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All 36 AP World Chapters

Probably shouldn't attempt this unless you have went through all the other 36 chapters
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Kamehameha
Hawaiian prince; with British backing he created a unified kingdom by 1810; promoted the entry of Western ideas in commerce and social relations.
Robert Clive
Architect of British victory at Plassey; established foundations of British raj in northern India (18th century)
Lord Charles Cornwallis
Reformer of the East India Company administration of India in the 1790's; reduced power of local British administrators; checked widespread corruption. YES also the same one that surrendered at the battle of Yorktown.
Cetshwayo
Zulu chief in 1879 who refused to dismiss his army and accept British rule, the British invaded the Zulu nation and lost control of their kingdom in the Battle of Ulundi in 1887
Battle of Isandhlwana
First major encounter in the Anglo-Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Despite a vast disadvantage in weapons technology, the numerically superior Zulus ultimately overwhelmed the poorly led and badly deployed British, killing over 1,300 troops, including all those out on the forward firing line. The Zulu army suffered around a thousand killed.The battle was a crushing victory for the Zulus and caused the defeat of the first British invasion of Zululand.
Anglo-Zulu War
War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. From complex beginnings, the war is notable for several particularly bloody battles, as well as for being a landmark in the timeline of colonialism in the region. The war ended the Zulu nation's independence.(1879)
Battle of Ulundi
Battle between Britain and Zulu in 1879. Britain wanted to make claim to South Africa for gold, diamonds, and power. As a result Britain won and took control of South Africa.
Berlin Conference
Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium.
Madrasas
a school or college attached to a mosque where young men study theology
Mataram
Kingdom that controlled interior regions of Java in 17th century; Dutch East India Company paid tribute to the kingdom for rights of trade at Batavia; weakness of kingdom after 1670's allowed Dutch to exert control over all of Java
Sepoys
Troops that served the British East India Company; recruited from various warlike peoples of India.
British Raj
The rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the East India company and then by a British Government
Battle of Plassey
Took place on June 23, 1757; how Great Britain really gained control in India. Despite their low number of soldiers, the British were able to win the battle against Siraj, the leader of Bengal, and his army. Soldiers fighting for Great Britain(Robert Clive leading) had a few specific qualities that made them successful on the battlefield—a strong army, gun skills, unity of their army (unlike Siraj's army), the Royal Navy, and support from other countries
Ram Mohun Roy
"Father of Modern India" modern thinking, tried to move india towards independance and away from traditional ideas like sati.
Nawab
A Muslim prince allied to British India; technically, a semi-autonomous deputy of the Mughal emperor.
Presidencies
Three districts that made up the bulk of the directly ruled British territories in India; capitals at Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay.
Princely States
Domains of Indian princes allied with the British Raj; agents of East India Company were stationed at the rulers courts to ensure compliance; made up over one-third of the British Indian Empire
Thomas Macaulay
British administrator who brought new school system, wrote "Minute on Education" where he stated the English was the supreme language and western civilization the supreme culture.
Captain James Cook
Made voyages to Hawaii from 1777-1779 resulting in openings of islands to the West; convinced Kamehamehah to establish a unified kingdon in the islands
Suez Canal
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
Nabobs
Name given to British representatives of the East India Company who went briefly to India to make fortunes through graft and exploitation.
Quinine
A medicine developed to prevent malaria. This allowed Europeans to travel to the interior of tropic regions and carve up Africa.
Tropical Dependencies
The greater portion of the European empires consisting of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific were small numbers of Europeans ruled large populations of non-Western peoples.
Ghost Dance
A religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead, Spiritual revival in 1890 by Indians that would lead to the massacre at Wounded Knee
Maji Maji
In the ___________ rebellion, African warriors in German East Africa sprinkled "magic water" on their bodies in hopes that it would turn the German bullets into water
Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Settlement Colonies
Areas, such as North America and Australia, that were both conquered by European invaders and settled by large numbers of European migrants who made the colonized areas their permanent home and dispersed and decimated the indigenous inhabitants.
White Dominions
Colonies in which European settlers made up the overwhelming majority of the population; small numbers of native inhabitants were typically reduced by disease and wars of conquest; typical of British holdings in North America and Australia with growing independence in the 19th century
King Leopold II
-Only a constitutional monarch of Belgium
-tried to convince parlement to expand via colonies (Argentina, Philippines, china, Japan and Vietnam)
-When the government wouldn't listen He bought himself Congo (called Congo Free State).
-He was horrible to the natives and eventually Belgium had to intervene and take it over (then Belgium Congo).
White Racial Supremacy
Belief in the inherent mental, moral, and cultural superiority of whites; peaked in acceptance in decades before World War I; supported by social science doctrines of social Darwinists such as Herbert Spencer.
The White Mans Burden
The idea that the more civilized countries need to take care of the countries that "need" it.Rudyard Kipling: poem addressing the unpopularity of foreign rule and that it was a duty to bring order and serve people
Belgian Congo
In 1879 King Leopold II hired H.M. Stanley to make treaties with African chiefs, giving control of the Congo to Leopold. It became his personal playground and was recognized as such in 1884 by the Berlin conference. Was quested for its rubber and ivory. Soldiers of the Belgian army forced the natives to do work and treated them savagely, often cutting off their hands to prove they used ammunition on humans when they were really using the ammunition on wildlife. Twain and author Conan Doyle spoke out. The Belgian Parliament was horrified and took the colony away from the king in 1908 and it became a Belgian colony.
Herbert Spencer
British, developed a system of philosophy based on the theory of evolution, believed in the primacy of personal freedom and reasoned thinking. Sought to develop a system whereby all human endeavours could be explained rationally and scientifically.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Cape Town
City at the southern tip of Africa; became the first permanent European settlement in Africa in 1652; built by Dutch immigrants to supply ships sailing to or from the East Indies.
Great Trek
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.
Natal
British colony in south Africa; developed after boer trek north from cape colony; major commercial outpost of Durban.
Boer Republic
Boer free states established in southern Africa by Afrikans of Dutch descent from the British colonial government in Cape Colony (1850)
Orange Free State
Now called Bloemfontein, is the judicial capital of South Africa.
Transvaal
Region of Southern Africa originally founded by Afrikaners; became a source of interest for the British following the discovery of gold and diamonds => Boer War
Cecil Rhodes
Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe. Founded the De Beers Mining Company
Anglo-Boer War
• War between Britain and Boers
• 1899-1902
• South Africa
• Bloodiest conflict in colonial times. Boers won the first time. British won the second time. Brought about the first concentration camp ever.
Queen Liliuokalani
Leader of Hawaii who took the throne after her brother died. Was forced to give up her throne when the U.S. marines were sent.First and only reigning Hawaiian queen
Louis Pasteur
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
Louis XVI
King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Saint-Just
Younger member of Committee of Public Safety who said, " whatever is outside the French revolution is an enemy" Executed with Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
He was a lawyer and a member of the National Convention. Led the Mountain side of the National Convention(Montagarde). and Chairman on the Committe of Public Safety. Helped France's financial situation through the concept of planned economy (setting price limits on certain products). Was a very large part of the radicalization of France, but efforts eventually led to the fall of France and take-over by Napoleon Bonaparte. He claimed that the Revolution was over. In a sense he was right; the last reforms were made in 1791. The people strongly disliked him for his views on the disablement of speaking against the republic. He was one of the main contributors to the laws that stated the death penalty for those who went against the revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of man and the Citizen
One of the fundamental documents of the French Revolution, defining a set of individual rights and collective rights of all of the estates as one. Influenced by the doctrine of natural rights, these rights are universal: they are supposed to be valid in all times and places, pertaining to human nature itself.
Guillotine
Introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror.
French Revolution
The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress subsequently acted quickly to implement the suspension of Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.
Burlingame Treaty
This treaty with China was ratified in 1868. It encouraged Chinese immigration to the United States at a time when cheap labor was in demand for U.S. railroad construction. It doubled the annual influx of Chinese immigrants between 1868 and 1882. The treaty was reversed in 1882 by the Chinese Exclusion Act.
Age of Revolution
Period of politcal upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848
Bastille
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
Social Contract
The notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
Rousseau
French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland, believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
Nationalism
Political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe; often allied with other "isms"; urged importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin.
James Watt
Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation. The watt, an electrical measurement, is named after him.
Population Revolution
Huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50 percent, England and Prussia 100 percent.
Proto-Industrialization
Preliminary shift away from agricultural economy in Europe; workers become full- or part-time producers of textile and metal products, working at home but in a capitalist system in which materials, work orders, and ultimate sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to Industrial Revolution.
Stamp Act
A law passed by the British Parliament in 1765 requiring colonists to pay a tax on newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, and even playing cards.The colonists heartily objected to this direct tax and in protest petitioned the king, formed the Stamp Act Congress, and boycotted English imports. In 1766 Parliament repealed this Act, a major victory for colonists.
Reign of Terror
Period in the French Revolution. It was established by the government on Sept. 5, 1793, to take harsh measures against those suspected of being enemies of the Revolution (including nobles, priests, and hoarders). Controlled by the radical Committee of Public Safety and Maximilien Robespierre, the Terror eliminated enemies on the left (Jacques Hébert and his followers) and the right (Georges Danton and the Indulgents).
Committee of Public Safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
Marie Antoinette
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Congress of Vienna
The Quadruple Alliance met, to discuss the Balance of Power. Great Britian got to have their conquered colonies, Austria got Venetia and Lombardy and Polis lands, and Prussia and Russia were compensated.
Prince Metternich
Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy). Leader of the Congress of Vienna.
