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studied moral reasoning by presenting subjects with moral dilemmas and asking them to judge each one and explain the reasons for their judgments
--ex. "Heinz dilemma" - asked subjects if it's better for a husband to steal a drug to save his wife's life or to obey the law by not stealing the drug and risk his wife's life

concluded that moral reasoning has 3 levels and each have 2 stages - proposed that stages are universal and always happen in the same order and are related to one's levels of cog development and social perspective-taking - also proposed that ability to predict a person's behavior from their stage of moral development is strongest at the higher stages of development

Level 1: Proconventional Morality:
1.1. Punishment and obedience scale - acceptability of behavior depends on whether or not the behavior leads to punishment
1.2. Instrumental hedonism stage - acceptability of behavior depends on whether or not it leads to rewards/satisfies the person's needs

Level 2: Conventional Morality:
2.1. "Good boy/girl stage" - acceptability of behavior depends on whether or not it's socially approved/liked by others
2.2. Law and order orientation stage - acceptability of behavior depends on whether or not it violates laws and rules that have been established by legitimate authorities

Level 4: Postconventional morality:
3.1. Morality of contract, individual rights, and democratically accepted laws - acceptability of behavior is whether or not it's consistent with democratically chosen laws
3.2. Morality of individual principles of conscience - acceptability of behavior is whether or not it's consistent with broad, universally applicable general principles (ex. justice, fairness)
06 research led him to conclude there are 4 types of IPV that are distinguished primarily by 2 factors:
a. Perpetrator's motivation to act violently
b. Whether the violence is more frequently perpetrated in heterosexual relationships by male or female partners or is perpetrated with similar frequency by males and females

important to recognize the various types, according to Johnson bc they don't have the same causes, developmental trajectory, consequences, or prognosis for effective intervention

1. Innate terrorism - most often perpetrated in hetero couples by male partner who uses violence to control his female partner - physical violence is typically accompanied by other methods of control like making threats, exerting economic control, inflicting sexual/emotional abuse, and isolating the victim
-type of IPV that most often takes the form of Walker's cycle of violence

2. Violent resistance - most often perpetrated in hetereo couples by female as a response to the behavior of her violent and controlling male partner - motivation isn't to control her partner but instead to retaliate/defend self, or in extreme cases, escape the abuse by killing the abuser

3. Mutual violent control - perpetrated by both partners for purpose of gaining control over their relationship
-leas common type of IPV

4. Situational couple violence - perpetrated by males and females, can be one-sides or mutual and rage from mild to severe - situationally provoked - may involve a desire to control the situation but not a more general desire to control the relationship - most common type of IPV
includes physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological (emotional) abuse, and neglect.

Commonness (in order): neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse

Risk factors for maltreatment:
parental experience of maltreatment in their childhood, low family socioeconomic status, dependent and aggressive parental personality, parental experience of intimate partner violence, children living in single-parent or step/cohabitating family (vs children living with 2 biological or adoptive parents)

Many studies found a link between childhood maltreatment and increased risk for obesity in adulthood
-Danese and Tan (14) - when adjusted data for current depression, link wasn't significant anymore
--found that depression may mediate the link between childhood maltreatment and adults' obesity, with childhood maltreatment leading to depression for some adults, which increases risk for obesity in these adults

Child sexual abuse (CSA) outcomes are impacted by individual's gender and relationship with perpetrator and nature of abuse:
-short-term: females more likely to exhibit depression and other internalizing behaviors, males more likely to exhibit conduct problems, aggression, and other externalizing behaviors
-no consistent long-term effect results but many have found similar outcomes for males and females with both experiencing significant mental health problems and other difficulties throughout their lifetimes
-Betrayal trauma theory: CSA perpetrated by family member/other person who is close to the child is associated with worse mental health outcomes than is abuse perpetrated by a less familiar/unknown person
-CSA consequences are related to duration and severity: severe outcomes associated with abuse that happens over a long period of time, involves force, and includes some form of penetration
identify 4 parenting styles that represent different combinations of 2 parenting dimensions: demandingness (control) and responsiveness (acceptance/warmth)

a. Authoritative parents - high in control and warmth
-establish clear rules, expect them to comply with the rules, but seek children's input when making rule
-warm and affectionate and encourage children's independence and individuality
-children of these parents have best outcomes: self-confident, independent, cooperative, have good social skills, have high levels of academic achievement

b. Authoritarian parents: high in control and low in warmth
-many rules for children, emphasize parental control and respect for authority and often resort to harsh forms of punishment when their children disobey
-provide children with little nurturance and affection and discourage their autonomy
-children tend to be insecure, moody, dependent, are easily annoyed, have poorer social skills, have lower levels of academic achievement (when compared to authoritative children)
-this style also linked to increased likelihood that child will bully others or be a victim of bullying
c. Permissive parents - low in control and high in warmth
-rarely attempt to control children, encourage to express feelings, and accepting/supportive of child's behaviors (even undesirable ones)
-children tend to be self-centered, immature, rebellious, have poor impulse control, poor social skills, low level of academic achievement
-at increased risk for being the victim of a bully

d. Uninvolved parents (rejecting-neglecting parents) - low in control and warmth
-uninvolved in children's lives and unaware of needs, rarely consider children's opinions when making decisions and are more concerned about their own needs than kids
-these children tend to have worst outcomes: low self-esteem, low self-control, moody, irritable, noncompliant/demanding, poor social skills, low levels of academic achievement, and are prone to drug use and antisocial behavior
major milestones for gross motor skills during the first 5 years of life - exact milestone age can vary from person to person but order that they occur is similar for most children

