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medical specialty concerned with the study of x-rays

nuclear medicine

medical specialty that uses radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease


physician who specializes in the practice of diagnostic radiology

nuclear medicine physician

physician who specializes in the diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures

radiologic technologist

allied health care professional who works with physicians in the fields of radiology and nuclear medicine


health care professional who aids physicians in administering diagnostic x-ray procedures


When a substance permits passage of most x-rays it is ______________.


When a substance absorbs most of the x-rays they are exposed to it is _________.


previously neutral particles that have been changed to charged particles


process of using low-dose x-rays to visualize breast tissue

computed tomography

diagnostic x-ray procedure where a cross-sectional image of a specific body segment is produced

CT angiography

process of using CT scanner to produce a 3D image of a beating heart and surrounding blood vessels

contrast studies

radiopaque materials are injected to help visualize a specific part, organ, tube, or liquid when shown on x-ray film

upper GI series

study of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after ingestion of contrast medium

small bowel follow through

study that traces the passage of barium in a sequential manner as it passes through the small intestine

barium enema

study of the large intestine after administration of contrast

double-contrast study

study that uses both radiopaque and radiolucent contrast medium


x-ray image of blood vessels and heart chambers is obtained after injection of contrast through a catheter


x-ray imaging after injection of contrast into bile ducts

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

x-ray imaging after injection of contrast directly into the common bile duct

percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

x-ray imaging of the bile ducts after injection of contrast through the skin and into the liver

digital subtraction angiography

x-ray image of contrast-injected blood vessels is produced by taking two x-ray pictures (one without and one with contrast) and using a computer to subtract obscuring shadows on the second image


x-ray of the endometrial cavity and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast through vagina


x-ray of the spinal cord after injection of contrast into subarachnoid space


x-ray imaging of the renal pelvis and urinary tract

intravenous pyelogram

x-ray imaging of renal pelvis and urinary tract after contrast is injected

retrograde pyelogram

x-ray imaging of renal pelvis and urinary tract after administration of contrast through catheter


x-ray imaging of the urinary tract after administration of contrast

interventional radiology

invasive therapeutic or diagnostic procedures performed by a radiologist


use of x-rays and a fluorescent screen to produce real-time video images

radiofrequency ablation

removal of tumors and tissues using interventional radiology


diagnostic technique that uses of high-frequency sound waves to obtain images of organs and tissues


hand-held device that sends and receives ultrasound signals


record produced by an ultrasound


ultrasound technique used to detect heart valve and blood vessel disorders

Doppler ultrasound

ultrasound technique that records blood flow velocity and detect obstructions in the blood vessels

endoscopic ultrasonography

technique where a small ultrasound transducer installed at the end of an instrument is inserted into the body to obtain images

magnetic resonance imaging

diagnostic technique where electromagnetic energy is used to obtain sharply defined images on a variety of planes

posteroanterior view

x-ray position where x-rays travel from a source in back of the patient to a detector placed in front of the patient

anteroposterior view

x-ray position where x-rays travel from a source in front of the patient to a detector placed in back of the patient

lateral view

x-ray position where x-rays travel from a source located to the right of the patient to a detector placed to the left of the patient

oblique view

x-ray position where x-rays travel in a slanting direction at an angle from the perpendicular plane


movement away from the midline of the body


movement toward the midline of the body


turning outward


turning inward


lengthening or straightening a limb


bending a part of the body

lateral decubitus

lying down on the side


lying on the belly


lying on the back


lying down (prone or supine)


substance that gives off high-energy particles or rays as it disintegrates; radioisotope


substance that gives off high-energy particles or rays as it disintegrates; radionuclide


time required for a radioactive substance to lose half of its radioactivity by disintegration

technetium 99m

most frequently used radionuclide with a half-life of six hours

in vitro

process, test, or procedure is performed, measured, or observed outside of the body


in vitro procedure that combines the use of radioactive chemicals and antibodies to detect hormones and drugs in a patient's blood

in vivo

process, test, or procedure is performed, measured, or observed within the body

tracer studies

radionuclides are used as tags, or labels, attached to chemicals and followed as they travel through the body


the combination of a radionuclide and a drug/chemical; radiolabeled compound

gamma camera

used to determine the distribution and localization of the radiopharmaceutical in various organs, tissues, and fluids

radionuclide scanning

procedure of making an image by tracking the distribution of radioactive substance in the body


the rate of absorption of the radiopharmaceutical into an organ or tissue

lung scan

imaging procedure where a radiopharmaceutical is given intravenously or by inhalation to diagnose clots in the lung

perfusion studies

radiopharmaceutical is given intravenously to assess how readily blood moves through the capillaries of the lungs

ventilation studies

radiopharmaceutical is inhaled filling the air sacs of the lung

bone scan

imaging procedure where radionuclide is injected intravenously and a scan is taken for better visualization of infection, inflammation, or tumors involving the skeleton


type of nuclear medicine imaging that provides pictures of the lymphatic system to specifically identify a sentinel lymph node, areas of blockage, or lymphedema

positron emission tomography

radionuclide technique where radioactive glucose is incorporated into the tissues to be scanned and an image is made showing where the glucose is or is not being metabolized

single photon emission computed tomography

radionuclide technique involving the injection of a radioactive tracer and the computer reconstruction of a 3D image based on a composite of many views; used for detecting liver tumors, detecting cardiac ischemia, and evaluating bone disease

technetium Tc-99m sestamibi scan

radiopharmaceutical is injected and traced to heart muscle; an exercise tolerance test is use with it for an ETT-MIBI scan

thallium scan

radionuclide is injected intravenously to evaluate myocardial perfusion

thyroid scan

iodine radionuclide is administered orally and scan reveals the size, shape, and position of the thyroid gland

radioactive iodine uptake scan

study performed to assess the function of the thyroid after the patient is given radioactive iodine

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