Quadruple Alliance
G.B., Austria, Prussia, and Russia united to defeat France and their Bonapartism, and also to ensure peace after war. After Napoleon, they resotred the Bourbon monarchy to France.
Elba
This island in the Mediterranean Sea off of Italy where Napoleon was initially exiled after he abdicated the throne for the first time. He promised to never leave, but does so and regains power in France for a short period called the Hundred Days
St. Helena
Where Napoleon was exiled until the end of his life. 1815,1821 Revolution comes to an inglorious end.
Hundred Days
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
American Civil War
Fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition of slavery in the United States and reunification of North and South.
Conservatives
Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th Century; opposed revolutionary goals; advanced restoration of monarchy and defense of Church
Liberal
Political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; stressed limited state interference in individual life, representation of propertied people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.
Radical
Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; advocated broader voting rights than liberals; in some cases advocated outright democracy; urged reforms in favor of the lower classes
Greek Revolution
Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
French Revolution of 1830
Second revolution against the Bourbon dynasty; a liberal movement that created a bourgeois government under a moderate monarchy.
Andrew Jackson
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers. Probably the first populist President.
Reform Bill of 1832
Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain.
Charist Movement
Attempt to by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the vote during 1840s; demands for reform beyond the reform bill of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movement failed
French Revolution of 1848
Overthrew the monarchy established in 1830; briefly established a democratic republic; failure of the republic led to the reestablishment of the French Empire under Napoleon III in 1850.
Luddism
Named after mythical leader, Ned Ludd, machine-breakers tyrannized parts of Great Britain in an attempt to frighten masters. Workers damaged and destroyed property for more control over the work process, but were met with repression.
Luddites
Any of a group of British workers who between 1811 and 1816 rioted and destroyed laborsaving textile machinery in the belief that such machinery would diminish employment.
Otto Von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire
Trasformismo
Political system in late 19th-century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals; parliamentary deputies of all parties supported the status quo.
Social Question
Issues relating to workers and women in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.
Socialism
Political movement with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man.
Karl Marx
German socialist of the mid-19th century; blasted earlier socialist movements as utopian; saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached necessity of social revolution to create proletarian dictatorship.
Revisionism
Socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions.
Feminist Movements
Sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on right to vote; won support particularly from middle-class women; active in Western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in the 1960s.
Emmeline Pankhurst
British suffrage leader. Led movement to win the vote for women in Great Britain. Founded the Women Social and Political Union in 1903, which held public meetings and led protest marches to the House of Commons. Jailed several times between 1908 and 1913, and used hunger strikes to protest. World War I compelled her to stop her feminist campaigns and join the war effort.
Fabian Society
Group of English socialists, including George Bernard Shaw, Emmeline Pankhurst, Beatrice Webb, and H.G Wells who advocated electoral victories rather than violent revolution to bring about social change.
Das Kapital
Published in 1867 by Karl Marx. Volumes II and III edited by Engels and published after Marx's death. More mature thought and sophisticated/academic approach than the Manifesto. Outlined the system for producing the revolution. Concentrated on economic theory. Emphasized the labor theory of value. Saw capital as "stored-up labor from former times." Justified his theories in more academic way. Had spent years in British Museum doing his research. Justified his brand of "socialism" as being more scientific.
The Communist Manifesto
Written by Marx and Engels; said that human societies have always been in warring class; put the middle class as "haves" and the working class as "have-nots"; said that IR had enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor, predicting that the workers would overthrow the owners; inspired revolutionaries to adapt Marx's beliefs to their own situations
Mass Leisure Culture
An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; based on newspapers, music halls, popular theater, vacation trips, and team sports.
Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.-
On the Origin of the Species
Darwin wrote this book in 1859 in which he presented his theory of evolution in the principle of natural selection. The basic idea of this book was that all plants and animals had evolved over a long period of time from earlier and simpler forms of life. In this book, Darwin also presented the theory of natural selection and "survival of the fit." In this book, Darwin discussed plant and animal species only. He was not concerned with humans themselves.
Albert Einstein
1879-1955. German born theoretical physicist. Best known for his theory of relativity and his theory of energy equivalence. Received Nobel Prize in 1921 for physics.
Sigmund Freud
Leading psychologist of the twentieth century. Assumed that a single, unified conscious mind processed sense experiences in a rational and logical way. Analyzed dreams and hysteria. Believed that rational thinking and traditional moral values will repress sexual desires too effectively, causing guilt and neurotic fears.
Wilhelm Wundt
German physiologist who founded psychology as formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879
Romanticism
Artistic and literary movement of the 19th century in Europe; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.
Urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Henry James
American writer who lived in England. Wrote numerous novels around the theme of the conflict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption, with an emphasis on the psychological motivations of the characters. Famous for his novel Washington Square and his short story "The Turn of the Screw."
Triple Alliance
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
Triple Entente
A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I.
Balkan Nationalism
Movements to create independent nations within the Balkan possessions of the Ottoman Empire; provoked a series of crises within the European alliance system; eventually led to World War I.
Multinational Corporations
Powerful companies, mainly from the West or Pacific Rim, with production as well as distributin operations in man different countris. Multinationals surged in the decades after World War II
Pokemon
What is one of the most popular japanese shows on tv? Proof of cultural globalizations
Globalization
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
Y2K
A computer glitch that only showed the year by the last two digits. It was feared that when the year changed from 1999 to 2000, computers would think it was really 1900 as it only read the last two digits.
Cell Phones
Transmit and receive signals using high frequency microwaves. Signals are sent as microwaves to towers that then send the signal to a HUB. The HUB then transmits the signal to the receiving cell phone.
Tim Berners
Devloped the world wide web
Human Trafficking
A modern form of slavery in which people are sold, coerced or forced under threat of violence to work agains their will for little or no pay. Has increased with the advent of globalization.
World Trade Organizations
An international agency which encourages trade b/w member nations administers global trade agreements and resolves disputes when they arise.
INGOs
Nonprofit, open membership organization that is not connected to any government and active in at least 3 states
North American Free Trade Agreement
Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States in December 1992 and which took effect on January 1, 1994 to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries.
World Bank
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
IMF
International Monetary Fund//a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies.
The Lexus and the Olive Tree
1999 book by Thomas L. Friedman that posits that the world is currently undergoing two struggles: the drive for prosperity and development, symbolized by the Lexus, and the desire to retain identity and traditions, symbolized by the olive tree
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
CFC
(Abbr.) Chemical compounds originally developed for use in refrigeration systems, now used widely in industry. When released into the air, they break down and release chlorine, which causes damage to the Earth's ozone layer and is responsible for creating the ozone hole.Cholorofluorocarbons
Global Warming
An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
Dubai
The rapidly expanding commercial and business capital of the middle east; in the united arab emirates
G-20
Group of 20 leading economies; new great powers, International forum for constructive discussion between industrial and emerging market economies
Population Bomb
Required only three things: a rapid rate of change, a limit of some sort, and delays in perceiving the limit.Predicted that in the 1970s & 1980s hundreds of millions would starve to death; later proven false. Paul Ehrlich
Paul Ehrlich
An ecologist who warned that the greatest threat to the planet is overpopulation and that resources on earth would quickly become depleted as population grew, FAILED.
Vladimir Putin
Yeltsin's PM in 1999, then RUssia's president from 2000 to 2008, Putin gained popularity by prosecuting Yeltsin's war on Chechnya, restoring economic and social stability and the power of the Russian state, he was also elected Prime Minister in 2008.
Amnesty International
An influential non-governmental organization that operates globally to monitor and try to rectify glaring abuses of political (not economic or social) human rights.
Reagan Doctrine
US would support freedom fighters trying to overthrow Communist regimes; applied in Nicaragua, Angola, Cambodia and Afghanistan, Oppose the influence of the Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against the communist governments of Soviet-backed client states. Somewhat triggered by Afghanistan - aiding mujahideen to hurt Soviets
SALT II
Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
Evil Empire Speech
In 1983, President Reagan made the __ __ __, in which he claimed that the USSR was "the evil of the world." Also that there would be a inevitable failure and collapse of global communism
Mikhail Gorbachev
Became the leader of the USSR in 1985. He proposed major reforms and adopted policies of greater openness (glasnost and perestroika) and allowed Soviet-bloc states greater independence. In 1991, there was an unsuccessful attempted overthrow of his government. The USSR dissolved in 1991 with his resignation.
Iranian Revolution of 1979
Opposition to the Shah, Mohammad-Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, grew from the brutality, inefficiency, malfeasance, and corruption of his regime. The shah had exiled his main opponent, the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, and massive street demonstrations and crippling strikes against the existing government forces the shah to leave the country in 1979.
Glasnot
Policy of "openness" initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980's that provided increased opportunities for freedom
Perestroika
Gorbachev's policy of "restructuring" which included reducing the direct involvement of the Commuist Party leadership in the day to day governing of the nation. It ws a decentralization of economic planning and controls.
Marshall Tito
Yugoslavian Dictator who broke with stalin and developed his own form of communism (Titoism), tried to bring peace with the Serbs, after he died Yugoslavia broke up. Only independant communist state.
Boris Yeltsin
Russian leader who stood up to a coup attempt in 1991 that would have displaced Gorbachev: First President of the Russian Republic following dissolution of Soviet Union.
Chechnya
An autonomous republic in southwestern Russia in the northern Caucasus Mountains bordering on Georgia, ethnic republic that declared its independence in September 1991, against which Yeltsin launched a disastrous full-scale military attack in 1994 which led to the death of thousands of civilians.
Ukraine
Formerly the breadbasket of the Soviet Union, with its abundant natural resources and vast expanses of fertile soil, this country is still overly dependent on Russia which has inhibited free-market reforms. Site of Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster
August Coup
Name given to the 1991 crisis, in which Gorbachev was kidnapped by his political opponents as part of an abortive attempt to seize power. Accelerated the processes of national decay.
