Terms in this set (217)
One major component of a drawing includes
-Material part to be made from
-Required heat treatment
Size of am actual object related to its size drawn on print
Bill of materials
List raw materials used to make machined part or components assembled to produce the part
Representing a 3 dimensional object in two dimensions using different views
Shows most details
Projecting the top of an object onto the top surface of the "glass box"
Right side view
Crated by projecting the right side of an object onto the right surface of the "glass box"
When views aren't clearly shown, to provide a better visualization a drawing may contain 3 dimensional view
Object (visible line)
Used to show edges of an object that would be seen in any view
Used to show edges that are not visible in a particular view. Are thin & broken into short dashes
Used to show the center of part:
Thin & broken into alternating long & short dashes
Extend from edges of an object or feature of an object for dimensioning purposes
Used to specify sizes.
Thin & have arrow heads at the end where they meet extensions.
Thin Angeled line with an arrowhead on one end that points to specific feature or detail
Used to show alternative positions of a part or outlines of adjacent parts.
Cutting plane line is used to create special view called
Used to show internal features more clearly
Cutting plane line
Thick & is drawn as one long and two short dashes alternately spaced.the ends of cutting plane line make perpendicular lines
When a cutting line cuts a object and creates a section view ,surfaces that have been cut are shown by section lines.
Typical dimensions (typ)
Multiple identical part features or equal dimensions can be labeled as
Dimension shown on print.
Tolerance is applied to the basic size to determine the largest and smallest acceptable size
For a dimension
Dimension to vary both above & below basic size 2 forms
Allowable amount below basic size
Both amounts equal
Dimension to vary above or below basic size but not both
Does not use +,- or x/-. Instead of basic listed the upper & lower are shown separated by a bar or a slash.
To determine total tolerance from a limit tolerance, simply subtract the lower limit
Maximum material condition
Feature contains most workpiece material within its tolerance .
Think about part weight , when is it heavier , when it has more material
Least material condition
Least material within its tolerance.
Class of fit
Relationship between the sizes of 2 matching parts class of fit.
Minimum amount of clearance, or maximum amount of interference between to mating parts
Geometric dimensioning & tolerance
Uses symbols to show tolerances of form,profile,orientation, location & runout
Gd&t dimensions are often related to reference point. A datum is shown on a drawing as a capital letter inside a square
Feature control frame
Rectangular box with sections for the geometric tolerance symbol
Not related to other features so their features control frames will not continue datums
Entire surface must be flat within a given tolerance zone
Diameter of any cross section of a cylinder
Controls surface of a cylinder across its entire length
Controls frames will specify Datum.Applied to non cylindrical surfaces
Related to other features so their feature control frames will specify datum
Every point on the surface must be equal distance from from the specified datum surface within given tolerance
90 degree Angle to the specified datum within given tolerance zone
Like perpendicularity but it is used for angular surfaces that are not 90 degree
Used to specify the location of features related to other features
Compares relation of the axes of two or more cylindrical features.entire ffeatures must be within Cylindrical tolerance zone.not used very often is very time consuming
Regardless of feature size(rfs)
If a feature control frame contains the letter S inside a circle after the tolerance amount it applies RFS
Are used to check for runout of diameters related to a center axis .another diameter or perpendicular surface
Is term used to describe the process of locating and marketing a workpiece as a visual reference guide
Layout fluid also called layout die
Providec contrast nd make it easier to see layout lines.usually dark colored blue or red.
Layout fluid remover
Aerosal spray. Applied to surface band quickly wiped off
Used to mark straight lines. Scribers have a sharp fine point
One point bent at right angle to help mark hard-to reach locations
Do not make clear lines.
Used to find the center of the cylindrical part
Used to draw circles, radii & arcs. Dividers have 2 legs with scribe points that are adjustable for different sizes
Used to lay out circles or arcs that are too large for dividers.
