52 terms

Bio 36 (Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems)

The Human Body
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skeleton
supports the body, protects internal organs, provides for movement, stores mineral reserves, site for blood cell formation
axial skeleton
skull, vertebral column, rib cage
appendicular skeleton
bones of arms, legs, pelvis, shoulder
bones
solid network of living cells and protein fibers that are surrounded by deposits of calcium salt
periosteum
outer tough layer of connective tissue
compact bone
dense bone
spongy tissue
less dense bone, inside periosteum
Haversian canals
tubes running through compact bone carrying blood vessels and nerves
osteocytes
mature bone cells
osteoblasts
produce bone
osteoclasts
break down bone
marrow
soft tissue, two types - yellow (fat cells) and red (red blood cells)
cartilage
connective tissue of tough collagen and elastic fibers; does not contain blood vessels; can support weight but is still flexible
ossification
cartilage is replaced by bone
joints
classified as immovable, slightly movable, or freely movable
immovable joints
fixed joints, where bones of the skull meet
slightly movable joints
restricted movement, joints between vertebrae and joints between two bones of the lower leg
freely movable joints
movement in one or more directions
ball-and-socket joints
movement in many directions
hinge joints
back-and0forth movement
saddle joints
one bone slides in two directions
cartilage
covers the surface where two bones come together
ligaments
tough connective tissue that holds joints together
bursitis
inflammation of the bursa
arthritis
inflammation of the joint itself
osteoporosis
the loss of bone (common in older women)
types of muscle tissue
skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
skeletal muscle
large, many nuclei, striated, voluntary control
smooth muscle
involuntary (peristalsis), one nucleus, not striated
cardiac muscle
only found in heart, striated, one or two nuclei, branched, involuntary
myofibrils
what skeletal muscles are composed of
myosin
thick filaments
actin
thin filaments
sarcomeres
muscle units formed by filaments
contraction
actin slides over myosin and the distance between the Z lines decreases
ATP
provides the energy for muscle contraction
motor neurons
impulses from these control the contraction of skeletal muscle
neuromuscular junction
where the muscle cell and neuron meet
acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter that moves across the gap (synapse) between the neuron and motor cell
Ca+2 ions
an impulse transmitted to the muscle cell causes the release of these
tendons
attach skeletal muscles to bones
integumentary system
skin, hair, nails, and a variety of glands
integumentary system
barrier against infection and injury, regulates body temperature, removes waste products, protects against UV rays from the sun
epidermis
outer layer of skin that consists of dead cells
keratin
protein in dead epidermal cells that protects and waterproofs underlying cells
melanocytes
located in the epidermis, produce melanin
melanin
protects skin from UV and creates difference in skin colors
dermis
inner layer of skin that contains collagen fibers, blood vessels, nerve endings, glands, sensory receptors, smooth muscles, and hair follicles
homeostasis
the skin along with other organs helps maintain this
sebaceous glands
make sebum ("oil") that keeps skin waterproof and flexible
skin cancer
can be caused by excessive exposure to UV light
hair
protects scalp from UV, provides insulation from the cold, and blocks dirt (nostrils, ear canals, and eye lashes)
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