Orange Revolution
This was a series of events using civil disobedience, general strikes, and protests in Ukraine in 2004 and 2005., during and after what revolution did Ukraine experience fair elections and a shifted focus toward western Europe and the EU
Chernobyl
The nuclear power plant in the Ukraine that suffered two large explosions which released massive amounts of radioactive materials. It is the worst nuclear accident in history and thousands were and continue to be impacted by the disaster.
Kosovo
Region of Yugoslavia that had autonomy until Milosovic attempted to crush the Albanian group with ethnic cleansing; 1999 NATO used military strikes against Yugoslavia until the crisis came to an end in 1999
PLO
Palestinian Liberation Organization; formed in 1964 with the purpose of creating a homeland for Palestinians in Israel
Hamas
A militant Islamic fundamentalist political movement that opposes peace with Israel and uses terrorism as a weapon.
Gulf War
A War (1990-1991) that took place between Iraq and the U.S./Kuwait started by Iraq invading Kuwait; First non-containment based war since WWII; Often referred to as Operation Desert Storm; Primarily an aerial war (huge amounts of missiles and bombs) in the first stages, followed by an infantry march that pushed Iraqi forces back into Iraq
Rwandan Genocide
The killing of more than 500,000 ethnic Tutsis by rival Hutu militias in Rwanda in 1994. The conflict between the dominant Tutsis and the majority Hutus had gone on for centuries, but the suddenness and savagery of the massacres caught the United Nations off-guard. U.N. peacekeepers did not enter the country until after much of the damage had been done.
Ethnic Cleansing
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
Darfur
Western section of the country of Sudan which has suffered civil war since 2003 and has had over 500,000 people killed and 21/2 million people displaced from their homes
September 11
Event that led to the beginning of the War against Terrorism when Arab suicide bombers hijacked United States airliners and used them as bombs
George W Bush
Republican-president , neo-conservative, foreign policy dominated by war on terror, No child left behind, tax cuts, high deficits, major economic problems, proposed privatizing social security, opposed stem cell research/pro-life/carbon reductions/ international law, but wanted more domestic drilling to alleviate oil dependence, major contributions to HIV/AIDs
George H.W. Bush
Republican, former director of CIA, oil company founder/owner, foreign policy (panama, gulf war), raised taxes eventhough said he wouldnt, more centrist than his son, NAFTA negotiation, called supply side economics "voodoo economics".
Terrorism
The use of violence by non-governmental groups against civilians to achieve a political goal by instilling fear and frightening governments into changing policies
War on Terror
Initiated by President George W. Bush after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the broadly defined war on terror aimed to weed out terrorist operatives and their supporters throughout the world.
Al Qaeda
A network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001
Arab Spring
Term that was used beginning in March 2005 by numerous media commentators to suggest that a spin-off benefit of the invasion of Iraq be the flowering of Western-friendly Middle East democracies. The term took on a new meaning in 2011, as democratic uprisings independently arose and spread across the Arab world in Egypt, Tunisia, and Syria.
Tony Blair
A political moderate who took leadership of the New Labour in the 1990s and eventually helped the Labour party win in parliamentary elections in 1997 - thus becoming Prime Minister - first Labour PM since 1979. Continues in that position to the present day - though expected to stepped down as leader of the Labor party in 2007
Ariel Sharon
Former Israeli Prime Minister (mainly responsible, in 2004, for the unilateral withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Gaza Strip and the evacuation of Jewish settlements there. He visited Temple Mount in 2000, which made the Arabs very angry. He suffered a stroke in 2006 and has been in a vegetative state ever since
Weapons of Mass destruction
Chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons. These weapons are capable of destroying enormous numbers of people and vast areas, hence the name. Saddam Hussein has used these on the Iranian army during the Iran-Iraq War, and on the Kurds in 1988.
Osama bin Laden
(1957- 2011) Saudi Arabian multimillionaire and leader of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda. He is responsible for numerous terrorist attacks on the United States including the destruction of the World Trade Center. Barack Obama called a Hit on him and the Navy Seals did him in in 2011.
Operation Just Cause
Invasion of Panama by the US in 89. Leader Noriega was deposed, Endara sworn in. Bush cited that 1) the aim was to safeguard US citizens 2) defend human rights and democracy 3) combat trafficking 4) Protecting integrity of Torrijos-Carter Treaties (neutrality of Panama canal)
Mao Zedong
Leader of the Chinese Communist Party (1927-1976). He led the Communists on the Long March (1934-1935) and rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China (1937-1945). (789)
Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Kim Jong IL
son of Kim Il Sung, became ruler of North Korea after his father's death. He developed nuclear weapons.under his rule the North Korean economy has continued to deteriorate
General Douglas MacArthur
Commander of the UN forces at the beginning of the Korean War, however President Harry Truman removed him from his command after MacArthur expressed a desire to bomb Chinese bases in Manchuria.
Liberal Democratic Party
Monopolized Japanese government from its formation in 1955 into the 1990s; largely responsible for the economic reconstruction of Japan.
People's Democratic Republic of Korea
Northern half of Korea dominated by USSR; long headed by Kim II-Sung; attacked south in 1950 and initiated Korean War; retained independence as a communist state after the war.
Republic of Korea
Southern half of Korea sponsored by United States following World War II; headed by nationalist Syngman Rhee; developed parliamentary institutions but maintained authoritarian government; defended by UN forces during Korean War; underwent industrialization and economic emergence after 1950s
Syngman Rhee
Imprisoned by the Japanese in WW2, then came to America and studied at Harvard and Princeton; Struggled for Korean freedom for 50 years and was elected president of South Korea, He was the American-favored candidate, Korean nationalist. He was elected president. Supported Anti-communism.
Kim IL Song
First Leader of N Korea. He wanted to unify N and S Korea militarily and thought 1950 was the perfect opportunity b/c the US has recently decided that Korea is not part of the United states Western Defensive Perimeter. He wants the help of Mao and Stalin, who are both very reluctant to get involved. He misjudged the political situation, and the Korean war is known as Kim Il Sung's war.
Taiwan
Island off Chinese mainland; became refuge for Nationalist Chinese regime under Chiang Kai-shek as Republic of China in 1948; successfully retained independence with aid of United States; rapidly industrialized after 1950s.
Pacific Rim
Region including Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Taiwan; typified by rapid growth rates, expanding exports, and industrialization; either Chinese or strongly influenced by Confucian values; considerable reliance on government planning and direction, and limitations on dissent and instability.
Hong Kong
British colony on Chinese mainland; major commercial center; agreement reached between Britain and People's Republic of China returned colony to China in 1997.
Yukio Mishima
Most popular writer in Japan, modern samurai, formed an army and tried to overthow government after WWII and killed himself, , This author wrote about Kazu's marriage to Noguchi in the novel After the Banquet. Name this Japanese author who included the novels Spring Snow and The Decay of the Angel, also known as Hiraoka Kimitoke.
Park Chung-hee
Was a Republic of Korea Army general and the dictator of South Korea (the Republic of Korea) after Syngman Rhee, from 1961 to 1979. He has been credited with the industrialization of the Republic of Korea through export-led growth. His rule was ended by his assassination in 1979 by his intelligence director.
Hyundai
Example of huge industrial groups that wield great power in modern Korea; virtually governed Korea's southeastern coast; vertical economic organization with ships, supertankers, factories, schools, and housing units.
Tae Kwon Do
What martial art originated in Korea?
Chiang Ching-Kuo
Son and successor of Chiang Kai-shek as ruler of Taiwanese government in 1978; continued authoritarian government; attempted to lessen the gap between followers of his father and indigenous islanders
Lee Kuan Yew
Ruler of Singapore from independence in 1959 to present; established tightly controlled authoritarian government; ruled through People's Action party to suppress political diversity.
Singapore
Part of the British colony of Malaya with a mostly Chinese population; after World War II emerged as a flourishing, independent city-state.
People's Action party
What is the sole political party in Singapore since 1965?
Little Tigers
Earliest and most successful imitators of the Japanese model for economic development; they were Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan; turned disadvantages into advantages through a program of export-driven industrialization; corporations from these 4 states undercut original Japanese products w/ lower-costing versions; the original 4 were later joined by Indonesia, Thailand, & Malaysia
Mass line
Economic policy of Mao Zedong; led to formation of agricultural cooperatives in 1955; cooperatives became farming collectives in 1956.
Great Leap Forward
Economic policy of Mao Zedong introduced in 1958; proposed industrialization of small-scale projects integrated into peasant communes; led to economic disaster; ended in 1960.
Party Cadres
Basis for China's Communist government organization; cadre advisors were attached to military contingents at all levels.
Lin Biao
Behind the cultural revolution. Was claimed to be the successor of Mao. Biao wanted the CR to go on longer than Mao did, so Mao called him a traitor, later killing him in a plane crash., He collected Mao's works and published, Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong, also known as "The Little Red Book."
People's Liberation Army
Chinese Communist army; administered much of country under People's Republic of China.
Khrushchev
He emerged as the Soviet leader two years after the death of Stalin. He talked about peaceful coexistence with the U.S.; listened and began to bargain with the U.S. but the U-2 spy plane incident ended all potential for progress.
One Child Policy
Restrictive, antinatalist policy in China that aimed at immediately reducing China's birth rate to replacement level and below. Is going to reult in a deficit of 50 million women relative to men by 2050.
Pragmatists
Chinese Communist politicians such as Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, and Liu Shaoqui; determined to restore state direction and market incentives at the local level; opposed Great Leap Forward.
