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Bio 35 (Nervous System)
The Human Body
Cell that carries messages throughout the nervous system.
Extension of the cell body of a neuron that carries impulses from the environment or from other neurons toward the cell body.
Insulating membrane surrounding the axon in some neurons.
Electrical charge across the cell membrane of a resting neuron.
Reversal of charges across the cell membrane of a neuron; also called a nerve impulse.
Minimum level of a stimulus required to activate a neuron.
Location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell.
Chemical used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell.
Largest part of a typical neuron; conatins the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm.
Long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body of a neuron.
Cell that is uniquely suited to performing a particular function.
Tissue that covers the surface of the body and lines internal organs.
Tissue that holds organs in place and binds different parts of the body together.
Tissue that receives messages from the body's external and internal environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response.
Tissue that controls the internal movement of materials in the body, as well as external movement.
Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable environment.
Process in which the product or result stops or limits the process.
Three layers of connective tissue in which the brain and spinal cord are wrapped.
Fluid in the space between the meninges that acts as a shock absorber that protects the central nervous system.
Area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body.
Region of the brain that coordinates body movements.
Structure that connects the brain and spinal cord; includes the medulla oblongata and the pons.
Brain structure that receives messages from the sense organs and relays the information to the proper region of the cerebrum for further processing.
Brain structure that acts as a control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature.
Quick automatic response to a stimulus.
Sensory receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, and effector that are involved in a quick response to a stimulus.
Neuron that reacts to a specific stimulus, such as light or sound, by sending impulses to other neurons and eventually to the central nervous system.
Small opening in the middle of the iris through which light enters the eye.
Transparent object behind the iris that changes shape to help adjust the eye's focus to see near or distant objects.
Innermost layer of the eye; contains photoreceptors.
Photoreceptor in eye that is sensitive to light but not to colors.
A photoreceptor that responds to the light of different colors, producing color vision.
Fluid-filled part of the inner ear; sends nerve impulses to the brain through the cochlear nerve.
One of three structures within the inner ear that help monitor the position of the body.
Sense organ that detects the flavor of a substance.
Any substance, other than food, that causes a change in the structure or function of the body.
A signal to which an organism responds.
Drug that decreases the rate of functions regulated by the brain.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Group of birth defects caused by the effects of alcohol on a fetus.
Intentional misuse of any drug for nonmedical purposes.
Uncontrollable dependence on a drug.
Levels of organization in multicellular organisms
cell, tissue, organ, organ system
coordinates the body's response to changes in its internal and external environments.
skin etc., serves as a barrier, regulates temp, protects against uv radiation
provides oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from the body
Converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by cells of the body, absorbs food.
eliminates waste products of metabolism from the body, maintains homeostasis
supports the body, protects internal organs, allows movement, stores mineral reserves, provides a site for blod cell formation
works with skeletal system to produce voluntary movement, help sto circulate blood and move food thru the digestive system
controls growth, development, and reproduction.
produces reproductive cells, in females nurtures and protects developing embryo
helps protect the body from disease, collects fluid lost from blood vessels and returns it to circulatory system
made from epithelial tissue - is a structure that makes and secretes a particular product
carry impulses from the sense organs to the spinal chord and brain.
carry impulses from the brain and the spinal chord to muscles and glands.
connect sensory and motor neurons and carry impulses between them.
axon ends in a small series of swellings
begins when a neuron is stimulated by another neuron or by its environment.
band of tissue that connects the hemispheres of the brain.
consists of desnsely packed nerve cell bodies.
outer surface of cerebrum.
Peripheral nervous system
Divided into sensory and motor divisions.
Central nervous system
relays messages, processes info, analyzes info. Consists of the brain and spinal chord.
Somatic nervous system
regulates conscious activities. Also involved with reflex arcs.
Autonomic nervous system
regulates involuntary activities like hearbeats.
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
both control autonomic nervous system responsibilities oppositely.
transmits impulses from sense organs to the c.n.s.
transmits imuplses from the central nervous system to muscles or glands. Divided into somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system.