Chapter 15 - Earth Science
Terms in this set (38)
What are the three major oceans?
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian
What are three seas?
Mediterranean, Caribbean, Bering
What is the difference between a sea and ocean?
seas are smaller and partly or mostly land-locked, oceans are large bodies of salt water
What are the top four ions in seawater?
chloride, sodium, sulfate, magnesium
study of earth's oceans including the creatures that inhibit its waters, its physical and chemical properties and the affects of human activities, also a discipline usually considered to have begun with the Challenger
Side Scan Sonar
technique that directs sound waves at an angle to the seafloor or deep lake floor, allowing underwater topographic features to be mapped
level of oceans surfaces, which is presently rising 1 to 2 mm per year due to melting glaciers
1920s, started using sonar to map the South Atlantic
What does sonar stand for?
sound navigation and ranging
What percentage of the Northern hemisphere is water?
What percentage of the Southern hemisphere is water?
What percentage of earth does oceans cover?
What indicated water throughout history?
radioactive isotopes and ancient lava flows
Where do we think water came from?
comets, meteorites, and volcanism
a measure of the amount of dissolved salts in seawater
plots changing ocean water temperatures with depth, which varies, depending on location and season
transitional ocean layer that lies between the relatively warm, sunlit surface layer and the colder, dark, dense bottom layer, and is characterized by temperatures that decrease rapidly with depth
What is freshwater's density?
1 g/cm cubed
What is seawater's density?
1.02-1.03 g/cm cubed
Where does red light travel?
on the surface of ocean
Where does blue light travel?
deep into the ocean
What are the three levels of the ocean?
bottom, thermocline, and upper
a rhythmic movement that carries energy through space or matter, is generated mainly by wind moving over the surface of the water
highest point of a wave
lowest point of a wave
collapsing wave that forms when a wave reaches shallow water and is slowed by friction with the ocean bottom
periodic rise and fall of sea level caused by the gravitational attraction among earth, the moon, and the sun
movement of ocean water that occurs in depths too great to be affected by surface winds and is generated but differences in water temperature and salinity
wind driven movement of ocean water that primarily affects the upper few hundred meters of the ocean
upward movement of ocean water that occurs when winds push surface water aside and it is replaced with cold, deep water that originates on the ocean bottom
expanse of water the wind blows across
Why are upwelling waters always cold?
they originate from the bottom of the ocean
What happens when a wave passes?
water moves in circles and and stops at half the wavelength
What does wave height depend on?
wind speed, wind duration, and fetch
caused by sun
caused by moon
when sun, moon, and earth are aligned, strong current
when, sun, moon, and earth form right angle