Zhou Enlai
A prominent and influential member of the Chinese Communist Party during the time of Mao. He played a large role in China's reestablishing ties with the West.
Liu Shaoqi
He was a moderate CCP politician and designated successory to Mao Zedong. He died during the cultural revolution. He held the position of official headship of state, and had a strong base in the parties. He came to power after Mao stepped away following GLF. He rolled back Mao's reforms but kept China's communistic views in tact.
Deng Xiaoping
One of the more pragmatic, least ideological of the major Communist leaders of China; joined the party as a young man in the 1920s, survived the legendary Long March and persecution during the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, and emerged as China's most influential leader in the early 1980s.
Jiang Qing
Wife of Mao Zedong; one of Gang of Four; opposed pragmatists and supported Cultural Revolution of 1965; arrested and imprisoned for life in 1976.
Cultural Revolution
Movement initiated in 1965 by Mao Zedong to restore his dominance over pragmatists; used mobs to ridicule Mao's political rivals; campaign was called off in 1968.
Red Guard
Student brigades utilized by Mao Zedong and his political allies during the Cultural Revolution to discredit Mao's political enemies
Gang of Four
Jiang Qing and four political allies who attempted to seize control of Communist government in China from the pragmatists; arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1976 following Mao Zedong's death.
Tayson Rebellion
Peasant revolution in southern Victnam during the late 1770s; succeeded in toppling the Nguyen dynasty; subsequently unseated the Trinh dynasty of northern Vietnam.
Nguyen Anh
Last surviving member of Nguyen dynasty following Tayson Rebellion in Vietnam; with French support retook southern Vietnam; drove Tayson from northern Vietnam by 1802; proclaimed himself emperor with capital at Hue.
Minh Mang
Second emperor of a united Vietnam; successor of Nguyen Anh; ruled from 1820 to 1841; sponsored emphasis of of Confucianism; persecuted Catholics., Gia Long son
Vietnamese Nationalist Party
Also known as the Vietnamese Quoc Dan Dong or VNQDD; active in 1920s as revolutionary force committed to violent overthrow of French colonialism.
VNQDD
The Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang, a revolutionary group committed to creating a democracy
Communist Party of Vietnam
Originally a wing of nationalist movement; became primary nationalist party after decline of VNQDD in 1929; led in late 1920s by Nguyen Ai Quoc, alias Ho Chi Minh.
Ho Chi Minh
Also known as Nguyen Ai Quoc; led Vietnamese Communist party in struggle for liberation from French and U.S. dominance and to unify north and south Vietnam.
Viet Minh
Communist-dominated Vietnamese nationalist movement; operated out of base in southern China during WW II; employed guerilla tactics similar to Maoists in China.
Vo Nguyen Giap
Chief military commander of Viet Minh; architect of vietnamese victory over french at Dien Bien Phu in 1954.
Dien Bien Phu
French fortress in northern Vietnam that surrendered in 1954 to the Viet Minh; the defeat caused the French to abandon Indochina and set the stage for the Geneva Conference, which divided the region and led to American involvement in Vietnam.
Ngo Dinh Diem
Political leader of South Vietnam; established as president with United States support in the 1950s; opposed Communist government of North Vietnam; overthrown by military coup support by United States
Viet Cong
Name given by Diem regime to Communist guerrilla movement in southern Vietnam; reorganized with northern Vietnamese assistance as the National Liberation Front in 1958.
Four Modernizations
An economic and social program that called for limited privatization of agriculture and industry, encouraged foreign investment and foreign trade, and resulted in a boost for the Chinese economy. Unlike the Great Leap Forward, the Four Modernizations was an economic success. Sugested by Deng Xiaoping.
Benazir Bhutto
Pakistani politician who was the chair of the PPP (Pakistan People's Party); served as PM from 1988-1990, 1993-1996 and was removed from her post both times for alleged charges of corruption which forces her to leave the country in 1996; returned in 2007 and was assassinated
Indira Ghandi
At the death of her father, she became prime Minister. She nationalized India's largest banks, insurance companies, and coal mines. Corruption sapped the government's strength to deal with economic concerns however. She broke with the party bosses of Congress with their attempts to control her and forms the Congress Party, a faction of the Congress Party, and won reelection in 1971. However in 1975, court decision declared Ghandi's 1971 victory corrupt and she declared a state of emergency jailing thousands of her opponents. She then lost in 1977 but won in 1984. In 1984 she used massive military force to expel some sikh extremists. In retaliation two of her bodyguards gunned her down.
Bangladesh
Formerly known as East Pakistan, went to war with Pakistan for its independence(With Indian Help) and became a country.
Population Boom
An increase in the number of people in the world caused by better medical care, increased food supplies, and decreasing death rates, commonly seen in many African, and Asian counties as families try to create a base on which to survive, however it has frequently has cancelled out the benefits of economic growth in those countries.
SARS
Severe acute respiratory syndrome, a respiratory disease of unknown etiology that apparently originated in mainland China in 2003
AIDS
(Aquired Immune Deficiancy Syndrome) Immune system disease caused by HIV which over a period of years weakens the capacity of the immune system to fight off infection so that weight loss and weaknesses set in and other afflictions may hasten an infected person's demise.
The Wretched of the Earth
Frantz Fanon's most famous work, written during and regarding the Algerian struggle for independence from colonial rule. As a psychiatrist, Fanon explored the psychological effect of colonization on the psyche of a nation as well as its broader implications for building a movement for decolonization.
Lineage
In many African societies, family are organized into these groups, these members believe they are descendants of a common ancestor, besides living members, this includes pass and future generations, within this group members feel a strong loyalty to one another
Corazon Aquino
(b. 1933) First president of the Philippines in the post-Marcos era of late 1980s; served from 1986 to 1992; husband was assassinated by thugs in the pay of the Marcos regime; one of the key leaders in the popular movement that toppled the dictator
Jawaharlal Nehru
Follower of Gandhi who became India's first prime minister. He wanted democracy, unity, economic modernization and neutrality in the Cold War. Tried to elevate lower castes and rights of women.
Ferdinand Marcos
(1917-1989) Philippine politician; he was elected president of the Philippines in 1965, but soon became an authoritarian dictator. He imposed martial law, arrested his political opponents, and stole millions from his country's treasury.
Religious Revivalism
An approach to religious belief and practice that stresses the literal interpretation of texts sacred to the religion in question and the application of their precepts to all aspects of social life; increasingly associated with revivalist movements in a number of world religions, including Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Hinduism.
V. S. Naipaul
Born of Indian parents in Trinidad; winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2001,wrote "Mimic Men" and "An Area of Darkness" which dealt with the massive poverty facing India. He castigated governments in the developing countries for corruption, ineptitude, and self-deception. (themes- poignant loneliness and homelessness of people uprooted by colonialism and Western expansion).
Primary Products
Raw materials and agriculture products, typically unprocessed or only slightly processed. The primary sectors are distinguished from secondary sectors (industry) and tertiary sector (services).
Neocolonial Economy
Industrialized nations' continued dominance of the world economy; ability of the industrialized nations to maintain economic colonialism without political colonialism
Kwame Nkrumah
, Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He develpoped economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts, and neglecting his own countries' issues
Gamal Abdul Nasser
Took power in Egypt following a military coup in 1952; enacted land reforms and used state resources to reduce unemployment; ousted Britain from the Suez Canal zone in 1956
Free Officers Movement
Military nationalist movement in Egypt founded in the 1930s; often allied with the Muslim Brotherhood; led coup to seize Egyptian government from khedive in July 1952.
Mulsim Brotherhood
1938 Egyptian organization by Hassan al-Banna. It attacked liberal democracy as a cover for middle-class, business, and landowning interests and fought for a return to a purified Islam.
Hasan al-Banna
an Egyptian social and political reformer, best known for founding the Muslim Brotherhood, one of the largest and most influential 20th century Sunni revivalist organizations
Farouk
The king of Egypt before Nasser. In politics, he was an inept, corrupt and incompetent ruler, for whom many Egyptians felt nothing but contempt.
Hosni Mubarak
President of Egypt since 1981, succeeding Anwar Sadat and continuing his polices of cooperation with the West. Overthrown in 2011.
Anwar Sadat
Egyptian statesman who (as president of Egypt) negotiated a peace treaty with Menachem Begin (then prime minister of Israel) (1918-1981)
Green Revolution
term used to describe the transformation of agriculture in many developing nations that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
At first was sent into exile, Khomeini came back from exile, established a parallel government. o Defeat of Revolutionary Guard during the air force mutiny led to mass overruns of army bases, secret police HQ, and other police departments by protestors, and were looted. o The Shah's state was essentially smashed. • Initial provisional government was a coalition between secular nationalists and Islamic fundamentalist. o Very quickly became clear that power was in Khomeini. o Created Council of Islamic Revolution and served as head. SKOCPOL, BULLSHIT, ETC!!! Significant because it presented a situation where a political state was subservient to a religious authority, relating back to competitive authoritarianism.
ayatollahs
religious leaders of the highest authority among Shia muslims
mullahs
Local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert all of population to Shi'ism.
Pahlavi Dynasty
The name of the dynasty that ruled Iran between 1921 and 1979. Reza Pahlavi (1921-41) the founder of the monarchy and the initiator of Iran's development during the twentieth century. Muhammad Pahlavi second ruler (1941-79).
Homelands
Under apartheid, areas in South Africa designated for ethnolinguistic groups within the black African population; such areas tend to be overpopulated and poverty-stricken.
African National Congress
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality.