Trammels composed of
2 sliding scribers which are mounted on a large rod called the beam
Can be used to mark the intersections of lines that locate the center points of circles or arcs
Enlarge the prick punch mark to aid In drilling operations
Used to scribe lines parallel to the edge of the material
Another tool used to lay out angles in semi-precision layout work . The head of this protractor is graduated from 0 to 180 like a combination set protractor
Provides a reference plane fir layout just as it does for measurement task
Made up of a base & a scriber mounted on a spindle that can be adjusted to different positions by a swivel bolt & fine adjustment screw
A rule or a combination set blade,can be clamped to perform this task
Use-ful for holding parts square and steady during layout operations.all side are made at 90-degree angles
Simply bars with opposite sides hat are parallel within very close tolerances. They can be used to raise work above the surface plate and are available in a variety of shape&sizes
Square or rectangular blocks with one or more centrally located,90-degree,v-shaped groove.
Used with a surface plate to measure and mark off horizontal lines in precision layout work.
Used with Phillip head screws. The cross-shapes tip helps prevent slippage and comes in size 1to 4
Straight or slotted screwdriver
Broad, flat tip and are made in many sizes to fit the width and thickness of the screw slot. Use biggest size that will fit the slot
Used when there is not enough room to use a screwdriver with a straight shank. Angles at 90 degrees on one or both ends
Used a wide variety of assembly applications such as automobile assemblies and cutting tool mounting applications.
Slip joint pliers
Used in many holding tasks. The slip joint enables the pliers to open wider in order to hold larger work
Needle Nose pliers
Jaws on needle nose pliers taper toward the end to allow them to be used for holding small work
Adjusted to desire jaw opening size by rotating an adjusting screw in the handle
Side cutting pliers
Known as linemens pliers have broad ,flat jaws and are used for gripping as well as cutting wire & pins
Used for light cutting of wire and pins.
Ball peen hammers
Made in a variety of sizes based on the weight of the head. These hammers are dual purpose, since they have 2 heads for 2 different functions.
Ball peen hammers-striking face
Used for light or heavy stringing tasks, ranging from prick punch use during layout to striking chisels and punches.
Ball peen hammers
Can be used for peening rivets heads or rough forming metal.
Soft face hammers
Used to strike surfaces that could be damaged by hard hammers.
Dead blow hammers
Soft face hammers that are frequently used to seat workpieces on parallels in machine vises.
Used when a soft yet more durable strinking surface is needed.
Rebound after striking.
Dead blow hammer
Have a sand or shot in the head to absorb the energy from striking and keep them for rebounding.
Advantage of dead blow hammer is most of the energy from striking is transmitted to the object being struck instead of making the hammer rebound.
Heads of these hammers are made from tightly rolled & shaped rawhide. Have little rebound
Light-duty wrenches with 2 parallel jaws that may be slid onto a hex or square drive surface
-Positions jaws at 15-degree angle
Box end wrenches
Used when more torque must be applied to the fastener.more strength & eliminating tendency of jaws to spread
Versatile tool but must be properly adjusted to fit the fastener snugly in order to avoid damage to equipment & injury to you. More susceptible to jaws spreading
Made with a socket shaped like a box-end wrench in a hallow cylinder on one end and a square drive hole for attachment to a handle in the other end.
Hex key wrenches
Used on socket head cap & set screws. Used on cutting tool holder& fixtures
Device used to hold work pieces securely to perform operations such as filing or hack sawing
Better work positioning & clamped in the desired position
Fixed base vises
Mounted in fixed position. Made from solid casting & directly fixed to the workbench
Gripping surfaces made or replaceable inserts held in place with pins or screws
Heavy clamping is needed to secure a workpiece. Will possibly damage surfaces
Prevent clamping action of vise from damaging workpiece
C-shape frame & screw.
Useful for heavy duty clamping.
The size of the jaw opening & depth of the throat are used to fete time size of a clamp
Useful light duty applications such as holding small parts.
