Combo with "Rhetorical Devices" and 2 others
Terms in this set (40)
extended narrative in prose or verse in which characters, events, and settings represent abstract qualities and in which the writer intends a second meaning to be read beneath the surface story. The underlying meaning may be moral, religious, political, social, or satiric. The characters are often personifications of such abstractions as greed, envy, hope, charity, or fortitude
the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words or within words. Alliteration is used in both poetry and prose for unity, emphasis, and musical effect
a passing reference to historical or fictional characters, places, or events, or to other works that the writer assumes the reader will recognize. Allusions may refer to mythology, religion, literature, history, or art. Their power lies in suggestion and connotation. They serve to evoke emotions, convey information concisely, and establish character, mood and setting
double or even multiple meanings, unintentional ambiguity is considered a defect in scientific writing and wherever clarity is prized. Intentional ambiguity in the form of a pun or play on words, is a source of humor much used by stand up comics and writers of dialog for situation comedies. A classification of kinds of ambiguity was provided by another critic, William Empson, who states that ambiguity is language simultaneously effective in several ways
a comparison of similar things, often for the purpose of using something familiar to explain something unfamiliar. An effective metaphor or simile differs from an analogy in that a metaphor or a simile makes an imaginativer, often unexpected comparison between basically dissimilar things
a brief narrative of an entertaining and presumably true incident. Anecdotes are used in biographical writing, essays, and speeches to reveal a personality trait or to illustrate a point.
1. A figure of speech in which opposing or contrasting ideas are balanced against each other in grammatically parallel syntax
2. In reasoning by means of argument, known as dialectic, the antithesis is the statement of the opposing viewpoint
according to Aristotle, the power of tragedy to purge the emotions of pity and fear that its incidents have aroused. Most critics agree that tragic catharsis ultimately affects the audience and that it has something to do with the sense of awe and deep satisfaction, even exaltation, that the audience feels at the tremendous force of the conflict, at the hero's recognition of tragic waste, and at the return to order in the tragic universe
associations, images, or impressions carried by a word, as opposed to the word's literal meaning. Connotations may be individual (resulting from personal experience), group (shared by people with the same professional, national, linguistic, or racial background), or general (common to everyone)
part of a work of literature that precedes or follows a given word, phrase, or passage. Context is important in clarifying, specifying, extending, or changing meaning, Removed from its surroundings, a word or passage may easily take on meanings unintended by the writer and, as a consequence, may not be properly understood or judged
the precise literal meaning of a word, without emotional associations or overtones
Word choice. There are two basic standards-not mutually exclusive-by which a speaker's or writer's diction is usually judged: clarity and appropriateness. Clear diction is both precise and concrete, including a high proportion (approximately one out of every six words) of strong verbs and verbals
A situation in a play or other fiction in which a character unwittingly makes a remark that the audience is intended to understand as ironic, or in contradiction to the full truth. For audiences new to a play and for first-time readers of fiction, dramatic irony can serve as foreshadowing.
An adjective or adjective phrase applied to a person or thing to emphasize a characteristic quality or attribute.
Language that contains figures of speech, such as metaphor, simile, personification, and hyperbole, expressions that make comparisons or associations meant to be interpreted imaginatively rather than literally.
The Greek word for pride or insolence. In his discussion of tragedy in the Poetics, Aristotle identifies hubris as the defect of character that leads the tragic hero to disregard all warnings of impending disaster and thereby hasten the catastrophe.
Obvious, extravagant exaggeration or overstatement, not intended to be taken literally, but used figuratively to create humor or emphasis
The making of "pictures in words", the pictorial quality of a literary work achieved through a collection of images. IMagery appeals to the senses of taste, smell, hearing, and touch, and to internal feelings, as well as to the sense of sight. It evokes a complex of emotional suggestions and communicates mood, tone, and meaning. It can be both figurative and literal.
The presentation to the reader of the flow of a character's inner emotional experience, or stream of consciousness, of a particular moment.
Figure of speech in which there is a contrast in what is said, and what is actually meant. Sarcasm is verbal irony that is harsh and heavy handed rather than clever and incisive.