1-3mo: chin and then chest up in prone position, props on forearms in prone position, rolls to side

4-6mo: sits with trunk support and then with pelvic support, rolls front to back and then back to front, puts arms out when falling

7-9mo: sits without support steadily, pulls to sitting/kneeling position, begins creeping, pulls to stand

10-12mo: creeps well, cruises furniture with both hands then 1 hand, walks with 2 hands held and then 1 hand, takes independent steps

13-15mo: stands without pulling up, walks well, stoops to pick up toy, creeps up stairs, walks carrying toy

16-18mo: walks backward, walks up stairs with 1 hand held, runs well, throws ball while standing

19-30mo: walks down stairs with one hand held, walks up stairs and then downstairs holding rail with both feet on each step, kicks ball, throws ball overhand, jumps from bottom step with one foot leading

31-36mo: walks swinging arms opposite of legs, balances one 1 foot for 3 seconds, walks up stairs with alternating feet and without holding rail, pedals tricycle, catches ball with stiff arms

4 years: hops on 1 foot two or three times, balances on one foot 4-8 seconds, throws ball overhand 10 feet, catches bounced ball

5 years: walks down stairs with alternating fet and without holding rail, hops on one foot 15 times, balances on one foot for more than 8 seconds, walks backward heel-toe, jumps backward
Data from National Survey of Drug Use and Health (SMHSA) indicates that substance use among youth 12-17yrs declined in recent years
-in 2018: 9% of respondants indicated drinking alcohol in past month
--8% indicated using illicit drugs (6.7% marijuana, 1.3% psychotherapeutics)
--4.2% reported use of tobacco products
--also found that .8% (illicit drugs), .9% (alcohol use), and .4% (both alcohol and drug use) received treatment for substance use in past year

risk factors for substance abuse: exposure to stressful life events, parental substance abuse, weak parent-child relationship, affiliation with deviant/substance-involved peers, mental health problems (especially depression and untreated ADHD), favorable attitudes toward drug use, poor social skills, and academic failures

protective factors: parental disapproval of substance use, supportive parenting, age-appropriate parental monitoring of social behavior, academic success, involvement in extracurricular activities, positive peer influences, good self-control, and religiosity
--research shown that religiosity, self-control and parental support have a buffering effect (each of these protective factors reduces adverse effects of stressful life events on substance use)

researchers say that limbic system develops earlier than prefrontal cortex which continues to develop throughout adolescence
-limbic system is involved in emotions and motivation and includes nucleus accumbens (part of brains reward circuit)
-prefrontal cortex involved in planning, decision-making, and impulse control
--because of this difference in development, adolescents are more likely to make decisions based on emotions and pleasure rather than rational thinking, which leads to greater likelihood of substance use and other impulsive, risk-taking behaviors
--because of effects on alcohol and other addictive drugs on the developing brain, individuals who begin using these drugs in early adolescence are at greater risk for a substance use disorder than those who delay drug use to late adolescence or early adulthood
studies that investigate this have found that reliable differences in cog ability and personality traits are rare and when they happen they're relatively small:

Mathematical abilities: by adolescence, girls outperform boys on measures of computational skills, while boys outperform girls on measures of mathematical reasoning and have acquired more math problem-solving strategies

Verbal abilities: girls get higher scores on many measures of verbal ability throughout childhood/adolescence, including speech fluency and reading and writing achievement
-boys outperform girls on measures of verbal analogies

Visual/Spatial abilities: boys obtain higher scores on measures of visual/spatial abilities, especially on tasks requiring mental rotation

Aggression: boys engage in more verbal/physical (overt) forms of aggression as early as 2 years of age and they're more likely to become involved in antisocial behavior
-girls more relational (covert) forms of aggression that involve ignoring or teasing targets of their hostility

Self-esteem: boys measure slightly higher on global self-esteem and this difference increases in early adolescence and persists throughout adulthood

Developmental vulnerability: beginning at conception, boys more vulnerable to pre/perinatal hazards and diseases and are more likely to have developmental problems like ASD, ADHD, intellectual disability, and speech defects

Research confirmed that sex differences in cog abilities and personality traits not solely due to innate biological differences but also the result of social and cultural factors, including gender-role stereotypes that create a self-fulfilling prophecy
-ex. research on math found that:
--parents influenced by gender-role stereotypes and expect songs to outperform daughters in math and attribute son's successes to ability but daughters successes to effort
--children internalize parents' views, so boys feel confident about math skills while girls more likely to underestimate and feel anxious about them
--bc girls believe they lack math ability, tend to be uninterested in it and less likely to take math classes/pursue careers that involve math

while gender stereotypes have declined in recent decades, parents continue to perceive/treat sons/daughters differently beginning when offspring in early infancy
-ex. parents describe newborn daughters are being soft, delicate, little, pretty/cute but sons as strong, alert, and well-coordinated
-also parents purchase gender-stereotyped toys for infant sons/daughters and decorate rooms in gender consistent ways