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Pathophysiology Study Guide #3

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caused mostly by an infection by E. coli.
Pyelonephritis
frequently develops with renal disease due to increased aldosterone secretion, glomerular congestion, and increased vascular volume.
Hypertention
commonly caused by hyperlipidemia
Urolithiasis
indicated by increased serum urea and creatinine
Renal Insufficiency
determines emotional responses
Limbic system
criteria for declaration include no activity on EEG, absence of all reflexes, and no spontaneous respirations
Brain Death
inflammation and demyelination of peripheral nerves leads to ascending paralysis
Guillain-Barre syndrome
when CSF leaks from the ear
Otorrhea
stiff hyperextended neck associated with irriation of spinal nerve roots
Nuchal rigidity
precipitated by a viral infection in part, cerebral edema develops, liver damage is common
Reye's Syndrome
a condition present at birth, the spinal cord is exposed, can be diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound or detection of AFP in maternal blood or amniotic fluid.
Spina Bifida
formerly called Grand Mal seizure, characterized by loss of consciousness then the tonic stage, which follow the aura. The clonic stage consists of alternating contractions and relaxation of skeletal muscles.
Tonic-clonic seizure
consists of bizarre or inappropriate behavior
Psychomotor seizure
Pathophysiology includes demyelination of axons, affects the brain, spinal cord and cranial nerves, affects motor, sensory and autonomic fibers. Early signs include tremors, weakness in the legs and visual problems.
Multiple sclerosis
degeneration of the basal nuclei with a deficit of dopamine, early signs include tremors at rest in the hands and difficulty initiating voluntary movements, at later stages there is difficulty chewing and swallowing and with urinary retention and orthostatic hypotension develops
Parkinson's Disease
an autoimmune disorder, cholinergic receptors at the neuromuscular junctions are damaged, muscle weakness and fatigue occur in the face and neck
Myasthenia gravis
used to confirm, diagnose and classify seizures
Electroencephalogram
seizures are recurrent or continuous without full recovery between episodes, severe hypoxia and acidosis develop, changes in the characteristics of CSF develop
Epilepticus
caused by a decrease in Glucocorticoids
Addison's Disease
a skin and tissue disorder usually due to severe prolonged hypothyroidism, due to a devdicit of T3 and T4
Myxedema
causes the pituitary gland to produce excess growth hormone, resulting in abnormally tall stature.
Acromegaly
an endocrine disorder in which excessive cortisol is excreted. It results in a heavy body and round face, atrophied skeletal muscle in the limbs and atrophy of the lymph nodes.
Cushing's Syndrome
causes excess ADH secretion, severe hyponatremia (electrolyte imbalance) results, fluid retention increases.
Inappropriate ADH (antidiuretic hormone) syndrome
painful urination
Dysuria
signal changes in blood pressure
Baroceptors
Blood flows in the kidney in the ___ ___to the ___capillaries to the ___ ___
afferent arteriole, glomerular, efferent arteriole
when the glomerulus is inflamed, ___ appears
albumin
When filtrate reaches the proximal convoluted tubule, it contains
sodium and potassium ions
The urinary system is subject to many infections from various sources, including problems like
acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
A urinary infection which causes the urine to be dark because of increased glomerular permeability allowing gross hematuria
acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
blood in urine
hematuria
Another common problem of urinary infections is
urinary tract infections
term for Kidney stones
renal calculi
are also common urinary tract obstructions problems
renal calculi
Urinary casts are also present with the disease because inflamed tubules mold red blood cells and protein into a typical mass and indicate
inflammation of the kidney tubules
Bilateral kidney disease is another problem that can develop, resulting in
metabolic acidosis
key indicator when decompensated in renal failure is serum pH dropping below 7.35
metabolic acidosis
results in metabolic acidosis because tubule exchanges are impaired
Bilateral kidney disease
Kidney disease can result in headaches, anorexia and lethargy because of
increased blood pressure, elevated serum urea and acidosis
are caused by genetic defects
Wilms' tumor
caused by many factors such as prolonged circulatory shock, sudden exposure to nephrotoxins, and injuries such as crushing or burning
