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Physical Science Final

STUDY
PLAY
One product of photosynthesis is
Oxygen
Which one of the following is not a physical property of matter?
Flammability
A chemical reaction is at equilibrium when
The forward and reverse reactions proceed at the same rate
A balance chemical equation will have the same ______ on each side
Number of atoms of each element
What basic type of reaction is illustrated by the general equation AB --> A + B?
Decomposition
In general, fast reactions
Have low activation energies
The energy to start a chemical reaction is called the ______ energy
activation
When there is a net release of energy in a chemical reaction, it is called a(n) _________ reaction
exothermic
The rate of a chemical reaction would be decreased by
cooling the reactants
A solution with a pH of 8 is
weakly basic
Which of the following is a weak acid?
Acetic acid
Hydrogen gas would be a product of the reaction of
iron and hydrochloric acid
In order, from top to bottom, in the activity series come Li, K, Ba, Na, Al, Zn, Sn, and Pb. Therefore,
Tin is more active than lead
Reacting an acid with a base gives water and
a salt
By definition, the removal of oxygen from a compound is called
reduction
Organic chemistry studies chemical compounds that contain at least one atom of
carbon
In organic molecules, a carbon atom will normally form how many bonds?
4
In organic molecules, a bromine atom will normally form how many bonds?
1
Hydrocarbons containing all single bonds and a ring in their structural formulas are
cycloalkanes
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas are called structural, or constituitional,
isomers
Which organic compound is represented by a pentagon?
Cyclopentane
A hydrocarbon that contains one or more benzene rings must be classified as
aromatic
CFCs are
alkyl halides
Methyl salicylate is an ester commonly called
oil of wintergreen
Which alcohol is used in bereages?
Ethanol
starch is a polymer that consists a long chain of _________ units
Glucose
The general formula R-X is that of
an alkyl halide
Which of the following was the first synthetic compound to be made?
Bakelite
To which group of polymers does nylon belong?
Condensation
Socrates dies from ingesting the alkaloid named
coniine
The studey of astronomy involves
all of these
The geocentric model of the solar system is attriduted to
Aristotle
Kepler's second law of planetary motion is known as the law of
equal areas
The name given to the point of a planet's orbit that is closest to the Sun is
perihelion
Earth's axis is tilted ______ degrees from the normal to the ecliptic plane.
23.5
The planet Mercury
is the mallest of the terrestrial planets
The terrestrial planets have
all of these
According to today's classification system, how many major planets are there in the solar system?
8
Which of the terrestrial planets has rings?
None
The Jovian planets
all of these
The largest planet in the solar system is
Jupiter
The planet with the largest number of moons is
Jupiter
Other planetary systems are best detected by the Doppler shifts that change the pattern of the star's
spectrum
Which of the following is a technique used by astronomers in their search for other planetary systems?
Both (A) and (B)
Saturn's moon named ____ is the second largest moon in the solar system
Titan
_______ is the major moon of Neptune
Triton
Charon is a moon of ______
Pluto
The ______ surrounds the nucleus of a comet.
Head or coma
Halley's Comet returns about every _______ years
76
The particles of inter planetary are called _____.
micrometeoroids
If a person weighs 150 lb on Earth, what will the person weigh on the Moon?
25 lb.
The impact of meterites on the Moon has caused
both rays and craters
The oldest rocks on the Moon were formed about how many years ago?
4.4 billion
The Moon always presents the same face to Earth because
The Moon rotates on its axis at same rate at which it revolves around Earth
During a solar eclipse, the umbra moves accross Earth's surface generally from
West to East
Which of the following is Jupiter's largest moon?
Ganymede
What is the visible surface of the SUn called?
Photosphere
The number of _____ on the Sun varies over an 11-year cycle.
sunspots
The apparent path that the Sun traces annually along the celestial sphere is known as the ____.
ecliptic
The closest star to the Sun is named ________.
Proxima Centauri
Gas and dust distributed among the stars is known as the ____.
Interstellar medium
An incredible dense star so massive that light cannot ascape from it surface is called a ____.
Local Group
Patches of cooler material on the Sun's surface are called
sunspots
The Sun's high-speed charged nuclei and electrons form a fourth phase of matter known as a
plasma
Enormous filaments of excited gas arching over the Sun's surface and extending hundreds of thousand of kilometers outward are called
prominences
The closest star to the Sun is about how far away?
4.3 light-years
Stars of what magnitude are just barely visible to the unaided eye?