Walter Sisulu
Black African leader who, along with Nelson Mandela, opposed apartheid system in South Africa
Nelson Mandela
Long-imprisoned leader of the African National Congress party; worked with the ANC leadership and F.W. De Klerk's supporters to dismantle the apartheid system from the mid 1980s onward; in 1994, became the first black prime minister of South Africa after the ANC won the first genuinely democratic elections in the country';s history. (p 855)
Steve Biko
(1946-1977) An organizer of black consciousness movement in South Africa, in opposition to apartheid; murdered while in police custody
F.W de Klerk
White South African prime minister in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Working with Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress, de Klerk helped to dismantle the apartheid system and opened the way for a democratically elected government that represented all South Africans for the first time.
Menachem Begin
Israeli statesman (born in Russia) who (as prime minister of Israel) negotiated a peace treaty with Anwar Sadat (then the president of Egypt) (1913-1992)
Camp David Accords
The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
Sinai Peninsula
A piece of land that is currently a part of Egypt but was a UN buffer zone from 1956-1966 and a part of Israel from 1967-1979
Jimmy Carter
The 39th President who created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow
Aswan Dam
It was built in 1956 to control the flooding of the Nile River. The dam gives Egyptian farmers a more dependable source of water for their crops. It also gives Egypt electrical power. Which increased Egypt's farmable land by 50% and protected it from droughts and floods, however Egypt's population boom soon cancelled out the gains of this dam.
Fidel Castro
Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and has been president of the government and First Secretary of the Communist Party since 1976.
Vicente Fox
Became president of Mexico in 2000 and ended the PRI's reign; Pushed to end official corruption, reduce poverty, and spur economic growth; Tried to protect the rights of Mexico's natives;
PRI
Party of the Institutionalized Revolution; dominant political party in Mexico; developed during the 1920s and 1930s; incorporated labor, peasant, military, and middle-class sectors; controlled other political organizations in Mexico.
Zapatistas
Guerilla movement named in honor of Emiliano Zapata; originated in 1994 in Mexico's southern state of Chiapas; government responded with a combination of repression and negotiation.
National Action Party (PAN)
A conservative and Christian democratic party and one of the three main political parties in Mexico. Since 2007, the party is led by Germán Martínez Cázares. Since 2000, the President of Mexico has been a member of this party
NAFTA
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
GATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; international trade organization ehtat encourages free trade by lowering tariffs and other trade restrictions
Juan Jose Arevalo
Elected president of Guatemala in 1944; began series of socialist reforms including land reform; nationalist program directed against foreign-owned companies such as United Fruit Company
United Fruit Company
Most important foreign economic concern in Guatemala during the 20th century; attempted land reform aimed at United Fruit caused U.S. intervention in Guatemalan politics leading to ouster of reform government in 1954
Fulgencio Batista
Opressive dictator of Cuba from 1934 to 1944; returned to presidency in 1952; ousted from government by revolution led by Fidel Castro. Marred by corruption
Ernesto "Che" Guevara
Argentine revolutionary; aided Fidel Castro in overthrow of Fulgencio Batista; died while directing guerrilla movement in Bolivia in 1967. (p 785)
Liberation Theology
Combined Catholic theology and Socialist principles in effort to bring about improved conditions for the poor in Latin America (20th century).
Allende Salvador
President of Chile; nationalized industries and banks; sponsored peasant and worker expropriations of lands and foreign-owned factories; overthrown in 1973 by revolt of Chilean military with the support of the United States.
Sandinista Party
Nicaraguan Socialist movement named after Augusto Sandino; successfully carried out a Socialist revolution in Nicaragua during the 1980s. (p. 824)
Augusto Sandino
He was a nationalist leader who fought against the U.S. Marines in Nicaragua. He led an army of peasants and Indians to restore Nicaraguan national sovereignty; rediscovered the guerilla tradition, been influenced by the anti-yankees and socialist ideas of the Mexican revolution, returned to Nicaragua.
Banana Republics
Term given to governments supported or created by the United States in Central America; believed to be either corrupt or subservient to U.S. interests.
Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy.
Alliance for Progress
Begun in 1961 by the United States to develop Latin America as an alternative to radical political solutions; enjoyed only limited success; failure of development programs led to renewal of direct intervention
Ronald Reagan
President from 1980-1988 ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
Kent State Shooting
Incident in which National Guard troops fired at a group of students during an antiwar protest at Kent State University in Ohio, killing four people.
Vietnam War
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
Harry Truman
President after Roosevelt died, put the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall plan into affect, entered US into the Korean War, dropped the atomic bomb on Japan, "Fair Deal"
NATO
Agreement made in 1949 to stand firm against Soviet military threats, made between the U.S., Great Britain, France, and eight other nations, Center in Brussels.
Suez Canal Crisis
Nasser took over the Suez Canal to show separation of Egypt from the West, but Israel, the British, Iraq, and France were all against Nasser's action. The U.S. stepped in before too much serious fighting began.
Margaret Thatcher
Prime minister of Britain; strong relationship with Reagan; supported NATO, allowed US to store missiles in England; one of the first Western leaders to act warmly toward reformer Gorbachev. Pledged to limit social welfare, restrict union power, and end inflation. Formed Thatcherism
Marshall Islands
Site of the first test of the Hydrogen Bomb, Bad weather caused a large cloud of nuclear fallout over a large area. Harmed sailors, killing one. Radioactivity forced people to move out.
Cold War
The state of relations between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies between the end of World War II to 1990; based on creation of political spheres of influence and a nuclear arms race rather than actual warfare.
Eastern Bloc
Nations favorable to the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe during the cold war-particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, and East Germany
Iron Curtain
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with the help of George c. Marshall to revive war-torn economies of Europe (especially Germany to act as a counter to the Soviet Union. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Warsaw Pact
An international defense alliance between the Soviet Union and many of its Eastern European satellite states as a response to NATO. Formed in 1955.
Welfare State
New activism of the west European state in economic policy and welfare issues after World War II; introduced programs to reduce the impact of economic inequality; typically included medical programs and economic planning
Truman Doctrine
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
Technocrat
New type of bureaucrat; intensely trained in engineering or economics and devoted to the power of national planning; came to fore in offices of governments following World War II.
Green Movement
Political movement and party that arose in several western European nations in the 1970's that opposed unfettered free market economies and unchecked industrial pollution
European Union
Began as European Economic Community (or Common Market), an alliance of Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, to create a single economic entity across national boundaries in 1958; later joined by Britain, Ireland, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Austria, Finland, and other nations for further European economic integration.
Devolution
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
Thatcherism
The economic policy of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Reduced state economic power and introduced free market and privatization with certain constraints. Deregulated the UK's market. This was done at a social cost
Korean War
Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea. Was pretty much a waste of time ,money, and lives .
Iran-contra Affair
This involved high officials in the Reagan administration secretly selling arms to Iran (in return for the release of Western hostages in the Middle East) and illegally using the proceeds to finance the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
Guest Workers
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
Berlin Airlift
Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
Alliance for Progress
A program in which the United States gave billions of dollers to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems in order to counter Communism.
John F.Kennedy
35th President of the United States 35th President of the United States; only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize; events during his administration include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War; assassinated in Dallas, TX in 1963
New Feminism
New wave of women's rights agitation dating from 1949; emphasized more literal equality that would play down domestic roles and qualities for women; promoted specific reforms and redefinition of what it meant to be female
Betty Frieden
She wrote The Feminine Mystique to denounce the housewife trap. The National Organization of women owe their popularity to her book.She calls it the problem that has no name and deplored the narrow view that women should seek fulfillment solely as wives and mothers.She wanted women to establish goals that will permit them to find their own identity.
The Feminine Mystique
Written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities, launched the modern women's movement.
NOW
National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
The Second Sex
Written by Simone de Beauvior, teacher, novelist, and writer; challenged marrige, the basic unit of modern society; theorized that marriage held women back because of male-dominated societies; recognized females as the "Other" and as second-class citizens
Simone de Beauvior
was a French existentialist philosopher, public intellectual, and social theorist. She is now best known for her metaphysical novels, including She Came to Stay and The Mandarins, and for her 1949 treatise "The Second Sex," a detailed analysis of women's oppression and a foundational tract of contemporary feminism.
The pill
A pill with hormones that alters the way the body works and prevents pregnancy. It can keep a woman from ovulating or alter the lining of the uterus so an egg cannot attach to the uterus wall., gave women greater freedom to be sexually active without the risk of pregnancy
James Watson
American scientist. With Francis Crick, he elucidated the structure and function of the DNA double helix. He shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Crick and Maurice Wilkins. He served as the head of the Human Genome Research program from 1989 to 1992.
Andy Warhol
An American commercial illustrator and artist famous for his Campbell's soup painting. He was the founder of the pop-art movement, which like all other art movements in history reflected something back on the present society.
Pop Art
An American school of the 1950s that imitated the techniques of commercial art (as the soup cans of Andy Warhol) and the styles of popular culture and the mass media
Berlin Wall
Built in 1961 to halt the flow of immigration from East Berlin to West Berlin; immigration was in response to lack of consumer goods and close Soviet control of economy and politics. Wall was torn down at end of Cold War in 1991.
Solidarity
Polish labor movement formed in 1970s under Lech Walesa; challenged USSR-dominated government of Poland.
John Maynard Keynes
British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption, he also wrote "The Economic Consequences of the Peace" which helped consolidate American public opinion agianst the Versailles Treaty in 1919.
Bretton Woods Conference
The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to create a world bank to stabilize international currency, increase investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery of Europe.
Lech Walesa
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
Aleksander Solzhenitsyn
Russian author critical of the Soviet regime; published trilogy on the Siberian prison camps, The Gulag Archipelago(1978). Still hated western "materialism".
