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90 terms

Radiology Biology & Protection (Unit Test 2)

STUDY
PLAY
When laser light is incident on the sensing material in an OSL dosimeter, the material:

a. Becomes luminescent in proportion to the amount of radiation exposure received
b. Flouresces in proportion to the amount of radiation exposure received and then emits beta particles
c. Phosphoresces in proportion to the amount of radiation exposure received and then darkens
d. Turns ice blue and fluoresces in proportion to the amount of radiation exposure received
a. Becomes luminescent in proportion to the amount of radiation exposure received
Which of the following chemicals functions as the sensing material in a thermoluminescent dosimeter?

a. Barium sulfate
b. Calcium tungstate
c. Lithium fluoride
d. Sodium iodide
c. Lithium fluoride
During routine radiographic procedures, when a protective apron is not being worn, the primary personnel dosimeter should be attached to the clothing on the front of the body at:

a. Collar level to approximate the maximum radiation dose to the thyroid and the head and neck
b. Chest level to approximate the maximum radiation dose to the heart and lungs
c. Hip level to approximate the maximum radiation dose to the reproductive organs
d. Waist level to approximate the maximum radiation dose to the small intestine
a. Collar level to approximate the maximum radiation dose to the thyroid and the head and neck
Which of the following requirements should radiation survey instruments fulfill?

1. Instruments must be reliable by accurately recording expsoure rate
2. Instruments must be durable enough to withstand normal use
3. Instruments should interact with ionizing radiation in a manner similar to the way in which
human tissue interacts

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. 3 only
d. 1, 2, and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3
During diagnostic imaging procedures, how should the radiation dose to the abdomen of a pregnant radiographer be monitored during gestation?

a. It should be estimated from the radiaiton dose recorded by the primary monitor worn at collar level
b. It should be obtained from the primary radiation monitor worn at abdominal level
c. It should be obtained from a second radiation monitor worn at abdominal level
d. It is not necessary to monitor the radiation dose to the embryo fetus that results from occupational exposure of a pregnant radiographer durifng gestation
c. It should be obtained from a second radiation monitor worn at abdominal level
When a radiologic procedure requires the hands of a radiation worker to be near the primary beam, the equivalent dose to the hands of that individual may be determined through the use of:

a. The primary personnel minitor worn at collar level
b. A pocket ionization chamber attached to the wristwatch of the radiation worker
c. A TLD ring badge worn on the hand of the radiation worker
d. A cutie pie
c. A TLD ring badge worn on the hand of the radiation worker
Which of the following instruments is used to calibrate radiographic and fluoroscopic x-ray equipment?

a. Proportional counter
b. GM detector
c. Ionization chamber with electrometer
d. Pocket ionization chamber
c. Ionization chamber with electrometer
For x-ray and gamma ray photons with energies from 5 keV to in excess of 40 meV, the ________ gives an accurate reading as ow as 1 mrem.

a. Film badge
b. OSL dosimeter
c. Pocket ionization chamber
d. TLD
b. OSL dosimeter
Which of the following instruments should be used to locate a lost radioactive source or detect low-level radioactive contamination?

a. GM detector
b. Proportional counter
c. Ionization chamber-type survey meter (cutie pie)
d. TLD analyzer
a. GM detector
Which of the following instruments should be used in an x-ray installation to assess fluoroscopic scatter radiation exposure rate?

a. GM detector
b. Ionization chamber-type survey meter (cutie pie)
c. Proportional counter
d. TLD
b. Ionization chamber-type survey meter (cutie pie)
In a DNA macromolecule, the sequence of ________ determines the characteristics of every living thing.

a. Sugars
b. Phosphates
c. Nitrogenous organic bases
d. Hydrogen bonds
c. Nitrogenous organic bases
Radiation-induced chromosome damage may be evaluated during which of the following processes?

a. Prophase
b. Metaphase
c. Anaphase
d. Telophase
b. Metaphase
If exposure to ionizing radiaiton damages the components involved in molecular synthesis beyond repair, cells do which of the following?

a. Continue to function normally
b. Function abnormally or die
c. Repair themselves immediately because of the enzymatic proteins they contain
d. Reproduce themselves in pairs
b. Function abnormally or die
Which of the following produces antibodies?

a. Erythrocytes
b. Lymphocytes
c. Thrombocytes
d. Platelets
b. Lymphocytes
Water constitutes approximately ________ of the weight of the human body.

a. 30% to 35%
b. 50% to 55%
c. 65% to 70%
d. 80% to 85%
d. 80% to 85%
Which of the following must the human body provide to ensure efficient cell operation?