Have 2 parallel jaws that use 2 parallel screws to adjust the jaw width & to clamp parts
2 hinged clamping jaws that use a screw to force the jaws together for clamping
Moving the file in the direction of its width as pendicular to the workpiece & apply pressure when moving the file in the direction teeth are pointed
Always use a file equipped with a handle to prevent injury from being stabbed
Don't make contact between finger & saw teeth
Always wear Safety glasses when using
Do not saw to fast or put to much pressure on ____ it could break the blade and chase injury
Adjust the wrench so it fits the bolt snugly. Pull wrench toward you with adjustable jaw in the direction of rotation
To prevent I just if wrench slips
Narrow slot produced when sawing
When drawing filing use lighter pressure then went straight filing straight filing is used to remove material fairly quickly while draw filing remove material much more slowly
As you use files their teeth will eventually become clogged with the material you are removing
Straight following is used to remove material fairly quickly while draw filing moves material much more slowly
As you use their teeth will eventually become clogged with material you're moving
Particular on softener metals such as aluminum,particles of the material being filed called pins can embed in teeth
Pinning & loading will occur more quickly if you use too much
Brushes used to clean files
Removes sharp raised edges from work pieces.
Natural or synthetic materials that wear away material to produce a smooth surface or to remove burrs
Operates on the same principle as the hand saw.
Used with power hacksaw
Horizontal band saw
Blade is horizontal
Can cut large pieces of stock quickly & accurately
Horizontal saw ideal for producing
Vertical band saw
Common in almost every shop is useful piece of equipment.
Upper vertical band saw
Idler wheel 2 main purposes
2.can be raised & lowered
Lest expensive but must be run at slower speeds than blades or harder material
Has a carbon steel body with a strip of high-speed steel welded to the one edge .
Bimetal can be used for both
Horizontal & vertical sawing operations
Blades have tungsten carbide brazen to a carbon steel body.
Can touch materials at a high speed
Refers to staggered arrangements of the saw teeth.
The width of the slot produced by the saw blade in the workpiece is called a
Has teeth set in a pattern in which every other tooth switched the side if the blade it is set to
Small groups of teeth with an alternate tooth set but places a tooth with neutral set in between them
Appears as a wave of tooth set with groups set to one side and with the next group gradually changing to the other side
Spacing of teeth from one tooth to the next.
Variable pitch blades
Constantly changing tooth pitch to help alleviate this problem on this sections & reduce vibration during cutting
Teeth Per Inch
Teeth per inch
Is another way to quantify pitch by determining the number of teeth per inch that have been ground into the saw blade
The angle of the saw tooths cutting face
Curved area at the root of a saw tooth in which the metal chips are formed into curls.
The curve of the ___ provides strength for adjacent teeth & a void for chips to be held in as they pass through the work being cut
Refer to shape & pattern of the saw teeth
Regular tooth form
Has large radii in the gullet area of the saw teeth and a zero take angle
Skip tooth form
Also has zero rake
Difference between Skip tooth blade & standard tooth blade is
Every other tooth on the skip tooth blade has been omitted
Skip tooth blade is used to
Cut softener materials
Aluminum & brass
Hook tooth form
Has a positive rake angle& large gullet cuts aluminum & copper
Check for thickness using the machines thickness
Is a round disc of heavy paper surrounding the center area of a grinding wheel
Provides Information on wheel & a cushion when the wheel is mounted
2 most common pedestal grinder
Aluminum oxide & silicon carbide
Most common & used for grinding ferrous metals
To be sure that a grinding wheel did not sustain dangerous cracks during removal,storage,transport perform
A ring test
Is performed by suspending the wheel through a hole on a finger or other object and then tapping it lightly with something sense but non metallic such as screwdriver handle
Most pedestal grinders use 2 think, precision washer like discs
Distribute clamping force during tightening. Should be correct size
Help to support the work during grinding nd May be set at any desired angle to aid in grinding uniform angles surfaces on the work
Used to catch & control most of the sparks and to keep them from contacting the operators hand
-Adjusted within 1/16 of the wheel
Sometimes called star dressers because of shape , used to dress aluminum oxide wheels
Soft metals are ground on the pedestal grinder, small pieces of material can become lodges in the wheel instead of the wheel releasing dull grain. The wheel will then cut inefficiently