Refers to the contrast between what is intended or expected and what actually occurs. One form of situational irony, called dramatic irony, involves the audience's being aware of a character's real situation before a character is.
A figure of speech, an implied analogy in which one thing is imaginatively compared to or identified with another, dissimilar thing. In a metaphor, the qualities of something are ascribed to something else, qualities that it ordinarily does not possess.
A figure of speech that substitutes the name of a related object, person, or idea for the subject at hand. Metonymy should not be confused with synecdoche, a substitution of a part of something for the whole or the whole for a part.
A recounting of a series of actual or fictional events in which some connection between the events is established or implied. Among the various types of narratives are short stories, novels, epics, ballads, histories, biographies, travel books, accounts of scientific experiments, and do-it-yourself articles.
The use of words whose sound imitates the sound of the thing being named.
a figure of speech in which two contradictory words or phrases are combined in a single expression, giving the effect of a condensed paradox
a statement that while apparently self-contradictory, is nonetheless essentially true
the technique of showing that words, phrases, clauses, or larger structures are comparable in context and importance by placing them side by side and making them similar in form
a figure of speech in which human characteristics and sensibilities are attributed to animals, plants. inanimate objects, natural forces, or abstract ideas
point of view
The vantage point, or stance, from which a story is told, the eye and mind through which the action is perceived and filtered; sometimes called narrative perspective. There are two general narrative points of view, first person (I) and third person (he, she, they), which depend on whether the narrator stands inside the story or outside of it. Employing a first-person point of view has several advantages. One of these is credibility. A strange or fantastic story is easier to believe if told by someone who is supposedly relating to a firsthand experience. Another advantage is intimacy. The "I" narrator seems to address the reader directly and from the heart, sharing his personal observations and insights with an interested listener. But first-person narration also has disadvantages. The reader can see, hear, and know only what the narrator sees, hears, and knows. The reader must form an opinion indirectly, evaluating what the narrator says, thinks, and does.
(omniscient) point of view
here the narrator, standing outside the story, assumes a godlike persona, moving about freely in time and space, revealing the thoughts and motives of all the characters, knowing the present, past, and future, and (sometimes) commenting on or interrupting the actions of the characters. The major advantage of this approach is its obvious freedom and unlimited scope
the art of persuasion in speaking or writing. Rhetoric originated in ancient Greece as principles for orators (rhetors) to follow in "discovering all the possible means of persuading in any given case or situation." The rhetorical process included five stages- invention, (discovering the logical, ethical, and emotional arguments),arrangement (organising the argument), style (choosing words and figures in which to express the argument), memory, and delivery
a term used to describe any form of literature that blends ironic humor and wit with criticism for the purpose of ridiculing folly, vice, and stupidity- the whole range of human foibles and frailties- in individuals and institutions. Satire differs from comedy in that satire seeks to correct, improve, or reform through ridicule, while comedy aims simply to amuse
a figure of speech that uses, like, as or as if to compare to essentially different objects, actions, or attributes that share some aspect of similarity, in contrast to a metaphor, in which a comparison is implied, a simile expresses a comparison directly
the concious and artful use of symbols, objects, actions, or characters meant to be taken both literally and as representative of some higher, more complex and abstract significance that lies beyond ordinary meaning
a figure of speech in which a part of something stands for the whole thing
the arrangement and grammatical relation of words, phrases, and clauses in sentences, the ordering of words into phrases, clauses, and sentences
in literature, the central or dominating idea, the "message," implicit in a work. The theme of work is seldom stated directly it is an abstract concept indirectly expressed through recurrent images, actions, characters, and symbols, and must be inferred by the reader or spectator. Theme differs from subject ( the topic or thing described in a work) in that theme is a comment, observation, or insight about the subject
the reflection in a work of the author's attitude towards his or her subject, characters and readers. Tone in writing is comparable to tone of voice in speech and may be described as brusque, friendly, imperious, insinuating, teasing, and so on
the appearance or truth, actuality, or reality; what seems to be true in fiction