Captain James Cook
Made voyages to Hawaii from 1777-1779 resulting in openings of islands to the West; convinced Kamehamehah to establish a unified kingdon in the islands
Lord Charles Cornwallis
Reformer of the East India Company administration of India in the 1790's; reduced power of local British administrators; checked widespread corruption. YES also the same one that surrendered at the battle of Yorktown.
Architect of British victory at Plassey; established foundations of British raj in northern India (18th century)
Zulu chief in 1879 who refused to dismiss his army and accept British rule, the British invaded the Zulu nation and lost control of their kingdom in the Battle of Ulundi in 1887
Battle of Isandhlwana
First major encounter in the Anglo-Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Despite a vast disadvantage in weapons technology, the numerically superior Zulus ultimately overwhelmed the poorly led and badly deployed British, killing over 1,300 troops, including all those out on the forward firing line. The Zulu army suffered around a thousand killed.The battle was a crushing victory for the Zulus and caused the defeat of the first British invasion of Zululand.
War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. From complex beginnings, the war is notable for several particularly bloody battles, as well as for being a landmark in the timeline of colonialism in the region. The war ended the Zulu nation's independence.(1879)
Battle of Ulundi
Battle between Britain and Zulu in 1879. Britain wanted to make claim to South Africa for gold, diamonds, and power. As a result Britain won and took control of South Africa.
Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium.
Kingdom that controlled interior regions of Java in 17th century; Dutch East India Company paid tribute to the kingdom for rights of trade at Batavia; weakness of kingdom after 1670's allowed Dutch to exert control over all of Java
Troops that served the British East India Company; recruited from various warlike peoples of India.
The rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the East India company and then by a British Government
Battle of Plassey
Took place on June 23, 1757; how Great Britain really gained control in India. Despite their low number of soldiers, the British were able to win the battle against Siraj, the leader of Bengal, and his army. Soldiers fighting for Great Britain(Robert Clive leading) had a few specific qualities that made them successful on the battlefield—a strong army, gun skills, unity of their army (unlike Siraj's army), the Royal Navy, and support from other countries
Ram Mohun Roy
"Father of Modern India" modern thinking, tried to move india towards independance and away from traditional ideas like sati.
A Muslim prince allied to British India; technically, a semi-autonomous deputy of the Mughal emperor.
Three districts that made up the bulk of the directly ruled British territories in India; capitals at Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay.
Domains of Indian princes allied with the British Raj; agents of East India Company were stationed at the rulers courts to ensure compliance; made up over one-third of the British Indian Empire
British administrator who brought new school system, wrote "Minute on Education" where he stated the English was the supreme language and western civilization the supreme culture.
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
Name given to British representatives of the East India Company who went briefly to India to make fortunes through graft and exploitation.
A medicine developed to prevent malaria. This allowed Europeans to travel to the interior of tropic regions and carve up Africa.
The greater portion of the European empires consisting of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific were small numbers of Europeans ruled large populations of non-Western peoples.
A religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead, Spiritual revival in 1890 by Indians that would lead to the massacre at Wounded Knee
In the ___________ rebellion, African warriors in German East Africa sprinkled "magic water" on their bodies in hopes that it would turn the German bullets into water
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Areas, such as North America and Australia, that were both conquered by European invaders and settled by large numbers of European migrants who made the colonized areas their permanent home and dispersed and decimated the indigenous inhabitants.
Colonies in which European settlers made up the overwhelming majority of the population; small numbers of native inhabitants were typically reduced by disease and wars of conquest; typical of British holdings in North America and Australia with growing independence in the 19th century
King Leopold II
-Only a constitutional monarch of Belgium
-tried to convince parlement to expand via colonies (Argentina, Philippines, china, Japan and Vietnam)
-When the government wouldn't listen He bought himself Congo (called Congo Free State).
-He was horrible to the natives and eventually Belgium had to intervene and take it over (then Belgium Congo).
White Racial Supremacy
Belief in the inherent mental, moral, and cultural superiority of whites; peaked in acceptance in decades before World War I; supported by social science doctrines of social Darwinists such as Herbert Spencer.
The White Mans Burden
The idea that the more civilized countries need to take care of the countries that "need" it.Rudyard Kipling: poem addressing the unpopularity of foreign rule and that it was a duty to bring order and serve people
In 1879 King Leopold II hired H.M. Stanley to make treaties with African chiefs, giving control of the Congo to Leopold. It became his personal playground and was recognized as such in 1884 by the Berlin conference. Was quested for its rubber and ivory. Soldiers of the Belgian army forced the natives to do work and treated them savagely, often cutting off their hands to prove they used ammunition on humans when they were really using the ammunition on wildlife. Twain and author Conan Doyle spoke out. The Belgian Parliament was horrified and took the colony away from the king in 1908 and it became a Belgian colony.
British, developed a system of philosophy based on the theory of evolution, believed in the primacy of personal freedom and reasoned thinking. Sought to develop a system whereby all human endeavours could be explained rationally and scientifically.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
City at the southern tip of Africa; became the first permanent European settlement in Africa in 1652; built by Dutch immigrants to supply ships sailing to or from the East Indies.
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.
British colony in south Africa; developed after boer trek north from cape colony; major commercial outpost of Durban.
Boer free states established in southern Africa by Afrikans of Dutch descent from the British colonial government in Cape Colony (1850)
Region of Southern Africa originally founded by Afrikaners; became a source of interest for the British following the discovery of gold and diamonds => Boer War
Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe. Founded the De Beers Mining Company
• War between Britain and Boers
• South Africa
• Bloodiest conflict in colonial times. Boers won the first time. British won the second time. Brought about the first concentration camp ever.
Leader of Hawaii who took the throne after her brother died. Was forced to give up her throne when the U.S. marines were sent.First and only reigning Hawaiian queen