bio chapter 7
questions are starred, vocab is not.
Terms in this set (41)
movement of molecules from low to high: usues transport protein, requires energy
a structure that identifies the cell
structure that allows cells to communicate with each other to work as a unit
the amount of molecules in a specified area
a difference in amount of molecules between two areas
movement of molecules from high to low energy
use of vesivles to move polymers into the cell. (surrounds it and takes in, dissolves)
use of vesicles to move polymers out of the cell ( surrounds it, binds with membrane, releases particles)
Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low concentration, Moves with the concentration gradient
Having a higher concentration of solute than another solution.
having LESS solute molecules than cytoplasm of a cell.
EQUAL amounts of solute molecules
high to low movement of water through phospholipid bi-layer; no energy required
high to low movement of monomers, uses transport protein to increase the rate of diffusion, no energy required.
structure that consists of 2 layers of lipids
allows certain molecules to pass through' keeps some molecules out
substance that is disolved
mixture of a substance that is dissolved in a another
In a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves.
Move items through the plasma membrane that can't pass through it
outwards pressure on cells
what is a lipid bilayer?
basic structure of the cell that defines teh cells barrier and consists of 2 phospholpid layers
why is the current model of the membrane strucure called fluid mosaic?
the membrane is fluid and is made up of 2 layers of fatty molecules called phospholipids
what is the function of the protein molecules in the cell membarane
protein molecules function is to move large particles in, through, and out of the cell membrane
what does it mean to be selectively permeable?
selectivity permeable membrane either allows solutes to pass freely, pass with some assistance or not allow solutes to pass.
what is facilitated diffusion?
type of passive transport, uses no energy, increases the rate of diffusion with carrier proteins.
in reference to diffusion, " down the concentration gradient" means the molecules move from..
and area of high concentration to an area of low concentrations
name three ways in which the rate of diffusion can be affected
solid liquid gas
temperature and concentration gradient
what are the two major components of the cell membrane>
a solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances is HIGHER than the concentration inside the cell.
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is Lower than the concentration of solutes inside the cell.
a solution in which the concentrationn of dissolvd substances (solutes) is the SAme as the concentration of solutes inside the cell.
In an isotonic solution, does osmosis ocuur? why or why not.
No, because a concentration graadien is not established. no n.et water movement
What happens when plants and animal cells are placed in a isotonic solution?
plant cell becomes flaccid, looks normal but a little different
animal cells look normal.
what happens when plants and animal cells are place in hypOtonic solution?
plant: plant tissues become stiffer as vauoles will with water and cells push against wall
animal: water will move thru membrane into the cell. cell swells and lyses(bursts)
what happens when plants and animal cells are placed in hypertonic solution?
plants:will loose water from vacuoles and a decreases in turgor pressure (internal pressue) will occur so its plasmolized.
Animals: shrivel because of decreased turgor pressure ex.slug
sodium potassium pump
a specific case of active transport where the pump transports 3NA out of the cell and 2K into the cell.
what does sodium potassium pump keep continuous
it keeps extra cellular concentration of sodium high and the intracellular concentration of potassium high
How much energy does sodium potassium pump use?
30% of the energy available to any animal cell.