The Gulag Archipelago
A book by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. Told of the "chain of islands" of gulag camps in the Soviet Union. Goes into detail about life inside them.
Nikita Khrushchev
Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.
Sputnik
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
Saur Revolution
Name given to the Communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) takeover of political power from the government of Afghanistan on 28 April 1978. The name is derived from the Dari name of the second month of the Persian calendar, the month in which the uprising took place
mujahideen
In Afghanistan, holy warriors who banded together to fight the Soviet-supported government in the late 1970s
Dwight D. Eisenhower
34th president of the US. Nicknamed Ike. General in the US army. During WWII, was supreme commander of Allied forces in Europe. Supervised invasion of France and Germany.
Domino Theory
The political theory that if one nation comes under communist control then neighboring nations will also come under communist control. (Eisenhower)
Little Rock Nine
Nine african american students who first integrated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957.
Martin Luther King
One of the main leaders of the American civil rights movement, a political activist, a Baptist minister, and was one of America's greatest orators. In 1964, HE became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (for his work as a peacemaker, promoting nonviolence and equal treatment for different races). On April 4, 1968, He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
Great Society
The name given to the programs of President Lyndon B. Johnson, which elevated the federal government to the most prominent role it would play in the twentieth century. the philosophy of this program was that government should try to solve large social problems like hunger and poverty.
Lyndon B. Johnson
1963-1969, Democrat , signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. His most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
Kwame Nkrumah
Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He develpoped economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts, and neglecting his own countries' issues
National Socialist Party
Also known as the Nazi party; led by Adolf Hitler in Germany; picked up political support during the economic chaos of the Gread Depression; advocated authoritarian state under a single leader; aggressive foreign policy to reverse humiliation of the Versailles treaty; took power in Germany in 1933.
Anschluss
Hitler's union of Germany with the German-speaking population of Austria; took place in 1938, despite complaints of other European nations.
Munich Conference
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
Manchuria
The Japanese invaded here in Manchuria, China, in the year 1931.They wanted to use Manchuria as a place to colonize. Declared it independent state of Manchukuo
Winston Churchill
Soldier, politician and finally prime minister, Winston Churchill was one of Britain's greatest 20th-century heroes. He is particularly remembered for his indomitable spirit while leading Great Britain to victory in World War II.
Rape of Nanking
Was a six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937. During this period, hundreds of thousands of civilians were murdered and 20,000-80,000 women were raped by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army As a result of the nationalist efforts to deny or rationalize the war crimes, the controversy created surrounding the massacre remains a stumbling block in Sino-Japanese relations, as well as Japanese relations with other Asia-Pacific nations such as South Korea and the Philippines.
Wehrmacht
The german armed forces of the years prior to and during WWII
Blitzkrieg
German word meaning lightning war. It was a German army tactic during World War II which called for quick moving, hard hitting drives into enemy territory.
Vichy
French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France following defeat of French armies by the Germans.
Battle of Britain
The 1940 Nazi air offensive including saturation bombing of London and other British cities, countered by British innovative air tactics and radar tracking of German assault aircraft
Erwin Rommel
"The Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; He tried to assassinate Hitler and also secretly refused to obey his orders if they involved killing of civilians or Jews.
Baku
Oil feilds in this region is what Hitler's army wished to capture by invading the U.S.SR, but they failed.
Battle of El Alamein
There were two battles of _______ , both during 1942. In Egypt, Allied (primarily Commonwealth) forces under a British Field Marshal Montgomery finally stopped the Germans under the command of Field Marshal Rommel. It was a turning point for World War II. oon after the Allies were able to take back more land from the Vichy Government
Operation Sea Lion
The name given by Hitler for the planned invasion of Great Britain in 1940. Never carried out due to the loss at the Battle of Great Britain.
Battle of Kursk
Summer of 1943, Hitler's generals had urged him to build an East Wall based on river barriers to halt the Soviets. Instead, Hitler gambled on taking the offensive by making use of newly developed heavy tanks. Berman forces were soundly defeated by Soviets at the battle of _______(July 5-12), the greatest tanks battle of WWII. Germans lost eighteen of their best panzer divisions.
Battle of Stalingrad
German offensive against Soviet Union in which the Soviets counterattacked and catastrophically destroyed Hitler's armies. By 1943 the Soviet Union was no longer on the defensive side, and moved further onward against Germany. A major turning point of the war. Up to 2 million troops died at this battle.
Operation Overlord
The code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944; also known as D-Day
Operation Market Garden
Operation developed by Gen Field Marshall Montgomery—largest airborne operation; Allied WWII operation in Netherlands and Germany that required the capture/control of several bridges along a predetermined route crossing the lower Rhine which would give a direct entrance for Allied forces into Germany. While a great idea, the last bridge was not captured resulting in the entire operation becoming a complete failure.
Operation Barbarossa
The codename for Hitler's attack on Russia, despite the Russo-German Non-aggression Pact. Hitler's reasons for attacking Russia include: Lebensraum; Resources (oil in the south and coal and food in the north); Russia had Europe's largest concentration of Jews; Crusade again Communism. Russian armies retreated slowly, "scorching the earth" as they did to deal with Napoleon. Communist Guerilla bands harassed the invaders.
Battle of the Bulge
This was Germany's last attempt at success against the Allies during WWII. This was an epic failure and basically served as a way to waste men, supplies, and fuel. The Germans went through Belgium (which was a bad idea because Belgium was a neutral country, and it caused more tension and hostility) to get to the Western Front for this historic offensive battle. Patton
General Patton
This American general was one of the most successful and controversial in American military history. He was dedicated, well-trained, intelligent and a brilliant strategist. He was also arrogant, quick of temper, foul-mouthed, and believed in reincarnation. He was briefly relieved of command for slapping a soldier who suffered from battle fatigue, but returned to defeat the Germans in important battles( The most important of which is the Battle of the Bulge)
Operation Torch
A multinational operation between America and Britain. It would be a three pronged attack. The U.S would take Morocco, The British would take Libya and then they would both come together to get Algiers. They wanted to stop the German's from advancing on Egypt. The U.S troops were not battle tested and that could be a problem. General George Patton entered the picture and helped lead the allies to victory.
Pearl Harbor
American base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japanese planes on December 7, 1941. The bombing of Pearl Harbor forced the United States to enter the war.
Admiral Yamamoto
Japans Greatest naval strategists, who called for the attack on Pearl Harbor. He also commanded the fleet that attacked Midway Island.
Battle of Coral Sea
Fought on May 7-8 1942; Caused heavy losses on both sides; Japanese won a tactical victory because they sank US carrier Lexington; Americans claimed a strategic victory by stopping Japan's drive towards Australia
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Hideki Tojo
This general was premier of Japan during World War II while this man was dictator of the country. He gave his approval for the attack on Pearl Harbor and played a major role in Japan's military decisions until he resigned in 1944
War Plan Orange
Refers to a series of United States Joint Army and Navy Board war plans for dealing with a possible war with Japan during the years between the First and Second World Wars. It anticipated a withholding of supplies from the Philippines and other U.S. outposts in the Western Pacific (they were expected to hold out on their own), while the Pacific Fleet marshaled its strength at bases in California, and guarded against attacks on the Panama Canal.
Doolittle Raid
Lt. Colonel Doolittle's psychological point was to bomb Tokyo and several other Japanese cities. This did little damage. It was an important psychological point for both Americans and Japanese: Japan was vulnerable to attack. It was the first mainland bombing in Japan, it did little damage but boosted American morale.
Battle of Okinawa
Lasted almost 3 months.The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.Largest amphibious assault in Pacific; last battle of WWII
U.S.S Missouri
U.S. vessel in Tokyo Bay that the Japanese formally surrendered on
Nagasaki
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
Hiroshima
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945.
United Nations
An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.
Tehran Conference
A war time conference held at Tehran, Iran that was attended by FDR, Churchill, and Stalin. It was the first meeting of the "Big Three" and it agreed on an opening of a second front (Overlord), and that the Soviet Union should enter the war against Japan after the end of the war in Europe. (Pic is a joke)
Yalta Conference
Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1945; agreed to Soviet entry into the Pacific war in return for possessions in Manchuria, organization of the United Nations; disputed the division of political organization in the eastern European states to be reestablished after the war.
Casablanca Conference
Jan. 14-23, 1943 - FDR and Chruchill met in Morocco to settle the future strategy of the Allies following the success of the North African campaign. They decided to launch an attack on Italy through Sicily before initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the Allies would accept nothing less than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war.
Atlantic Charter of 1941
World War II alliance agreement between the United States and Britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live; indicated sympathy for decolonization
Potsdam Conference
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdam, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Total War
Warfare of the 20th century; vast resources and emotional commitments of belligerent nations were marshaled to support military effort; resulted from impact of industrialization on the military effort reflecting technological innovation and organizational capacity.
Quit India Movement
Mass civil disobedience campaign that began in the summer of 1942 to end British control of India
Muslim League
Founded in 1906 to better support demands of Muslims for separate electorates and legislative seats in Hindu-dominated India; represented division within Indian nationalist movement
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Indian Muslim politician who founded the state of Pakistan. A lawyer by training, he joined the All-India Muslim League in 1913. As leader of the League from the 1920s on, he negotiated with the British/INC for Muslim Political Rights
Convention Peoples Party
Political party established by Kwame Nkrumah in opposition of continued British control of the Gold Coast colony. CPP.
Land Freedom Army
Radical organization for independence in Kenya; frustrated by failure of nonviolent means, initiated campaign of terror in 1952; referred to by British as the Mau Mau
Jomo Kenyatta
Leader of the nonviolent nationalist party in Kenya; organized the Kenya Africa Union (KAU); failed to win concessions because of resistance of white settlers; came to power only after suppression of the Land Freedom Army, or Mau Mau.