1. Food as a source of raw material for the release of energy
2. Oxygen to help break down food
3. Water to transport inorganic substances into and out of the cell

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 1 and 3 only
c. 2 and 3 only
d. 1, 2, and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3
Which human cell component controls cell division and multiplication as well as biochemical reactions that occur within the cell?

a. Endoplasmic reticulum
b. Mitochondria
c. Lysosomes
d. Nucleus
d. Nucleus
What term is used to describe chemical secretions that are manufact996ured by various endocrine glands and carried by the bloodstream to influence the activities of other parts of the body?

a. Amino acids
b. Antibodies
c. Hormones
d. Disaccharides
c. Hormones
Somatic cells divide through the process of:

a. Meiosis
b. Mitosis
c. Mapping
d. Metabolism
b. Mitosis
For radiaiton protection, high-LET radiation is of greatest concern when a radionuclide has been implanted, ingested, injected, or inhaled because:

a. Only single-strand breaks in DNA are possible
b. The potential exists for repairable damage of single-strand breaks in DNA
c. The potential exists for irreparable damage because multiple-strand breaks in DNA are possible
d. The potential exists for repairable damage in DNA resulting from multiple-strand breaks
c. The potential exists for irreparable damage because multiple-strand breaks in DNA are possible
Free radicals behave as an extremely reactive single entity as a result of the presence of:

a. Paired electrons
b. Unpaired electrons
c. Paired neutrons and protons
d. Unpaired neutrons and protons
b. Unpaired electrons
Which of the following are classified as high-LET radiation?

1. Alpha particles 2. Gamma rays 3. X-rays

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. 3 only
d. 1, 2, and 3
a. 1 only
Which of the following are classified as low-LET radiation?

1. Alpha particles 2. Gamma rays 3. X-rays

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 1 and 3 only
c. 3 only
d. 2 and 3 only
e. 1, 2, and 3
d. 2 and 3 only
24. Which action of ionizing radiation is most harmful to the human body?

a. Direct action
b. Indirect action
c. Epidemiologic action
d. Mitotic action
b. Indirect action
Germ cells divide through the process of:

a. Meiosis
b. Mitosis
c. Mapping
d. Metabolism
a. Meiosis
Which molecules in the human body are most commonly directly acted on by ionizing radiation to produce molecular damage through an indirect action?

a. Protein
b. Carbohydrate
c. Fat
d. Water
d. Water
When significant numbers of lymphocytes are damaged by exposure from ionizing radiation, the body:

1. Loses its natural ability to combat infection
2. Becomes more susceptible to bacteria
3. Becomes more susceptible to viral antigens

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 1 and 3 only
c. 2 and 3 only
d. 1, 2, and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3
With respect to the law of Bergonie' and Tribondeau, which of the following would best complete this statement? "The most pronounced radiation effects occur in cells having the ____________."

a. Least reproductive activity, shortest mitotic phases, and most maturity
b. Greatest reproductive activity, shortest mitotic phases, and most maturity
c. Greatest reproductive activity, longest mitotic phases, and least maturity
d. Least reproductive activity, shortest mitotic phases, and least maturity
c. Greatest reproductive activity, longest mitotic phases, and least maturity
What do basal cells of the skin, intestinal crypt cells, and reproductive cells have in common?

a. All cells are hypoxic.
b. All cells are premalignant.
c. All cells are radioinsensitive
d. All cells are radiosensitive.
d. All cells are radiosensitive.
In keeping with ALARA concept, most health care facilities issue personnel dosimetry devices when personnel might receive about ________ of the annual occupational EfD limit in any 1 month, or approximately 0.5 mSv (50 mrem).

a. 25%
b. 10%
c. 5%
d. 1%
d. 1%
Diagnostic imaging personnel should wear a personnel dosimeter during routine operations in an imaging facility because the device provides:

1. An indication of an individual's working habits
2. An indicaiton of working conditions in the facility
3. A way for the employer to determine if radioation workers are actively engaged
in performing a specific number of x-ray procedures during a given period

