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75 terms

The Language of Medicine, 9th ed. - Chapter 20

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radiology
medical specialty concerned with the study of x-rays
nuclear medicine
medical specialty that uses radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease
radiologist
physician who specializes in the practice of diagnostic radiology
nuclear medicine physician
physician who specializes in the diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures
radiologic technologist
allied health care professional who works with physicians in the fields of radiology and nuclear medicine
radiographer
health care professional who aids physicians in administering diagnostic x-ray procedures
radiolucent
When a substance permits passage of most x-rays it is ______________.
radiopaque
When a substance absorbs most of the x-rays they are exposed to it is _________.
ions
previously neutral particles that have been changed to charged particles
mammography
process of using low-dose x-rays to visualize breast tissue
computed tomography
diagnostic x-ray procedure where a cross-sectional image of a specific body segment is produced
CT angiography
process of using CT scanner to produce a 3D image of a beating heart and surrounding blood vessels
contrast studies
radiopaque materials are injected to help visualize a specific part, organ, tube, or liquid when shown on x-ray film
upper GI series
study of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after ingestion of contrast medium
small bowel follow through
study that traces the passage of barium in a sequential manner as it passes through the small intestine
barium enema
study of the large intestine after administration of contrast
double-contrast study
study that uses both radiopaque and radiolucent contrast medium
angiography
x-ray image of blood vessels and heart chambers is obtained after injection of contrast through a catheter
cholangiography
x-ray imaging after injection of contrast into bile ducts
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
x-ray imaging after injection of contrast directly into the common bile duct
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
x-ray imaging of the bile ducts after injection of contrast through the skin and into the liver
digital subtraction angiography
x-ray image of contrast-injected blood vessels is produced by taking two x-ray pictures (one without and one with contrast) and using a computer to subtract obscuring shadows on the second image
hysterosalpingography
x-ray of the endometrial cavity and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast through vagina
myelography
x-ray of the spinal cord after injection of contrast into subarachnoid space
pyelography
x-ray imaging of the renal pelvis and urinary tract
intravenous pyelogram
x-ray imaging of renal pelvis and urinary tract after contrast is injected
retrograde pyelogram
x-ray imaging of renal pelvis and urinary tract after administration of contrast through catheter
urography
x-ray imaging of the urinary tract after administration of contrast
interventional radiology
invasive therapeutic or diagnostic procedures performed by a radiologist
fluoroscopy
use of x-rays and a fluorescent screen to produce real-time video images
radiofrequency ablation
removal of tumors and tissues using interventional radiology
ultrasonography
diagnostic technique that uses of high-frequency sound waves to obtain images of organs and tissues
transducer
hand-held device that sends and receives ultrasound signals
sonogram
record produced by an ultrasound
echocardiography
ultrasound technique used to detect heart valve and blood vessel disorders
Doppler ultrasound
ultrasound technique that records blood flow velocity and detect obstructions in the blood vessels
endoscopic ultrasonography
technique where a small ultrasound transducer installed at the end of an instrument is inserted into the body to obtain images
magnetic resonance imaging
diagnostic technique where electromagnetic energy is used to obtain sharply defined images on a variety of planes
posteroanterior view
x-ray position where x-rays travel from a source in back of the patient to a detector placed in front of the patient
anteroposterior view
x-ray position where x-rays travel from a source in front of the patient to a detector placed in back of the patient
lateral view
x-ray position where x-rays travel from a source located to the right of the patient to a detector placed to the left of the patient
oblique view
x-ray position where x-rays travel in a slanting direction at an angle from the perpendicular plane
abduction
movement away from the midline of the body
adduction
movement toward the midline of the body
eversion
turning outward
inversion
turning inward
extension
lengthening or straightening a limb
flexion
bending a part of the body
lateral decubitus
lying down on the side
prone
lying on the belly
supine
lying on the back
recumbent
lying down (prone or supine)
radionuclide
substance that gives off high-energy particles or rays as it disintegrates; radioisotope
radioisotope
substance that gives off high-energy particles or rays as it disintegrates; radionuclide
half-life
time required for a radioactive substance to lose half of its radioactivity by disintegration
technetium 99m
most frequently used radionuclide with a half-life of six hours
in vitro
process, test, or procedure is performed, measured, or observed outside of the body
radioimmunoassay
in vitro procedure that combines the use of radioactive chemicals and antibodies to detect hormones and drugs in a patient's blood
in vivo
process, test, or procedure is performed, measured, or observed within the body
tracer studies
radionuclides are used as tags, or labels, attached to chemicals and followed as they travel through the body
radiopharmaceutical
the combination of a radionuclide and a drug/chemical; radiolabeled compound
gamma camera
used to determine the distribution and localization of the radiopharmaceutical in various organs, tissues, and fluids
radionuclide scanning
procedure of making an image by tracking the distribution of radioactive substance in the body
uptake
the rate of absorption of the radiopharmaceutical into an organ or tissue
lung scan
imaging procedure where a radiopharmaceutical is given intravenously or by inhalation to diagnose clots in the lung
perfusion studies
radiopharmaceutical is given intravenously to assess how readily blood moves through the capillaries of the lungs
ventilation studies
radiopharmaceutical is inhaled filling the air sacs of the lung
bone scan
imaging procedure where radionuclide is injected intravenously and a scan is taken for better visualization of infection, inflammation, or tumors involving the skeleton
lymphoscintigraphy
type of nuclear medicine imaging that provides pictures of the lymphatic system to specifically identify a sentinel lymph node, areas of blockage, or lymphedema
positron emission tomography
radionuclide technique where radioactive glucose is incorporated into the tissues to be scanned and an image is made showing where the glucose is or is not being metabolized
single photon emission computed tomography
radionuclide technique involving the injection of a radioactive tracer and the computer reconstruction of a 3D image based on a composite of many views; used for detecting liver tumors, detecting cardiac ischemia, and evaluating bone disease
technetium Tc-99m sestamibi scan
radiopharmaceutical is injected and traced to heart muscle; an exercise tolerance test is use with it for an ETT-MIBI scan
thallium scan
radionuclide is injected intravenously to evaluate myocardial perfusion
thyroid scan
iodine radionuclide is administered orally and scan reveals the size, shape, and position of the thyroid gland
radioactive iodine uptake scan
study performed to assess the function of the thyroid after the patient is given radioactive iodine