National Liberation Front (FLN)
Radical nationalist movement in Algeria; launched sustained guerilla war against France in the 1950s; success led to independence of Algeria in 1958
Secret Army Organization (OAS)
Organization of French settlers in Algeria; led guerrilla war following independence during the 1960s; assaults directed against Arabs, Berbers, and French who advocated independence.
Kenya African Union (KAU)
Leading nationalist part in Kenya; adopted nonviolent approach to ending British control in the 1950s.
Apartheid
Policy of strict racial segregation imposed in south Africa to permit the continued dominance of whites politically and economically
Afrikaner National Party
Emerged as the majority party in the all-white South African legislature after 1948; advocated complete independence from Britain; favored a rigid system of racial segregation called apartheid.
Haganah
Zionist military force that spearheaded Jewish resistance to the British presence in Palestine.
Holocaust
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
Kristallnacht
(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.
Mass Consumption
When large amounts of a single product are consumed by a large portion of the population for a sustained period of time. the demand for the product is steady and is assumed by the population to be available at any time.
Cubist Movement
20th Century art style; best represented by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso; rendered familiar objects as geometrical shapes
Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
Red Scare
Outbreak in U.S, began in 1919, as a result of communism in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.
Facism
Mussolini's invention, right-wing radicalism or revolution from the right, seeks to bring about change, anticommunist, anti capitalist, antidemocratic, characterized by hyper nationalism and a state-sponsored campaign of racial and ethnic bigotry
Syndicalism
Economic and political system based on the organization of labor; imported in Latin America from European political movements; militant force in Latin American politics
Isolationism
Elite opinion opposed getting involved in European wars in the U.S; adopted after WWI
Mexican Revolution
Fought over a period of almost 10 years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata
Porfirio Diaz
A dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foreign companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants, Had power 1876-1911
Pancho Villa
Mexican revolutionary and military commander in northern Mexico during the Mexican Revolution; succeeded along with Emiliano Zapata in removing Diaz from power; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta
Francisco Madero
Moderate democratic reformer in Mexico; proposed moderate reforms in 1910; arrested by Porfirio Diaz; initiated revolution against Diaz when released from prison; temporarily gained power, but removed and assassinated in 1913
Emiliano Zapata
Mexican revolutionary and military commander of peasant guerrilla movement after 1910 centered in Morelos; succeeded along with Pancho Villa in removing Díaz from power; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta; demanded sweeping land reform.
Plan de Ayala
Written by Zapata after he was angry with Madero for not enforcing land reform, rejection of Madero's presidency, reform of political landscape
Victoriano Huerta
Attempted to reestablish centralized dictatorship in Mexico following the removal of Madero in 1913;(FAILED) forced from power in 1914 by Villa and Zapata
Alvaro Obregon
Emerged as Mexico's leader at the end of the revolution; wrote a new constitution that promised land reforms
Mexican Constitution of 1917
Promised land reform, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; marked formal end of Mexican Revolution.
Diego Rivera
Mexican artist of the period after the Mexican Revolution; famous for murals painted on walls of public buildings; mixed romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology.
Jose Clemente Orozco
Mexican muralist of the period after the Mexican revolution; like Rivera's, his work featured romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology
indigenism
the concern for the indigent peoples and their contribution that was below many reforms after indianization in the works of Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente Orozco.
Corridos
Narrative song and poetry form, a ballad, of the mestizo Mexican cultural area
ejidos
Land taken away from landlords and foreigners and redistributed to peasants.
PRI
Institutional Revolutionary Party which dominated Mexican politics and claimed to represent all groups
Cristeros
Conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s; most active in central Mexico; attempted to halt slide toward secularism; movement resulted in armed violence.
Alexander Kerensky
Liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution of 1917; sought development of parliamentary rule, religious freedom
Lenin
Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
October Revolution
The seizure of power by force by the Bolsheviks from the Provisional Government (that had replaced Tsar Nicholas II after the February Revolution) in November of 1917. After the forceful seizure of power, Lenin set himself up as the first head of a Marxist state with aspirations to change the country, making several decrees in his effort use socialist ideas (Confiscation of large estates and businesses & establishment of political monopoly- no rival political parties).
Red Army
Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background
New Economic Policy
Instituted by Lenin in 1921 - the state continued to set basic economic policies, but now efforts were combined with individual initiatives. This policy allowed food production to recover
Supreme Soviet
Parliament of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; elected by universal suffrage; actually controlled by Communist party; served to ratify party decisions.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Federal system of socialist republics established in 1923 in various ethnic regions of Russia; firmly controlled by Communist party; diminished nationalities protest under Bolsheviks; dissolved 1991.
Comintern
International office of communism under USSR dominance established to encourage the formation of Communist parties in Europe and elsewhere.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
After losing major territory the Russians surrendered and agreed to sign this treaty. The treaty sliced about a third of the Russians western territory away. This officially brought the end of the Russian empire. Was signed by Lenin.
Joseph Stalin
Successor to Lenin as head of the USSR; strongly nationalist view of Communism; represented anti-Western strain of Russian tradition; crushed opposition to his rule; established series of five-year plans to replace New Economic Policy; fostered agricultural collectivization; led USSR through World War II; furthered cold war with Western Europe and the United States; died in 1953.
Collectivization
Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants; part of Stalin's economic and political planning; often adopted in other Communist regimes.
Puyi
Last emperor of China at end of Qing Dynasty; deposed as emperor while still a small boy in 1912
Yuan Shikai
Warlord in northern China after fall of Qing dynasty; hoped to seize imperial throne; president of China after 1912; resigned in the face of Japanese invasion in 1916.
21 Demands
In 1915, Japan presented Yuan Skikai with this, which sought to make China a Japanese protectorate. Yuan was too weak to resist some of the demands, made his nationalism less popular in the eyes of the common people, and because Mao Zedong said he would not surrender it gave him and the communists more power.
May Fourth Movement
Resistance to Japanese encroachments in China began on this date in 1919; spawned movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy; rejected Confucianism.
Ba Jin
A modern Chinese author born in 1904 who wrote multiple short stories/ novels, including the trilogy Family, Spring, and Autumn, which portrayed a family who's younger members try to break away from the elder's Confucian ideas; he sometimes isolated himself in his study for a year
Mao Zedong
Communist leader in revolutionary China; advocated rural reform and role of peasantry in Nationalist revolution; influenced by Li Dazhao; led Communist reaction against Guomindang purges in 1920s, culminating in Long March of 1934; seized control of all of mainland China by 1949; initiated Great Leap Forward in 1958.
Li Dazhao
Chinese intellectual who gave serious attention to Marxist philosophy; headed study circle at the University of Beijing; saw peasants as vanguard of revolutionary communism in China.
Guomindang
Nationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who turned it into an increasingly authoritarian movement.
Chiang Kia-Shek
The military subordinate of Sun Yat-Sen, became head of nationalist party (GMD) when Sun yat-sen died of cancer, he tried to get rid of the communists by first pretending to support an alliance with them, and then striking out and making them go into hiding, he had a strong commitment to Sun Yat-sen's Three People's Principles and Ideas
Whampoa Military Academy
Founded in 1924; military wing of the Guomindang; first head of the academy was Chiang Kai-shek
Long March
Communist escape (6,000-mile)- (9,600-kilometer) from Hunan province during civil war with Guomindang in 1934; center of Communist power moved to Shaanxi province; firmly established Mao Zedong as head of the Communist party in China.
Great Depression
International economic crisis following the First World War; began with collapse of American stock market in 1929; actual causes included collapse of agricultural prices in 1920s; included collapse of banking houses in the United States and western Europe, massive unemployment; contradicted optimistic assumptions of 19th century.
Kreditanstalt
In May 1931, this bank in Vienna that was the major institution for much of central and eastern Europe collapsed; German economy very nearly collapsed and Germany could no longer pay reparations. Worsen the worldwide Great Depression.
Popular Front
Combination of Socialist and Communist political parties in France; won election in 1936; unable to take strong of social reform because of continuing strength of conservatives; fell from power in 1938
New Deal
President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life.
Nicholas II
The last czar of Russia, he abdicated in 1917 and was murdered in 1918 along with his family. Though generally regarded as a decent man, he was an extremely weak and ineffective leader.
Gestapo
The secret police force of the German nazi state, notorious for its terrorism and brutality
Totalitarian State
A new kind of government in the 20th century that exercised massive, direct control over virtually all the activities of its subjects; existed in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union.
Nuremberg Laws
A group of laws that placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.
Anchluss
The uniting of Austria and Germany as one country.
Spanish Civil War
War pitting authoritarian and military leaders in Spain against republicans and leftists between 1936 and 1939; Germany and Italy supported the royalists; the Soviet Union supported the republicans; led to victory of the royalist forces.. Francisco Franco wins.
Francisco Franco
Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.
Falange
A Spanish facist party that supported Francisco Franco during the Spanish civil war
Lazaro Cardenas
President of Mexico from 1934 to 1940; responsible for redistribution of land (44 million acres), primarily to create ejidos, or communal farms; also began program of primary and rural education. Nationalized oil industries that refused to obey state laws and created state monopoly.
Corporatism
Political ideology that emphasized the organic nature of society and made the state a mediator, adjusting the interests of different social groups; appealed to conservative groups in European and Latin American societies and to the military.
Getulio Vargas
Elected president of Brazil in 1929; launched centralized political program by imposing federal administrators over state governments; held off coups by communists in 1935 and fascists in 1937; imposed a new constitution based on Mussolini's Italy; leaned to communists after 1949; committed suicide in 1954.
