OHS The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Chapter One Key Terms
Mrs. Clark's AP Human Geography Class Vocabulary list for Chapter One of Rubenstein's 9th Edition textbook.
Terms in this set (98)
The position of place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude, 0° to 90° north or south of the equator, and longitude, 0° to 180° east or west of the Prime Meridian passing through Greenwich, England.
the degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations, __________ varies from place to place and can be measured
the space in which daily activity occurs
azimuthal (polar) projection
A map which shows true compass directions; longitude lines are straight and latitude lines are circles; distorts shape and size more toward the outer edges.
A special kind of map that distorts the shapes and sizes of countries or other political regions to present economic or other kinds of data for comparison.
The science of making maps.
A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area.
the spread of something over a given area
relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
the degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network
the rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
an isoline map showing heights at regular intervals above sea level by means of __________ lines, used in topography
A region stretching from South Carolina to east Texas where most of U.S. cotton was grown during the mid-1800's
a type of map projection in which distances measured along the equator are correct, but become more distorted along the poles
the frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
the process or spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
measurement of the physical space between two places
the arrangement of something across Earth's surface
Maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as a population.
a nineteenth- and early twentieth century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities
shows the size of regions in correct relation to one another but distorts shape
The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century B.C.; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography."
the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
formal (or uniform/homogeneous) region
an area in which everyone shares on one or more distinctive characteristics
fractional (representative fraction) scale
A way of representing scale on a map with a fraction or ratio. Eg: 1/24,000 or 1:24,000 The left handed side represents distance on the map. The right handed side represents distance on the Earth.
friction of distance
a measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places
functional (or nodal) region
an area organized around a node or focal point
Maps that show general trends, but do not show all cases of a given phenomena. The scale may be too broad to show all information.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
a computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
Global Positioning System (GPS)
a system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
graduated circle (or proportional symbol) maps
The size of the symbol indicates the relative magnitude of some value for a given geographic region. The larger the circle the more frequent something happens.
graphic scale (bar scale)
ruler printed on the map and is used to convert distances on the map
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
the time in the zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0 degrees longitude
the region from which innovative ideas originate
the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
the political/cultural branch of geography concerned with the social science aspects of how the world is physically arranged
relationship between people and environment; the second theme of geography
International Date Line
an arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross this line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours. When you cross the line going west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.
Map displaying lines that connect points of equal value; for example, a map showing elevation levels
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers
the overall appearance of an area. Most ___________ are comprised of a combination of natural and human-induced influences
A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. ___________ maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than ____________ maps.
the numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance N and S of the equator (0 degrees)
the position of anything on Earth's surface; the first theme of geography
the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance E and W of the prime meridian (0 degrees)
A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it, also called a projection
mental (cognitive) map
a representation of a portion of the earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located
A true conformal cylindrical map projection, the ____________ projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. ____________ projections are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized.
an arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles
the fifth theme of geography; the mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the surface of the planet
a sphere that flattens at its poles and bulges at its equator, the shape of the earth
a circle drawn around the globe ____________ to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
the geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
perceptions of places
belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, movies, stories, and pictures
A cylindrical map projection that attempts to retain accurate sizes of all the world's land masses
the study of physical features of the earth's surface
a map that shows mountains, hills, plains, rivers, lakes, oceans, etc.
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character. Also defined as a geographical term that describes the unique physical and human characteristics of a location; the fourth theme of geography
the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next
a map that shows man-made features such as city, state, and country boundaries
the theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
the meridian, designated at 0 degrees longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map, also simply a flat map.
maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of ___________, typically latitude and longitude.
an area defined by an unique combination of one or more natural or cultural characteristics that set it apart from other areas, the third theme of geography
regional (or cultural landscape) studies
an approach to geography that emphasizes the relationship among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
the regional position or situation of a place in ___________ to the position of other places
the spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
the acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
a substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use
Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each.
The northern industrial states of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the United States and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate.
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.
sense of place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character
the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
the physical character of the place
the location of a place relative to other places
Map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small; usually depict large areas
The physical gap or interval between two objects.
space-time convergence (or compression)
the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
pertaining to or involving or having the nature of space
the patterns of geographic features over Earth's surface
the spread of something over time and space
the movement (e.g.. of people, goods, information) between different places; an indication of interdependence between different geographic locations or areas
an intellectual framework that looks at the locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is, and finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in another place
the spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected
U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II.
individual maps of specific features that are overlaid on one another in a Geographical Information System to understand and analyze a spatial relationship
Maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon
the surface features of a place or region. The ____________ of a region includes hills, valleys, streams, lakes, bridges, tunnels, and roads.
the name given to a portion of the earth's surface
a company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
the increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
description of scale using words "one inch equal four miles"
vernacular (perceptual) region
an area that people believe to exist as part of their cultural identity
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