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Terms in this set (21)
Explain Hume's discussion of the combat between reason and passion?
Reason is preference, eternal, constant, divine.
Passion you control them, blind, inconstant, deceitful.
Why does Hume believe there is no such combat?
They cannot combat because reason is ought to e a slave for passions. you have to have one in order to have the other. (Reason is an instrument)
What is Hume's explanation for why we often believe that reason and passion are in conflict?
Because there are conflicts between the two types of passions so they think there has to be one between these too as well.
In the treatise what role does Hume assign for reason as it relates to passion?
That reason is slave for passion
Explain Hume's discussion of impressions and ideas in the treatise. How does this relate to morality for Hume?
Reason- compares ideas & discovers their relations
Our feelings- determine our moral judgement
What does Hume mean by sentiment and what role does sentiment play in morality for Hume? How does sentiment relate to reason for Hume?
The feelings are first then come the reason. Moral judgements are the product of moral sentiments/ feelings. (initial feeling)
What different types of Morals does Hume consider at the beginning of his discussion?
3 moral theories
1- moral skepticism- not based on realness (rejected)
2- moral principle - based on reason (rejected)
3- moral sentiment- it's a direct feeling comes from human nature (Hume likes this)
What is the end of all moral speculations according to Hume?
Moral speculations is watching others first and then the feeling that you get from it. (vice & virtue)
Morality is based on watching people and getting a feeling
What role does language play in Hume's investigation of morality?
Every language makes distinctions between good and bad.
ex: good words vs. bad words
What does Hume mean by "benevolence" and what justifies the presence of benevolence within society?
Benevolence is altruism, which is best in Human nature.
Natural & Artifiical virtue are the two types
is altruism (monopoly)
What is artificial virtue?
According to Hume, what kinds of conditions are necessary for "justice" to arise and how is "justice" justified as a morally important concept with these conditions?
It is between distribution & complete deprivation and having a median balance between these two extremes because justice brings about social order
According to Hume, how is justice similar to superstition? Also how is justice different from superstition?
similar because they both have arbitrary
What do skeptics say is the source of moral distinctions that we make?
we are inverted by politics to control us and this has no general morality. This can not work because before they can control us we must have our own feelings. They cannot manipulate what we do not have
How does Hume reflect the claim that self interest is the only source of morality and the social virtues?
In discussing the appeal of utility Hume often uses artistic and poetic analogies to explain his position. what point is he trying to make by using these images?
In art there is beauty, but we get feelings first then the beauty of the art of the object. which then gives us an agreeable feeling. beauty signifies sentiment or feeling
According to Hume, what role does reason incapable of playing in morality according to Hume? What faculty fills this void?
reason is incapable of determining morality or moral judgment
In several places, Hume talks about being a "spectator" to the actions of others. What point is Hume trying to make about moral judgements when he talks about being a spectator?
Speculation gives you a feeling. Morality is based on watching people and getting a feeling as a result (feelings of good are virtues, feelings of bad are vices)
According to Hume what are the distinct "boundaries and offices" of reason and taste?
According to Hume, what role does reason play in informing our moral judgements?
reason judges falsehood & looks at matters of facts
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