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caused mostly by an infection by E. coli.


frequently develops with renal disease due to increased aldosterone secretion, glomerular congestion, and increased vascular volume.


commonly caused by hyperlipidemia


indicated by increased serum urea and creatinine

Renal Insufficiency

determines emotional responses

Limbic system

criteria for declaration include no activity on EEG, absence of all reflexes, and no spontaneous respirations

Brain Death

inflammation and demyelination of peripheral nerves leads to ascending paralysis

Guillain-Barre syndrome

when CSF leaks from the ear


stiff hyperextended neck associated with irriation of spinal nerve roots

Nuchal rigidity

precipitated by a viral infection in part, cerebral edema develops, liver damage is common

Reye's Syndrome

a condition present at birth, the spinal cord is exposed, can be diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound or detection of AFP in maternal blood or amniotic fluid.

Spina Bifida

formerly called Grand Mal seizure, characterized by loss of consciousness then the tonic stage, which follow the aura. The clonic stage consists of alternating contractions and relaxation of skeletal muscles.

Tonic-clonic seizure

consists of bizarre or inappropriate behavior

Psychomotor seizure

Pathophysiology includes demyelination of axons, affects the brain, spinal cord and cranial nerves, affects motor, sensory and autonomic fibers. Early signs include tremors, weakness in the legs and visual problems.

Multiple sclerosis

degeneration of the basal nuclei with a deficit of dopamine, early signs include tremors at rest in the hands and difficulty initiating voluntary movements, at later stages there is difficulty chewing and swallowing and with urinary retention and orthostatic hypotension develops

Parkinson's Disease

an autoimmune disorder, cholinergic receptors at the neuromuscular junctions are damaged, muscle weakness and fatigue occur in the face and neck

Myasthenia gravis

used to confirm, diagnose and classify seizures


seizures are recurrent or continuous without full recovery between episodes, severe hypoxia and acidosis develop, changes in the characteristics of CSF develop


caused by a decrease in Glucocorticoids

Addison's Disease

a skin and tissue disorder usually due to severe prolonged hypothyroidism, due to a devdicit of T3 and T4


causes the pituitary gland to produce excess growth hormone, resulting in abnormally tall stature.


an endocrine disorder in which excessive cortisol is excreted. It results in a heavy body and round face, atrophied skeletal muscle in the limbs and atrophy of the lymph nodes.

Cushing's Syndrome

causes excess ADH secretion, severe hyponatremia (electrolyte imbalance) results, fluid retention increases.

Inappropriate ADH (antidiuretic hormone) syndrome

painful urination


signal changes in blood pressure


Blood flows in the kidney in the ___ ___to the ___capillaries to the ___ ___

afferent arteriole, glomerular, efferent arteriole

when the glomerulus is inflamed, ___ appears


When filtrate reaches the proximal convoluted tubule, it contains

sodium and potassium ions

The urinary system is subject to many infections from various sources, including problems like

acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

A urinary infection which causes the urine to be dark because of increased glomerular permeability allowing gross hematuria

acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

blood in urine


Another common problem of urinary infections is

urinary tract infections

term for Kidney stones

renal calculi

are also common urinary tract obstructions problems

renal calculi

Urinary casts are also present with the disease because inflamed tubules mold red blood cells and protein into a typical mass and indicate

inflammation of the kidney tubules

Bilateral kidney disease is another problem that can develop, resulting in

metabolic acidosis

key indicator when decompensated in renal failure is serum pH dropping below 7.35

metabolic acidosis

results in metabolic acidosis because tubule exchanges are impaired

Bilateral kidney disease

Kidney disease can result in headaches, anorexia and lethargy because of

increased blood pressure, elevated serum urea and acidosis

are caused by genetic defects

Wilms' tumor

caused by many factors such as prolonged circulatory shock, sudden exposure to nephrotoxins, and injuries such as crushing or burning

Acute tubule necrosis and renal failure

can also be caused by bilateral acute glomerulonephritis

Acute renal failure



The bladder has ___ that extend as it fills with urine


The three openings in the bladder form the


The brain has ___ hemispheres


If areas of the brain are damaged, they are unable to

direct the body appropriately

damage to the auditory association area in the left hemisphere causes the inability to

understand what is being heard

Beta-1 adrenergic receptors are located in

cardiac muscle

There are efferent and afferent fibers, efferent are

outgoing fibers

as intracranial pressure increases

heart rate decreases

An early indicator of increasing intracranial pressure is

decreasing responsiveness, and the typical change in blood pressure that occurs is an increasing pulse pressure

resulting from increased intracranial pressure results in displacement of brain tissue downward towards the spinal cord


Typical signs of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm include

severe headache, nuchal rigidity and photophobia

Brain tumors often cause headaches because

they can stretch the meninges and blood vessel walls

Focal or generalized seizures can be an early indication of


can be an early indication of tumors as well because surrounding inflammation causes neurons to discharge uncontrollably

Focal or generalized seizures

is considered normal when it is clear and colorless

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

a bacterial infection that can attack the central nervous system

Bacterial meningitis is

swelling and purulent exudate forms in the pia, arachnoid and surface of the entire brain are manifestations of

bacterial meningitis

is the microorganism that causes the infection in children and youth

N. meningitides

After a spinal cord injury, secondary damage may occur due to

instability of vertebrae, catecholamine release in the area and decreased blood pressure

The point on the spinal cord that the damage is done determines

which parts of the body will be affected

spinal cord injury that would result in lower pack pain radiating down the leg

initial effect of a herniated disc at the L4 to L5 level

The extent of permanent spinal cord injury can be assessed ___ to ___ following injury if no complications arise

10 days, 2 weeks

Biochemical abnormalities involving neurotransmitters in the brain can be found in many diseases including

bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and Huntington's disease

With diabetes mellitus, ___ develops because of glucosuria.


occurs in diabetics because the amount of glucose in the filtrate exceeds the renal tubule transport limit


causes polyuria because of a deficit in ADH

Diabetes insipidus

is caused by increased catabolism of fats and proteins, and can cause a loss of consciousness because of acidosis and hypovolemia

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis differs from HHNK (hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma) in

sufficient insulin is available to prevent ketonuria

Insulin shock may develop if ___ occurs


A diabetic with hypoglycemia would have a

staggering gait, disorientation and confusion

causes problems mainly with the circulatory system and organs including the pancreas, however, complication like osteoporosis do not accompany the disease.


drugs act by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin

Oral hypoglycemic drugs

Vision may be impaired in diabetics because of ___ ___ in the lens of the eye

abnormal metabolism

There are different types of available ___, which vary greatly


They have different times until the onset of ___, different times until ___ effect takes place, their duration of ___ is different as is the source of the insulin

action, peak, effect

The effects of long-term intake of ___ results in decreased secretion from the adrenal cortex gland


The effects of thyrotoxic crisis include ___ & ___

hyperthermia and heart failure

Reversible interference with brain function, usually resulting from a mild blow to the head


A bruising of brain tissue


Occurs when the skill is not fractured by the injury but the brain tissue and blood vessels may be ruptured

closed head

Involves fractures or penetration of the brain by missiles or sharp objects

open head

Fractures are simple cracks in the bone


Fractures consist of several facture lines but may not be complicated


Fractures involving trauma in which the brain tissue is exposed to the environment and is likely to be severely damaged because of bone fragments penetrating the tissue


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