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One product of photosynthesis is


Which one of the following is not a physical property of matter?


A chemical reaction is at equilibrium when

The forward and reverse reactions proceed at the same rate

A balance chemical equation will have the same ______ on each side

Number of atoms of each element

What basic type of reaction is illustrated by the general equation AB --> A + B?


In general, fast reactions

Have low activation energies

The energy to start a chemical reaction is called the ______ energy


When there is a net release of energy in a chemical reaction, it is called a(n) _________ reaction


The rate of a chemical reaction would be decreased by

cooling the reactants

A solution with a pH of 8 is

weakly basic

Which of the following is a weak acid?

Acetic acid

Hydrogen gas would be a product of the reaction of

iron and hydrochloric acid

In order, from top to bottom, in the activity series come Li, K, Ba, Na, Al, Zn, Sn, and Pb. Therefore,

Tin is more active than lead

Reacting an acid with a base gives water and

a salt

By definition, the removal of oxygen from a compound is called


Organic chemistry studies chemical compounds that contain at least one atom of


In organic molecules, a carbon atom will normally form how many bonds?


In organic molecules, a bromine atom will normally form how many bonds?


Hydrocarbons containing all single bonds and a ring in their structural formulas are


Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas are called structural, or constituitional,


Which organic compound is represented by a pentagon?


A hydrocarbon that contains one or more benzene rings must be classified as


CFCs are

alkyl halides

Methyl salicylate is an ester commonly called

oil of wintergreen

Which alcohol is used in bereages?


starch is a polymer that consists a long chain of _________ units


The general formula R-X is that of

an alkyl halide

Which of the following was the first synthetic compound to be made?


To which group of polymers does nylon belong?


Socrates dies from ingesting the alkaloid named


The studey of astronomy involves

all of these

The geocentric model of the solar system is attriduted to


Kepler's second law of planetary motion is known as the law of

equal areas

The name given to the point of a planet's orbit that is closest to the Sun is


Earth's axis is tilted ______ degrees from the normal to the ecliptic plane.


The planet Mercury

is the mallest of the terrestrial planets

The terrestrial planets have

all of these

According to today's classification system, how many major planets are there in the solar system?


Which of the terrestrial planets has rings?


The Jovian planets

all of these

The largest planet in the solar system is


The planet with the largest number of moons is


Other planetary systems are best detected by the Doppler shifts that change the pattern of the star's


Which of the following is a technique used by astronomers in their search for other planetary systems?

Both (A) and (B)

Saturn's moon named ____ is the second largest moon in the solar system


_______ is the major moon of Neptune


Charon is a moon of ______


The ______ surrounds the nucleus of a comet.

Head or coma

Halley's Comet returns about every _______ years


The particles of inter planetary are called _____.


If a person weighs 150 lb on Earth, what will the person weigh on the Moon?

25 lb.

The impact of meterites on the Moon has caused

both rays and craters

The oldest rocks on the Moon were formed about how many years ago?

4.4 billion

The Moon always presents the same face to Earth because

The Moon rotates on its axis at same rate at which it revolves around Earth

During a solar eclipse, the umbra moves accross Earth's surface generally from

West to East

Which of the following is Jupiter's largest moon?


What is the visible surface of the SUn called?


The number of _____ on the Sun varies over an 11-year cycle.


The apparent path that the Sun traces annually along the celestial sphere is known as the ____.


The closest star to the Sun is named ________.

Proxima Centauri

Gas and dust distributed among the stars is known as the ____.

Interstellar medium

An incredible dense star so massive that light cannot ascape from it surface is called a ____.

Local Group

Patches of cooler material on the Sun's surface are called


The Sun's high-speed charged nuclei and electrons form a fourth phase of matter known as a


Enormous filaments of excited gas arching over the Sun's surface and extending hundreds of thousand of kilometers outward are called


The closest star to the Sun is about how far away?

4.3 light-years

Stars of what magnitude are just barely visible to the unaided eye?


