Scheduled maintenance: Thursday, December 8 from 5PM to 6PM PST
Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
PHS ch 18 hw
Terms in this set (51)
According to the Bronsted-Lowry definition, an acid
donates hydrogen ions
One way to assess the strength of an acid is to
measure how much remains upon mixing with water
Pure water is a neutral solution because it contains
equal numbers of hydronium and hydroxide ions
pH is a measure of the
the negative log of the hydronium ion concentration
Quantities if atmospheric carbon dioxide are
Rising less rapidly than one would expect from increased human activities
Is it possible for oxidation to occur without reduction
No bc they are complementary processes
Electrons won't flow continuously through wire connecting iron and copper into separate containers
Bc they are repelled by a buildup of electric charge
A fuel cell is a device that
converts the energy of fuel to electrical energy
Electrolysis is the use of
Electrical energy to produce chemical change
Oxygen is good at
Picking up electrons from other elements
What are the Bonsted-Lowry definitions of acid and base
An acid donates a hydrogen ion; a base accepts a hydrogen ion
When an acid dissolves in water, what ion does the water form
When a chemical loses a hydrogen ion, is it behaving as an acid or a base?
What does it mean to say that an acid is strong in aqueous solution
If a little of an acid is left when added to water it is strong
Why does a solution of a strong acid conduct electricity better than a solution of a weak acid having the same concentration
The strong acid creates more ions which conduct electricity
When can a solution of a weak base be more corrosive than a solution of a strong base?
A weak base can be more corrosive at low concentration
Is water a strong acid or a weak acid?
Neither water is amphoteric
What is true about the relative concentrations of hydronium and hydroxide ions in an acidic solution? How about a neutral solution? A basic solution?
Acidic: hydronium is greater Neutral: they are equal Basic: hydroxide is greater
What does the pH of a solution indicate?
The acidity of the solution is the negative logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration
As the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution increases, does the pH of the solution increase or decrease
What is the product of the reaction between carbon dioxide and water
What does sulfur dioxide have to do with acid rain
How do humans generate the air pollutant sulfur dioxide?
Humans generate it by burning sulfur containing oil and coal
Why aren't atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide rising as rapidly as expected based on the increased output of carbon dioxide resulting from human activites
Carbon dioxide dissolved in the ocean
Which elements have the greatest tendency to behave as oxidizing agents
Elements to the right on the periodic table
Which element have the greatest tendency to behave as reducing agents
Elements to the left in the periodic table
Write an equation for the half reaction in which a potassium atom (K) is oxidized
K(s) ->K + + e-
What happens to a reducing agent as it reduces
It is oxidized
What is electrochemistry
Electrochemistry uses oxidation reduction reactions to make an electric current or vice versa
What is the purpose of the salt bridge in a voltaic cell
It allows ions to flow between two electrochemical cells
What type of reaction occurs at the cathode? At the anode?
Cathode: chemicals reduced
Anode: chemicals oxidized
What is the prime difference between a battery and a fuel cell
Fuel cells continuously produce energy from fuel; batteries must be recharged or replaced.
What else do fuel cells produce besides electricity
What is electrolysis and how does it differ from what goes on inside a battery
Electrolysis uses electricity to power chemical reactions. It is the opposite of a battwry
What is an example of a metal produced primarily by electrolysis
In what year was the efficient electrolysis of aluminum discovered
What metal coats a galvanized nail?
What are differences between corrosion and combustion
Combustion is rapid and requires a nonmetal; corrosion is slow and requires a metal
What is iron forced to accept during cathodic protection?
What happens to the polarity of oxygen atoms as they transform from molecular oxygen (O2) into water molecules (H2O)?
They go from a nonpolar molecule to a polar one
An acid and a base react to from a salt, which consists of positive and negative ions. Which forms the positive ions: the acid or the base?
Which forms the negative ions: the acid or the base?
Which should be a stronger base: ammonia, NH3, or nitrogen trifluoride, NF3?
The general chemical equation for photosynthesis is shown below. Through this reaction are the oxygens of the water molecules, H2O, oxidized or reduced? 6 CO2 + 6 H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
The chemical equation for the combustion of propane, C3H8, is shown. Through this reaction is the carbon oxidized or reduced?
C3H3 + 5O2 -> 3CO2 + 4H2O
Classify these compounds as a Brønsted-Lowry acid, a Brønsted-Lowry base, or neither. Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins
Acid: H3PO4, HF, HNO3
Neither: CHCI3, C2H5OC2H5
The following solutions in water all have the same concentration of added solute. Classify the solutions by their ability to conduct electric current
Sort the following chemicals based on whether they contribute to the pH of normal rainwater, acid rain or the oceans
Rainwater: CO2, H2CO3
Acid rain: SO2, H2SO4, SO3
Arrange the following sources of water by decreasing pH
Ocean water, pure water, normal rainwater, acid rain
Classify these elements by whether they get oxidized or reduced in the reactions shown here: 2Ca(s) + O2(g) -> 2CaO(s)
F2(g) + 2Li(s) -> 2LiF(s)
Oxidized: calcium and lithium
Reduced: oxygen and fluorine
Identify the oxidizing agent and reducing agent in each reaction below
2Al(s) is reducing
3Cl2(g) is oxidizing
O2(g) is oxidizing
2Mg(s) is reducing
Other sets by this creator
PHS ch 17 hw
PHS ch 15 homework
PHS ch 14 lab
PHS ch 14 homework