fundamental attribution error
people tend to blame environmental factors for their own mistakes, but do not extend this courtesy to others; They hold people totally responsible for their behavior.
James-Lange theory of emotion
states that environmental stimuli trigger physiological changes, i.e., hormone and glandular activity. When these changes register in the brain, we feel an emotion. Hence when threatened we may begin running and then sense the fear afterwards.
a defense mechanism that provides socially acceptable reasons for inappropriate behavior.
a period between infancy and adulthood, is a Western concept that was developed during the last century. Allowing young people the luxury of a few years to develop before assuming the responsibilities of adults is a Western concept.
Social Comparison Theory
In situations lacking objectives, nonsocial means of evaluation, people evaluate themselves by comparison with other people.
this person raised monkeys with dolls instead of their natural mothers. One of the results of his studies suggested that adult sexual receptivity and ability to nurture one's own children are learned early in life.
he performed the obedience studies and the results suggest that people will obey legitimate authority even if the orders are against their moral codes.
Fear or agression around peers
complete social isolation prevents the development of attachment and socialization in primates.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development stage 1
Summary: The concern is for self - "Will I get into trouble for doing (or not doing) it?" Good behavior is associated with avoiding punishment.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development stage 3
The individual is motivated to be "good" as to avoid the disapproval of others and gain their acceptance.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development stage 2
A cost-benefit orientation whereby one behaves morally to obtain rewards.
He was asked in 1904 by the French government to construct a test that would distinguish between normal children and children with severe learning disabilities.
Guilford's model of intelligence
his concept of intelligence is based on a multiple factor theory, which means that he describes intelligence as consisting of a specific set of traits, or factors. He classifies intelligence along three dimensions: operations, contents, and products.
Karl von Frisch
he demonstrated that bees dance around using particular muscular movements in order to communicate the location and distance of food to other members of the hive.
Consistency Theories of Motivation
imbalanced cognitive structures tend to change and become balanced.
Selfridge's Pandemonium Theory
feature analysis theories, describe mechanisms whereby the nervous system analyzes small details in sensory input. Feature analysis also describes the cognitive system as being hierarchically organized in its analysis of information.
A person suffers from this will have more difficulty hearing high-pitched tones. This type of deafness results from damage to the auditory nervous system. Hair cells in the cochlea translate sound vibrations into electrical messages our brain can understand. Specific hair cells respond to specific tones. If some are damaged, the vibration of certain tones will not be properly translated into electrical messages.
this consists of the caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus, are important for slow, gradual movements that can be modified by sensory feedback while the movement is occurring.
is an excitatory postsynaptic potential and refers to changes in a nerve cell's charge, relative to the environment. An ___ occurs when stimulation makes the nerve cell less negative, as would occur if the cell membrane began to allow positive charges to pass through. I it considered excitatory because if it is large enough, it may cause the nerve cell to become suffieciently positive in order to fire.
the correlation between the two scores is the reliability coefficient. Usually, the examiner uses scores on odd and even items as the two scores. This procedure is preferred to comparing scores from the first and second half of the test due to practice effects and fatigue.
fundamental concept of her psychoanalytic theory is basic anxiety. She also broke from classical psychoanalysis and identified 10 neurotic needs of under 3 categories:moving toward, away, and against people.
from ages six to eleven. During this period the child's identification with the parent of his or her own sex becomes stronger.
The psychiatrist who has written several influential books questioning the use of the term "mental illness"
Standarization of a test
implies that there is a uniformity of procedure in administering and scoring the test.
Manifest Anxiety Scale
self-report inventory that determines an individual's arousal level in comparison to group scores on a test. Because anxiety and arousal level are thought to correlate with drive level, learning theorists have been interested in the performance levels of High versus Low Anxious scorers. Many studies using this scale have shown that High Anxious individuals do better on verbal learning tasks than do Low Anxious individuals.
are characterized by a disturbance of mood accompanied by related symptoms. Mood is defined as a prolonged emotional state that colors the whole psychic life and generally involves either depression or elation. In these disorders, the mood tends to be at one extreme or the other. The patient may be depressed, manic, or bipolar.
essential features of this disorder are persistent persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy. The persecutory delusions usually involve a single theme or an organized series of themes, such as being drugged, poisoned, conspired against, or harassed.
Central Nervous System
all nerves encased in bone make up this system. This is system is responsible for processing information and directing actions. It includes brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system
made up of all nerves that are not encased in bone. its main function is to carry messages to and from the CNS.
belongs to the peripheral nervous system, which carries message inward to the central nervous system from the sensory organs (by means of afferent or sensory neurons) and outward from the CNS (by means of efferent or motor neurons) to the muscles for action.
belongs to the peripheral nervous system and is responsible for involuntary functions of the body. It is then divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches.
dilates pupil, inhibits tears, inhibits salivation, activates sweat glands, increases heart rate, increases respiration, inhibits digestion, releases adrenaline, stimulates glucose release, relaxes bladder, inhibits elimination, inhibits genitals.
constricts pupil, stimulates tears, increases salivation, decreases heart rate, constricts blood vessels, decreases respiration, stimulates digestion, contracts bladder, stimulates elimination, stimulates sexual arousal.
Encoding Specificity Principle
items stored in memory the way they are first perceived. Uniqueness of the connection made between the word and the cue is important, as is the context in which the item was presented.
as a Gestalt theorist, he held that problem solving involves restructuring the perceptual field. This can only be accomplished when the subject can view the task as a whole. He believed that true problem solving requires insight and realistic thinking.
Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation
Kohlberg's stage 1 is similar to Piaget's first stage of moral thought. The child assumes that powerful authorities hand down a fixed set of rules which he or she must unquestioningly obey. To the Heinz dilemma, the child typically says that Heinz was wrong to steal the drug because "It's against the law," or "It's bad to steal," as if this were all there were to it. When asked to elaborate, the child usually responds in terms of the consequences involved, explaining that stealing is bad "because you'll get punished"
Stage 2. Individualism and Exchange
At this stage children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints. "Heinz," they might point out, "might think it's right to take the drug, the druggist would not." Since everything is relative, each person is free to pursue his or her individual interests. One boy said that Heinz might steal the drug if he wanted his wife to live, but that he doesn't have to if he wants to marry someone younger and better-looking
Stage 3. Good Interpersonal Relationships
At this stage children--who are by now usually entering their teens--see morality as more than simple deals. They believe that people should live up to the expectations of the family and community and behave in "good" ways. Good behavior means having good motives and interpersonal feelings such as love, empathy, trust, and concern for others. Heinz, they typically argue, was right to steal the drug because "He was a good man for wanting to save her," and "His intentions were good, that of saving the life of someone he loves." Even if Heinz doesn't love his wife, these subjects often say, he should steal the drug because "I don't think any husband should sit back and watch his wife die"
Stage 4. Maintaining the Social Order
in contrast, the respondent becomes more broadly concerned with society as a whole. Now the emphasis is on obeying laws, respecting authority, and performing one's duties so that the social order is maintained. In response to the Heinz story, many subjects say they understand that Heinz's motives were good, but they cannot condone the theft. What would happen if we all started breaking the laws whenever we felt we had a good reason? The result would be chaos; society couldn't function.