6
The ozone layer lies in the
stratosphere
About 80% of the mass of the atmosphere and most of the clouds and water vapor are located in the
troposphere
Weather occurs in the
troposphere
At 1800 degrees Fahrenheit, this part of atmosphere is heated almost directly by the Sun's rays
Thermosphere
The principal gases responsible for the greenhouse effect are
carbon dioxide and water vapor
Ions trapped in Earth's magnetic field fgive rise to
auroras
The fraction of incident light that a body reflects us known as its
albedo
Every square inch of our body, at sea level, sustains ____ of atmospheric pressure
14.7 lb
Which of the following units is used to express atmospheric pressure?
All of these
Doppler radar is replacing conventional radar in weather forecasting because
it can measure wind speeds
Air circulation around a cyclone in the Nothern Hemisphere as viewed from above is
counterclockwise
Clouds described as "artist's brushes" or "mare's tails" belong to what cloud family?
High
A type of cloud composed of ice crustals is the
Cirrostratus
Nimbus means
none of these
When air is cooled below its dew point without condensation, it is said to be
supersaturated
The process by which raindrops are formed by the collision of droplets is called
coalescence
Hurricanes derive their energy from
latent heat
Lightning that illuminates clounds with flickering flashes is called
heat lightning
A class of pollutants formed at high temperatures (nearly complete combustion) in the presence of air is
nitrogen oxides
In the amended Montreal Protacol, many nations agreed to phase out, the the year of 2000
CFCs
A form of precipitation that results from convection cycles in clouds is
hail
Hawaii's weather is chiefly affected by what type of air mass?
mT
The northern Atlantic Ocean is the source region for the ____ type of air mass
mP
A hurricane watchi is issued when
there is a threat of hurricane conditions within 24 to 36 h
The pollutant that affects the oxygen-carrying capability of the blood is
CO
Geologic evidence supports the theory of continental drift does not include
drag marks on the ocean floor
Alfred Wegener spectaculated that the present continents were once part of a single supercontinent that he named
Pangaea
Remanent magnetism is present in rocks that contain the mineral named
magetite
Earth's core is believed to be composed of
iron and nickel
The lithosphere "floats" on the asthenosphere, and the parts of lower density float higher. This state of buoyancy is called
isostasy
The San Andreas fault in California is thought to be a boundary of two plates
that are sliding horizontally past one another
The difference in time between the arrival of S waves and the arrival of P waves can be used to determine
the epicenter of an earthquake
An earthquake wave travels through
the mantle only
Earth's radius is about
6400 km
The structural region of Earth that has the greatest volume is the
mantle
The layer of rock immediately below the lithosphere is called the
asthenosphere
Large fractures in Earth's surface that are associated with the movement of lithospheric plates are called
faults
Any natually occurring, inorganic, crystalline substance with a fairly definite chemical composition is called a(n)
mineral
The element that is most abundant in Earth's crust is
oxygen
One main type of feldspar that contains potassium is
orthoclase
Which of the following statements is false?
The majority of surface rocks are igneous
Rocks solidified molten materialabove ground are classified as ____ igneous rocks
extrusive
A general name for an intrusive igneous rock formation is
pluton
Rocks formed consolidated sediment deposited in layers are known as ______ rocks
sedimentary
Silicates
All of the above
Rhombohedral cleavage is displayed by the mineral named
Calcite
The most abundant rocks in Earth's crust are the
silicates
The deflection of one lithospheric plate beneath another plate with which it is colliding is called
subduction
The process of transforming sediment into sedimentary rock is called
lithification
New rocks that have had their original form altered by heat and pressure, but without melting, are classified as
metamorphic
Which of the following is not a volcano or the result thereof?
A batholith
Four kinds of metamorphism are
contact, shear, hydrothermal, and regional
The process of leveling of the Earth by the wearing away of high places and the transportation to and deposition of sediments at lower levels is called
gradation
The most important acid involved in chemical weathering is
carbonic acid
A loop-like bend in a river channel is called
a meander
Small glaciers that form along mountains in hollow depressions that are protected from the Sun are called
cirque glaciers
The physical disintergration and chemical decomposition of rock at or near Earth's surface is called
weathering
Which of the following is not a component of a stream's load?
Mother load
By which of the following characteristics is a desert defined?
Lack of precipitation
Which of the following is not a form of downslope movement?
Overburden
Hard water is due to primarily to dissolved salts of which elements?
Calcium, iron, and magnesium
How many tidal bulges "move" around Earth daily?
2
A common depositional feature of shoreline topography is a
spit
A river's suspended load and bed load may accummulate at its mouth and form a
delta