Hard metals are ground on the pedestal grinder the grains of the wheel become full more quickly than normal so again new sharp grains are not exposed
Used to hold threading dies when cutting threads
If a tap is somewhat intact, may be used to remove a broken tap
Tap may either be driven with
Straight tap wrench
Used for smaller sizes and afford better feel and sensitivity for how much torque is being applied to help avoid breaking the tap
Provide more leverage which helps you apply the higher torque needed for larger tap sizes
Bottoming chamfer taps
Used when a hole is blind since they can cut full threads nearly all the way to the bottom of the hole
Plug chamfer tap
These taps are most general purpose of the 3 & they are either used by themselves or after a taper tap when it is necessary to thread deeper into a hole
Process of using cylindrical rotating cutting tool that is sharpened on its end to create a hole
Drill bits may be mounted in and driven by a hand held electric drill motor
General purpose drilling done with this
Twist drill bits have spiral grooves in their sides called
2 main starter drill bits
Combination drill& countersink (center drill)
increases the diameter of a hole to certain depth in order to allow a screw head or nut to be positioned with or below the workpiece surface
keeps counterbore bit aligned in the existing hole
process of machining a flat spot on a rough surface surrounding a hole opening so that bolts ,nuts,washers will be properly seated
process of cutting a tapered opening in hole so that a flathead screw can be installed flush with the workpiece surface
coutersinking is also frequently performed to create
at the opening of a hole to allow easier entry of pins, aid in starting taps, and for deburring.
process of finishing a hole to a precise size with a smooth finished surface.
cutting tools used for reaming
have longer flutes and are useful when reaming deep holes
intended to be driven by hand and are fitted with a square driving surface for mounting a wrench
finish holes to a particular size
have slots cut into the body that allow the reamer to expand to the exact size
similar to expansion reamers but they have a different construction,which allows a much heater range of adjustability
taper pin reamer
used to create precise tapers within straight holes that allow them to receive tapered pins
is a spiral groove made on a round eternal or internal diameter
can be cut on the outside diameter of a workpiece with a cutting tool called thread cutting die
can be produced in the inside diameter of workpiece with a tool called a tap
unified thread standard
has established the form and dimensional standards for the consistent interchange of threaded parts
largest diameter of a thread
is the peak of one thread and creates the points where the major diameter is measured
smallest diameter of a thread on one side to the base of the thread on the opposite side
valley between threads and creates the points where the minor diameter is measured
threads per inch (TPI)
number of threads contained within 1 in of the workpiece length
distance from a point on one thread to the same point on the adjacent thread. for inch series threads the pitch may be calculated by diving 1 by the TPI (1/TPI=pitch)
distance a thread will advance in one revolution
imaginary diameter measured where the thickness of the thread and space within the groove are equal
depth of a single thread measured from the crest to the root
threads may be produced to fit more tightly or more loosely with their mating parts depending on their intended use
class of fit
thread system various diameter and pitch combinations are defines as standard.
coarse pitch&fine pitch
for each nominal major diameter the thread series defines one
for inch series threads the first number shown is the
nominal major diameter of the thread
percentage of thread
full thread depth compared to a partial thread depth is called
the recommended drill bit size for a hole prior to tapping is called
National pipe thread(NPT)
these threads are tapered 3/4 inch per foot to help seal them as then tighten together
cut treads and have straight flutes from the tip towards the shank. These taps curl the chips tightly and break them into small pieces.
spiral point (gun) tap
taps also cut threads and have straight flutes with a special angle ground on their ends
thread forming tap
taps do not cut, but form threads by displacing material into the shape of the threads
taper chamfer tap
these taps are sometimes called started taps,since they may be used to start a tapped hole that will be finished with another tap
plug chamfer taps
these taps are the most general purpose of the three and they are either used by themselves or after a taper tap when it is necessary to thread deeper into hole
bottoming chamfer top
used when whole is blind,since they can cut full threads
t-handling tap wrench or a straight tap wrench
are typically used for smaller tap sizes and afford better feel and sensitivity for how much torque is being applied to help avoid breaking the tap
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