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 1 and 3 only
c. 2 and 3 only
d. 1, 2, and 3
a. 1 and 2 only
The image densities cast by filters in a film badge permit which of the following?

a. Determination of the percentage of visible light emission
b. Reuse of the radiographic film in the badge
c. Estimation of the energy of the radiation reaching the badge
d. Determination of the electrical discharge of the device
c. Estimation of the energy of the radiation reaching the badge
Which of the following personnel dosimeters allows a radiation worker to determine occupational exposure received as soon as a specific radiologic procedure is completed?

a. Film badge
b. OSL dosimeter
c. Pocket dosimeter
d. TLD
c. Pocket dosimeter
Which of the following devices is used to measure the visible light emitted by the sensing material contained in the TLD after exposure to ionizing radiation and heating?

a. Densitometer
b. Laser
c. Photomultiplier tube
d. Sensitometer
c. Photomultiplier tube
In a health care facility, a radiographer's deep, eye, and shallow occupational exposures, as measured by an exposure monitor, may be found on the:

a. Compliance report
b. Quality assurance report
c. Personnel monitoring report
d. Worker's yearly evaluation
c. Personnel monitoring report
A densitometer is used to measure which of the following?

a. Optical density
b. The light emitted from sensing material of the TLD after exposure
c. The luminescence from an OSL dosimeter
d. Freed electrons and discharged electricity from all personnel dosimeters
a. Optical density
Radiaiton survey instru,ments measure which of the following?

1. The total quantity of electrical charge resulting from ionization of the gas
2. The rate at which an electrical charge is produced
3. Luminescence

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 1 and 3 only
c. 2 and 3 only
d. 1, 2, and 3
a. 1 and 2 only
What do ionization chamber-type survey meters, proportional counters, and GM detectors have in common?

a. They measure x-radiation and beta radiation only
b. They can be used to calibrate radiographic and fluoroscopic x-ray equipment
c. They are used to measure the radiation dose received outside protective barriers
d. Each contains a gas-filled chamber
d. Each contains a gas-filled chamber
At the time of this printing, which of the following radiation monitors is most commonly used for monitoring occupational exposure in diagnostic imaging?

a. Film badge
b. Pocket ionization chamber
c. TLD
d. OSL
d. OSL
Which of the following are disadvantages of using a TLD as a personnel monitoring device?

1. It can only be read once because the readout process destroys the stored information
2. It is necessary to use calibrated dosimeters with TLD's
3. The initial cost is higher than that for a film badge service
4. Lithium fluoride is used as the sensing material in the TLD

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 1 and 3 only
c. 1 and 4 only
d. 1, 2, and 3 only
e. 1, 2, 3, and 4
d. 1, 2, and 3 only
The OSL dosimeter uses:

a. An Al2O3 detector
b. LiF as a sensing material
c. A miniature ionization chamber as a detector
d. Radiation dosimetry film as a detector
a. An Al2O3 detector
Monitoring companies send a control badge to health care facilities along with each batch of dosimeter badges. The control badge should be:

a. Given as a monitor to a radiographer who loses his or her original badge
b. Given as a second monitor to a pregnant radiographer
c. Given as a monitor to a radiographer working in the operating room
d. Kept in a radiation-free area in the imaging facility
d. Kept in a radiation-free area in the imaging facility
An ionization chamber-type survey meter is also referred to as a:

a. Cutie pie
b. Flux capacitor
c. Little rascal
d. Warp drive
a. Cutie pie
The increased sensitivity of the OSL dosimeter makes it ideal for monitoring employees working in low-radiation environments and for:

a. Area monitoring of radioisotope storage facilities
b. Monitoring of paitents with a radioactive implant
c. Monitoring of pregnant workers
d. General patient monitoring
c. Monitoring of pregnant workers
Wearing a personnel dosimeter in a consistent location is the responsibility of the:

a. RSO
b. Manager or director of the imaging department
c. Chief radiologist
d. Individual wearing the device
d. Individual wearing the device
A disadvantage of the OSL dosimeter is that occupational exposure cannot be established on the day of occurence because the badge must be shipped to the monitoring company for reading and exposure determination.

a. True
b. False
a. True
The ionization survey-type meter is used for radiation protection surveys.

