3 parts that make up the penis?
root, body (shaft) & glans
what is the root of the penis attached to?
the pelvic bone - can't see without a dissection
what is the body (shaft) of the penis?
the elongated cylindrical portion
what is the glans of the penis?
the extended tip (also referred to as the head)
what is the prepuce of the penis?
the foreskin - fold of skin that covers the glans
removed during circumcision
what is the internal anatomy of the penis?
corpus spongiosum & corpus cavernosa
what is the corpus spongiosum of the penis?
surrounds the penile urethra
spongy body - cushions urethra
makes sure the urethra stays open
what is the corpus cavernosa of the penis?
2 areas of tissue located dorsally to the corpus spongiosum
filled with sinuses that fill with blood to stand erect
- blood will pool in this area to allow the penis to stand erect
what do male cats not have that human males have?
where will sperm go if male cats do not have seminal vesicles?
go directly to the prostate gland - the ejaculatory duct will be there
what is the epididymis?
is the highly coiled tube that arises from the testis and is found on its dorsal surface
- stores the sperm until needed
what does the ductus deferens do?
carries sperm from epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
what is the scrotum?
is divided into 2 compartments, each containing a testicle
what does the prostate gland and bulbourethral glands in male cats do?
produce fluids that mix with sperm to make semen
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