Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death (coincidence? I think not).
The father of the Japanese Enlightenment. ***uzawa translated works of great foreign thinkers into Japanese and also changed them in such a way so that their works would be relevant to specifically a Japanese audience. He was very influenced by Dutch Learning, and valued a scientific, objective approach. Therefore, he hated Chinese learning and hated its influence on his country.
"Liberal" tsar of Russia (1801-25) who had played a major role in downfall of Napoleon. Feared by representatives of other powers as dreamer, self-chosen world saviour(Holy Alliance) who wanted to bring Christianity into politics. Some even thought of him as a crowned liberal.
Alliance among RUssia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and the established order; formed at Congress of Vienna by most conservative monarchies of Europe.
Political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms; put down by Tsar Nicholas I.
War bewteen the Ottoman Empire and Russia from 1853 to 1856. Britain and France supported the OE so that the Eastern Question wouldn't have to be answered. Russia loses.
Group of Japanese scholars interested in implications of Western science and technology beginning in the 18th century; urged freer exchange with West; based studies on few Dutch texts available in Japan.
Emancipation of the serfs
Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land.
Local political councils created as part of Alexander II's reforms; gave the
middle class professional experience in government but did not influence national policy.
Constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role.
Russian minister of finance from 1892 to 1903; economic modernizer responsible for high tariffs, improved banking system; encouraged Western investors to build factories in Russia.
Russian term for articulate intellectuals as a class; desired radical change in the Russian political and economic systems; wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from that of the West
Literally, the majority party; the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by V.I. Lenin and dedicated to his concept of social revolution; actually a minority in the Russian Marxist political scheme until its triumph in the 1917 revolution.
Political groups that sought the abolition of all formal government; particularly prevalent in Russia; opposed tsarist autocracy; eventually became a terrorist movement responsible for assassination of Alexander II in 1881
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
Better known as Lenin; most active Russian Marxist leader; insisted on importance of disciplined revolutionary cells; leader of Bolshevik revolution of 1917
National parliament created in Russia in the aftermath of the revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II; failed to forestall further revolution.
1904-05 war between Russia and Japan over imperial influence and territory in Manchuria; Japan won and gained Manchuria and Port Arthur
War fought between Japan and Qing China between 1894 and 1895; resulted in Japanese victory; frustrated Japanese imperial aims because of Western insistence that Japan withdraw from Liaodong peninsula.
English nurse remembered for her work during the Crimean War (1820-1910). Est 1st nursing school. Est. Standards for hospitals. Est. nursing education, made nursing a respectable occ. for women.
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class.
Reforms introduced by the Russian minister Stolypin intended to placate the peasantry in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; included reduction in redemption payments, attempt to create market-oriented peasantry.
Russia sent its baltic fleet halfway around the world to the east, only to be defeated by the new japanese army here-__________ off the coast of japan
Which famous artist warned the Czar of growing class tension?, Also remembered for "War and Peace" and" Anna Karina".
Russian novelist who wrote of human suffering with humor and psychological insight (1821-1881), Fear of loss of spiritual belief b/c people were only using human belief. Wrote "Crime and Punishment"
Polonaise in A major, Op. 40, No. 1; Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic period. He is widely regarded as the greatest Polish composer, and ranks as one of music's greatest tone poets
Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884) Czech.
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
Wife of Nicholas II left in power when he joined army on front lines; allowed Rasputin to control government and went into shock when he was assassinated
Commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by the middle of the 19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West, about 40% for Japanese Males.
An American commodore in the navy, who made a couple trips to Japan. He forced the opening of Japan to western trade, and prompted a revolution against the shogunate. It also foreshadowed later American imperialistic foreign policy.
Great White Fleet
Name for the steam-powered ships of the enlarged and modernized American Navy of the early 1900s, Navy force that circumnavigated the globe to show off US naval prowess
The period of Japanese History from 1867 - 1912 during which the country was ruled by Emperor Mutsuhito and Experienced Modernization. "Enlightened"
Young emperor of Japan who took control of the nation's government from the shogun in 1867. He led a reform and modernization movement in Japan that resulted in it being a world power.The Meiji Era began under this Empero
Industrial entrepreneur who founded the Mitsubishi zaibatsu, the second largest of the family-owned industrial-financial combines that dominated the economic life of Japan in the late 19th century and early 20th centuries.Originally built steamships for government, then tanks, aircrafts.
Japanese parliament established as part of the new constitution of 1889; part of Meiji reforms; could pass laws and approve budgets; able to advise government, but not to control it.
Huge industrial combines created in Japan in the 1890s as part of the Meiji Reforms as part of the process of industrialization
Set forth the principle all citizens were equal, the emperor had autocratic power, but still a Diet or one elected house and one house appointed by the emperor; voting rights were limited; ended distinction between classes, set up schools, literacy increased, womens position went up; what were all these a part of in Japan?
Western term for perceived threats of Japanese imperialism around 1900; met by increased western imperialism in region