a. True
b. False
a. True
In health care facilities that have a well-structrued radiation safety program, personnel monitoring reports are received and reviewed by the RSO.

a. True
b. False
a. True
Humidity, pressure, and normal temperature changes do not affect TLDs.

a. True
b. False
a. True
Health care facilities must maintain a record of exposure recorded by personnel dosimeters as part of each radiaiton worker's employment record.

a. True
b. False
a. True
Area monitoring can be acomplished through the use of radiation survey instruments.

a. True
b. False
a. True
The nucleolus contains which of the follwoing?

a. Centrosomes and mitochondria
b. Ribonucleic acid and proteins
c. Ribosomes and Golgi bodies
d. Lysosomes and endoplasmic reticulum
b. Ribonucleic acid and proteins
In the human cell, protein synthesis occurs in which of the following?

a. Nucleus
b. Mitochondria
c. Ribosomes
d. Endoplasmic reticulum
c. Ribosomes
Interphase consists of which of the following phases?

a. M, G1, and S
b. G1, S, and G2
c. S, G2, and M
d. G2, M, and G1
b. G1, S, and G2
Carbohydrates also may be referred to as:

a. Lipids
b. Nucleic acids
c. Hormones
d. Saccharides
d. Saccharides
DNA regulates activity indirectly by reproducing itself in the form of ____________ to carry genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes located in the cytoplasm.

a. Messenger DNA
b. Messenger RNA
c. Messenger REM
d. Transfer RNA
b. Messenger RNA
Human cells contain which four major organic compounds?

a. Nucleic acids, water, proteins, and mineral salts
b. Mineral salts, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
c. Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and water
d. Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids
d. Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids
Which of the following is a process of reduction cell division?

a. Mitosis
b. Meiosis
c. Molecular synthesis
d. Amniocentesis
b. Meiosis
Which of the following cellular organelles function(s) as a cellular garbage disposal?

a. Endoplasmic reticulum
b. Mitochondria
c. Lysosomes
d. Ribosomes
c. Lysosomes
Lipids are also referred to as:

a. Amino acids
b. Carbohydrates
c. Fats
d. Sugars
c. Fats
The primary energy source for the cell is:

a. Amino acids
b. Glucose
c. Protein
d. Phosphate
b. Glucose
Water performs which of the following functions in the human cell?

1. Maintains a constant temperature of 98.6 degrees F (37 degrees C)
2. Regulates the concentration of disolved substances
3. Lubricates both the digestive system and the skeletal articulations (joints)

a. 1 and 2 only
b. 1 and 3 only
c. 2 and 3 only
d. 1, 2, and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3
The S phase of mitosis is the:

a. Pre-DNA synthesis phase
b. Actual DNA synthesis phase
c. Post-DNA synthesis phase
d. Phase when DNA synthesis multiplies by a factor of 4
b. Actual DNA synthesis phase
Cells are engaged in an ongoing process of obtaining energy and converting it to support their vital functions.

a. True
b. False
a. True
A normal human being has 46 different chromosomes (23 pairs) in each somatic (nonreproductive) cell.
a. True
Genes control the formation of proteins in every living cell through the intricate process of genetic coding.
a. True
Proper cell function enables the body to maintain homeostasis, or equilibrium.
a. True
Radiation damage is observed on which of the following levels?

a. Molecular, cellular, and inorganic
b. Molecular, cellular, and organic
c. Microscopic, molecular, and organic
d. Organic, inorganic, and cellular
b. Molecular, cellular, and organic
According to the target theory, if only a few non-DNA cell molecules are destroyed by radiation exposure, the cell probably will:

a. Not show any evidence of injury after irradiation
b. Show evidence of injury after irradiation
c. Show evidence of severe impairment after irradiation
d. Die
a. Not show any evidence of injury after irradiation
Which of the following may be used to explain cell death and nonfatal cell abnormalities caused by exposure to radiaiton?

a. Covalent cross-linking
b. Bergonie'-Tribondeau law
c. Programmed cell death
d. Target theory
d. Target theory
Which of the following describes the ratio of the radiation dose required to cause a particular biologic response of cells or organisms in an oxygen-deprived environment to the radiation dose required to cause an identical response under oxygenated conditions?

