OHS The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Chapter Two Key Terms
Mrs. Clark's AP Human Geography Class Vocabulary list for Chapter Two of Rubenstein's book.
Terms in this set (53)
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
An increase in population by almost 30 million people following World War II in the United States. This spurred a growth in suburbs and three to four children families.
The maximum number of individuals of any species that can be supported by a particular ecosystem on a long-term basis
A complete enumeration of a population.
child mortality rate (CMR)
Annual number of deaths per thousand children within the first five years of life.
chronic or degenerative diseases
Generally long-lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancy, such as heart disease.
A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
crude birth rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
crude death rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine in which stage in the demographic transition model a country is.
demographic (population) momentum
The tendency for population growth to continue despite stringent family planning programs because of a relatively high concentration of people in the childbearing years.
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
The scientific study of population characteristics.
DTM Stage One
hunting and gathering society, in which a society has a low total population with fluctuations in both the birth and death rates. When the birth rates are high the death rates are low & vice versa. Example: No countries in this stage.
DTM Stage Two
agricultural society, birth rates remain high but death rates decline because of more stable food sources and the diffusion of modern medicine (birth rates & death rates remain higher than the world average) & technology Example: most African countries.
DTM Stage Three
industrial society, birth rates start to decline while death rates continue to decline, factories and economies become important (birth/death rates are around the world averages) Example: most Central & South American countries
DTM Stage Four
tertiary (service-based) societies, birth rates and death rates are almost equal, no longer an industrial society
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
a stable situation in which forces cancel one another
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality.
growth as a percentage of a total population in an ideal, unlimited environment, represented by a J-shaped curve when population size is plotted over time
genetic or inherited diseases
Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in a human.
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
infant mortality rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
The act of killing an infant
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. _____________________________ at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Diseases that are caused by infecting organisms; they can be passed from person to person
a growth curve that depicts exponential growth; shaped like a "J"
growth that occurs evenly across each unit of time
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834), said human population cannot continue to increase exponentially; consequences will be war, famine & disease
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
a region in which several large cities and surrounding areas grow together, such as the New York - Washington, D.C. corridor
natural increase rate (NIR)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Argue two main points: 1. the gap between population growth and resources is wider in some countries; 2. the world population growth is outstripping a wide variety of resources , not just food production; viewpoint held that in order to lift living standards, the existing national efforts to lower mortality rates had to be balanced by governmental programs to reduce birth rates.
Restrictive, anti-natalist policy in China that aimed at immediately reducing China's birth rate to replacement level and below. The policy allows people to have only 1 child in the city and 2 children in the countryside. Citizens were offered incentives to follow the policy.
The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Disease (epidemic) that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education.
population (arithmetic) density
The total number of people divided by the total land.
The pattern or arrangement of people over an area.
the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
the average number of children each parent must have in order to "replace" themselves in the population, Number of children needed to replace a couple (2.0 theoretically, 2.1 in MDC, 2.7 in LDC)
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Leveling off of an exponential, J-shaped curve when a rapidly growing population exceeds the carrying capacity of its environment and ceases to grow.
total fertility rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
zero population growth (ZPG)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.