The ozone layer lies in the


About 80% of the mass of the atmosphere and most of the clouds and water vapor are located in the


Weather occurs in the


At 1800 degrees Fahrenheit, this part of atmosphere is heated almost directly by the Sun's rays


The principal gases responsible for the greenhouse effect are

carbon dioxide and water vapor

Ions trapped in Earth's magnetic field fgive rise to


The fraction of incident light that a body reflects us known as its


Every square inch of our body, at sea level, sustains ____ of atmospheric pressure

14.7 lb

Which of the following units is used to express atmospheric pressure?

All of these

Doppler radar is replacing conventional radar in weather forecasting because

it can measure wind speeds

Air circulation around a cyclone in the Nothern Hemisphere as viewed from above is


Clouds described as "artist's brushes" or "mare's tails" belong to what cloud family?


A type of cloud composed of ice crustals is the


Nimbus means

none of these

When air is cooled below its dew point without condensation, it is said to be


The process by which raindrops are formed by the collision of droplets is called


Hurricanes derive their energy from

latent heat

Lightning that illuminates clounds with flickering flashes is called

heat lightning

A class of pollutants formed at high temperatures (nearly complete combustion) in the presence of air is

nitrogen oxides

In the amended Montreal Protacol, many nations agreed to phase out, the the year of 2000


A form of precipitation that results from convection cycles in clouds is


Hawaii's weather is chiefly affected by what type of air mass?


The northern Atlantic Ocean is the source region for the ____ type of air mass


A hurricane watchi is issued when

there is a threat of hurricane conditions within 24 to 36 h

The pollutant that affects the oxygen-carrying capability of the blood is


Geologic evidence supports the theory of continental drift does not include

drag marks on the ocean floor

Alfred Wegener spectaculated that the present continents were once part of a single supercontinent that he named


Remanent magnetism is present in rocks that contain the mineral named


Earth's core is believed to be composed of

iron and nickel

The lithosphere "floats" on the asthenosphere, and the parts of lower density float higher. This state of buoyancy is called


The San Andreas fault in California is thought to be a boundary of two plates

that are sliding horizontally past one another

The difference in time between the arrival of S waves and the arrival of P waves can be used to determine

the epicenter of an earthquake

An earthquake wave travels through

the mantle only

Earth's radius is about

6400 km

The structural region of Earth that has the greatest volume is the


The layer of rock immediately below the lithosphere is called the


Large fractures in Earth's surface that are associated with the movement of lithospheric plates are called


Any natually occurring, inorganic, crystalline substance with a fairly definite chemical composition is called a(n)


The element that is most abundant in Earth's crust is


One main type of feldspar that contains potassium is


Which of the following statements is false?

The majority of surface rocks are igneous

Rocks solidified molten materialabove ground are classified as ____ igneous rocks


A general name for an intrusive igneous rock formation is


Rocks formed consolidated sediment deposited in layers are known as ______ rocks



All of the above

Rhombohedral cleavage is displayed by the mineral named


The most abundant rocks in Earth's crust are the


The deflection of one lithospheric plate beneath another plate with which it is colliding is called


The process of transforming sediment into sedimentary rock is called


New rocks that have had their original form altered by heat and pressure, but without melting, are classified as


Which of the following is not a volcano or the result thereof?

A batholith

Four kinds of metamorphism are

contact, shear, hydrothermal, and regional

The process of leveling of the Earth by the wearing away of high places and the transportation to and deposition of sediments at lower levels is called


The most important acid involved in chemical weathering is

carbonic acid

A loop-like bend in a river channel is called

a meander

Small glaciers that form along mountains in hollow depressions that are protected from the Sun are called

cirque glaciers

The physical disintergration and chemical decomposition of rock at or near Earth's surface is called


Which of the following is not a component of a stream's load?

Mother load

By which of the following characteristics is a desert defined?

Lack of precipitation

Which of the following is not a form of downslope movement?


Hard water is due to primarily to dissolved salts of which elements?

Calcium, iron, and magnesium

How many tidal bulges "move" around Earth daily?


A common depositional feature of shoreline topography is a


A river's suspended load and bed load may accummulate at its mouth and form a


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