a. OER
b. Oxygen biologic effectiveness ratio
c. Oxygen dose-response relationship
d. Oxygen threshold ratio
a. OER
Where are lymphocytes manufactured in the human body?

a. Bone marrow
b. Epithelial tissue
c. Liver
d. Pancreas
a. Bone marrow
Which of the following defines the ratio of the dose of a reference radiation (conventionally 250 kVp x-rays) to the dose of radiation of the type in question that is necessary to produce the same biologic reaction in a given experiment?

a. LET
b. RBE
c. WR
d. Low-level radiation effectiveness
b. RBE
Because high-LET types of radiation deposit more energy per unit length of biologic tissue traversed, they are:

a. More destructive to biologic matter than low-LET radiation
b. Significantly less destructive to biologic matter than low-LET radiation
c. Slightly less destructive to biologic matter than low-LET radiation
d. Not comparable to low-LET radiation because they do not deposit any energy per unit length of biologic tissue traversed
a. More destructive to biologic matter than low-LET radiation
Biologic damage begins with the ionization produced by various types of radiation.

a. True
b. False
a. True
A blood count is a relatively insensitive test that is unable to indicate exposures of less than 10 cGy (10 rad).

a. True
b. False
a. True
If radiation damages the germ cells, the damage may be passed on to future generations in the form of genetic mutations.

a. True
b. False
a. True
Because hydrogen and hydroxyl ions usually recombine to form a normal water molecule, the existence of these ions as free agents in the human body is insignificant in terms of biologic damage.

a. True
b. False
a. True
The higher the radiation dose to the bone marrow, the more severe is the resulting cell depletion.

a. True
b. False
a. True
LET is an important factor for:

a. Assessing potential tissue and organ damage from exposure to ionizing radiation
b. Assessing the characteristics of ionizing radiation (e.g., charge, mass, and energy)
c. Determining the OER
d. Removing electrons from tissue exposed to ionizing radiation
a. Assessing potential tissue and organ damage from exposure to ionizing radiation
Which of the following items is not a basic component of the film badge?

a. Radiographic film packet
b. Plastic film holder
c. Charged electrodes
d. Assortment of metal filters
c. Charged electrodes
Of the following, which of are advantages of using the film badge as a personnel dosimeter?

1. Cost-effective monitor for large numbers of people
2. It provides a permanent, legal record of personnel exposure
3. Control badge indicates whether group badges were exposed in transit to/from health care facility

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. 3 only
d. 1, 2, and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3
When radiation interacts with the radiographic film contained in the film badge, the film after development ________.

a. Turns green
b. Darkens in proportion to the exposure
c. Remains unchanged in terms of density
d. Lightens in proportion to the exposure
b. Darkens in proportion to the exposure
What is the suggested maximum period of time that a film badge should be worn as a personnel dosimeter?

a. 1 week
b. 2 weeks
c. 1 month
d. 3 months
c. 1 month
What is the maximum period of time that a TLD may be worn as a personnel dosimeter?

a. 1 hour
b. 1 week
c. 1 month
d. 3 months
d. 3 months
A large 5 Gy (500 rad) whole-body absorbed dose to the hematopoietic system will result in the reduction of ____________ in the circulating blood.

1. Leukocytes 2. Thrombocytes 3. Erythrocytes

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. 3 only
d. 1 and 3 only
e. 1, 2, and 3
e. 1, 2, and 3
Free radicals are represented by which of the following chemical symbols?

a. H*
b. OH*
c. R*
d. A and B only
e. A, B, and C
e. A, B, and C
Which statement is "incorrect" with regards to radiosensitivity and cell types?

a. Spermatogonia cells have a low radiosensitivity
b. Nerve cells have a low radiosensitivity
c. Muscle cells have a low radiosensitivity
d. Brain cells have a low radiosensitivity
a. Spermatogonia cells have a low radiosensitivity
The hydroxyl radical may bond with another hydroxyl radical and form ________ ________ a substance (bleach) that is poisonous to the cell.

a. Hydrogen peroxide
b. Sodium chloride
c. Carbon tetrachloride
d. Sodium bicarbonate
a. Hydrogen peroxide
Which of the following types of blood cells is the most radiosensitive in the body?

a. Erythrocytes
b. Granulocytes
c. Lymphocytes
d. Thrombocytes
c. Lymphocytes