Acute tubule necrosis and renal failure
can also be caused by bilateral acute glomerulonephritis
Acute renal failure
rugae
folds
The bladder has ___ that extend as it fills with urine
rugae
The three openings in the bladder form the
trigone
The brain has ___ hemispheres
two
If areas of the brain are damaged, they are unable to
direct the body appropriately
damage to the auditory association area in the left hemisphere causes the inability to
understand what is being heard
Beta-1 adrenergic receptors are located in
cardiac muscle
There are efferent and afferent fibers, efferent are
outgoing fibers
as intracranial pressure increases
heart rate decreases
An early indicator of increasing intracranial pressure is
decreasing responsiveness, and the typical change in blood pressure that occurs is an increasing pulse pressure
resulting from increased intracranial pressure results in displacement of brain tissue downward towards the spinal cord
Herniation
Typical signs of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm include
severe headache, nuchal rigidity and photophobia
Brain tumors often cause headaches because
they can stretch the meninges and blood vessel walls
Focal or generalized seizures can be an early indication of
tumors
can be an early indication of tumors as well because surrounding inflammation causes neurons to discharge uncontrollably
Focal or generalized seizures
is considered normal when it is clear and colorless
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
a bacterial infection that can attack the central nervous system
Bacterial meningitis is
swelling and purulent exudate forms in the pia, arachnoid and surface of the entire brain are manifestations of
bacterial meningitis
is the microorganism that causes the infection in children and youth
N. meningitides
After a spinal cord injury, secondary damage may occur due to
instability of vertebrae, catecholamine release in the area and decreased blood pressure
The point on the spinal cord that the damage is done determines
which parts of the body will be affected
spinal cord injury that would result in lower pack pain radiating down the leg
initial effect of a herniated disc at the L4 to L5 level
The extent of permanent spinal cord injury can be assessed ___ to ___ following injury if no complications arise
10 days, 2 weeks
Biochemical abnormalities involving neurotransmitters in the brain can be found in many diseases including
bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and Huntington's disease
With diabetes mellitus, ___ develops because of glucosuria.
polyuria
occurs in diabetics because the amount of glucose in the filtrate exceeds the renal tubule transport limit
Glucosuria
causes polyuria because of a deficit in ADH
Diabetes insipidus
is caused by increased catabolism of fats and proteins, and can cause a loss of consciousness because of acidosis and hypovolemia
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis differs from HHNK (hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma) in
sufficient insulin is available to prevent ketonuria
Insulin shock may develop if ___ occurs
vomiting
A diabetic with hypoglycemia would have a
staggering gait, disorientation and confusion
causes problems mainly with the circulatory system and organs including the pancreas, however, complication like osteoporosis do not accompany the disease.
Diabetes
drugs act by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin
Oral hypoglycemic drugs
Vision may be impaired in diabetics because of ___ ___ in the lens of the eye
abnormal metabolism
There are different types of available ___, which vary greatly
insulin
They have different times until the onset of ___, different times until ___ effect takes place, their duration of ___ is different as is the source of the insulin
action, peak, effect
The effects of long-term intake of ___ results in decreased secretion from the adrenal cortex gland
Glucocorticoids
The effects of thyrotoxic crisis include ___ & ___
hyperthermia and heart failure
Reversible interference with brain function, usually resulting from a mild blow to the head
Concussion
A bruising of brain tissue
Contusion
Occurs when the skill is not fractured by the injury but the brain tissue and blood vessels may be ruptured
closed head
Involves fractures or penetration of the brain by missiles or sharp objects
open head
Fractures are simple cracks in the bone
linear
Fractures consist of several facture lines but may not be complicated
comminuted
Fractures involving trauma in which the brain tissue is exposed to the environment and is likely to be severely damaged because of bone fragments penetrating the tissue
compound