Estado Novos
"New State". Authoritarian regime in Brazil, instituted by Vargas. Ruled from 1947-1945.
Juan D. Peron
Military leader in Argentina who became dominant political figure after militiary coup in 1943; used position as Minister of Labor to appeal to working groups and the poor; became President in 1946, forced into exile in 1955, returned and won presidency in 1973
Korekiyo Takahashi
Minister of finance in Japan during the 1930s; increased government spending to provide jobs; created export boom and elimination of military spending.
Five year plans
Stalin's plans to hasten industrialization of USSR; constructed massive factories in metallurgy, mining and electric power; led to massive state-planned industrialization at cost of availability of consumer products. Increased machinery outut 14 fold in 10 years and let it become the world's third biggest industrial power.
Socialist Realism
Attempt within the USSR to relate formal culture to the masses in order to avoid the adoption of Western European cultural forms; begun under Joseph Stalin; fundamental method of Soviet fiction, art, and literary criticism.
MVD
Ministry of Internal Affairs in Imperial Russia, later USSR, the secret police.
Politburo
The executive committee of the Soviet Communist party; 20 members
Lebensraum
Idea that Germany was too crowded and needed more living space, Hitler promised space by invading Europe and Russia
Liberty Bonds
A war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I. Subscribing to the bonds became a symbol of patriotic duty in the United States and introduced the idea of financial securities to many citizens for the first time.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The (crown prince) heir to Austrian throne from 1896: assassinated on June 28, 1914 during good-will mission in Sarajevo, Bosnia (Aus-Hung) by Serbians, sparking WWI: caused Germany and other Austro Allies to declare war on Serbia and its allies
Western Front
Front established in World War I; generally along line from Belgium to Switzerland; featured trench warfare and horrendous casualties for all sides in the conflict.
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.Dismissed Bismarck in 1890. Did not renew Bismarck's treaty with Russia and "Forced" Russia to look for another ally, France.
Triple Entente
Alliance among Britain, Russia, and France at the outset of the 20th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
Triple Alliance
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
Dreadnought
A battleship with increased speed and power over conventional warships, developed by both Germany and Great Britain to increase their naval arsenals. Carried 10 300mm guns mounted in 5 turrets.
Franco-Prussian War
Third stage in German unification. Bismark sought to unify all Germans by creating a common enemy in France. Germany defeated France easily and German unification upset the balance of power A war between France and Prussia that ended the Second Empire in France and led to the founding of modern Germany; 1870-1871. Also contributed to WW1 because of Frances lost territory of Alsace and Lorraine.
Sarajevo
Administrative center of the Bosnian province of Austrian Empire; assassination there of Arch-duke Ferdinand in 1914 started World War I
Mohandas Ghandi
Led sustained all-India campaign for independence from British Empire after World War I. Stressed nonviolent but aggressive mass protest.
Blank Check
Promise of support from Germany to Austria-Hungary after Ferdinand's assassination; Austria-Hungary sought reprisals against Serbia
The Schlieffen Plan
A plan given by Count Schlieffen in which the Germans invaded France using a wheel-like flanking procedure while the Russians mobilized. It was banking on the fact that Russia would take 6 weeks to mobilize. This plan failed because the Germans could not transport troops as well as their opposing forces who had a well-constructed train system.
Gavriel Princip
The Serbian nationalist who assassinated Archduke Ferdinand and his wife, his actions that were enforced by the Black Hand led directly to WWI
Black Hand
The Serbian terrorist group that planned to assassinate Franz Ferdinand, part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing South Slav populations (Serbs, Croats, Macedonians, Slovenes, etc) annexed by Austria-Hungary.
Armenian Genocide
Assault carried out by mainly Turkish military forces against Armenian population in Anatolia in 1915; over a million Armenians perished and thousands fled to Russia and the Middle East.
Gallipoli
Peninsula south of Istanbul. Site of decisive 1915 Turkish victory over Australian and New Zealand forces under British command during World War I.
Eastern Front
Most mobile of the fronts established during World War I; lacked trench warfare because of length of front extending from the Baltic to southern Russia; after early successes, military defeats led to downfall of the tsarist government in Russia.
Adolf Hitler
Nazi leader of fascist Germany from 1933 to his suicide in 1945; created a strongly centralized state in Germany; eliminated all rivals; launched Germany on aggressive foreign policy leading to World War II; responsible for attempted genocide of European Jews.
Stab in the Back
Myth promoted in Germany after the war that, on the brink of victory, socialists and Jewish politicians conspired to surrender to the Allies; used by Nazis as part of their drive to power in the 1920s.
Georges Clemenceau
French prime minister; nickname "the Tiger" wanted to punish germany a lot by dramatically reducing its military army and letting French troops occupy the Rhineland until Germany had paid lots of reparations.
David Lloyd George
Prime minister of Great Britain who headed a coalition government through much of World War I and the turbulent years that followed., He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Self determination
Wilson called for national independence from colonial rule before Versailles; This encouraged colonial subjects in Asia and Africa until they discovered Wilson intended his rhetoric only for Europe.
League of Nations
International diplomatic and peace organization created in the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I; one of the chief goals of President Woodrow Wilson of the United States in the peace negotiations; the United States was never a member
Diktat
The German term for the Treaty of Versailles which they were forced to sign without being allowed to negotiate any of the details. This was an important factor in the anti-Versailles resentment of later years.
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
Tagore
A poet. He was India's first Nobel laureate(1913). Spokesman for Moral concerns of his age; set to music India's first national anthem; life mission was to promote pride in a national Indian consciousness in the face of British domination
Fourteen Points
It was Wilson's peace plan. Each of the points were designed to prevent future wars. He compromised each point at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The only point which remained was the 14th (League of Nations). Each one was appealing to a specific group in the war and each one held a specific purpose.
National Congress Party
Grew out of regional associations of Western-educated Indians; originally centered in cities of Bombay, Poona, Calcutta, and Madras; became political party in 1885; focus of nationalist movement in India; governed through most of postcolonial period.
B.G Tilak
Believed that nationalism in India should be based on appeals to Hindu religiosity; worked to promote the restoration and revival of ancient Hindu traditions; offended Muslims and other religious groups; first populist leader in India
Morley-Minto Reforms
Provided educated Indians with considerably expanded opportunities to elect and serve on local and all-India legislative councils.
Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
Increased the powers of Indian legislators at the all-India level and placed much of the provincial administration of India under local ministries controlled by legislative bodies with substantial number of elected Indians; passed in 1919.
Rowlatt Act
Placed severe restrictions on key Indian civil rights such as freedom of the press; acted to offset the concessions granted under Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919, Allowed the British ruling government to jail any protester without trial for a maximum of two years.
Satyagraha
Literally, truth-force; strategy of nonviolent protest developed by Mohandas Gandhi and his followers in India; later deployed throughout the colonized world and in the United States
Lord Cromer
British proconsul in khedival Egypt from1883 to 1907; pushed for economic reforms that reduced but failed to eliminate the debts of the khedival regime
effendi
Class of prosperous business and professional urban families in khedival Egypt; as a class generally favored Egyptian independence.
Dinshawai Incident
Clash between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers in 1906; arose over hunting accident along Nile River where wife of prayer leader of mosque was accidentally shot by army officers hunting pigeons; led to Egyptian protest movement.
Ataturk
Also known as Mustafa Kemal; leader of Turkish republic formed in 1923; reformed Turkish nation using Western models
Hussein
Sherif of Mecca from 1908 to 1917; used British promise of independence to convince Arabs to support Britain against the Turks in World War I; angered by Britain's failure to keep promise; died 1931.
Mandates
Governments entrusted to European nations in the Middle East in the aftermath of World War I; Britain occupied these in Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Palestine after 1922.
Zionists
members of a movement known as Zionism, founded to promote the establishment of an independent Jewish state
Theodor Herzl
Hungarian-born, Jewish journalist. Expressed a new sense of Jewish identity. Witnessed the Dreyfus affair and all the virulent anti-Semitism it brought to the surface. This stimulated him to found the Zionist movement which sought a Palestinian homeland. The First International Jewish Congress was held in Basel in 1897.
Balfour Declaration
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.
W.E.B Du Bois
First African-American to recieve a doctorate. America's foremost black intellectual at the turn of the twentieth century, and an outspoken leader of the black cause. He disagreed with Booker T. Washington's accommodationist posture and called upon blacks to insist on equal rights. He was a founder of the NAACP and editor of its journal, "The Crisis."
Leon Pinsker
European Zionist who believed that Jewish assimilation into christian European nations was impossible; argued for return to Middle Eastern Holy Land
World Zionist Organization
Formed by HERZL and other prominent European Jewish leaders to promote Jewish migration to Palestine in advance of the creation of a Zionist state in Palestine
Wafd Party
Egyptian nationalist party that emerged after an Egyptian delegation was refused a hearing at the Versailles treaty negotiations following World War I; led by Sa'd Zaghlul; negotiations eventually led to limited Egyptian independence beginning in 1922.
Alfred Dreyfus
French officer and Jew who was falsely accused of spying for Germany in the late 19th century; his mistreatment spurred Herzl and other Zionists to increase their call for a Jewish homeland.
Sa'd Zaghlul
Leader of Egypts nationalist Wafd party; their negotiations w/ British led to limited Egyptian indep. in 1922, however British gov't told him to stop and was eventually exiled.
Marcus Garvey
African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa.
Pan-African
Organization that brought together intellectuals and political leaders from areas of Africa and African diaspora before and after World War I
negritude
Literary movement in Africa; attempted to combat racial stereotypes of African culture; celebrated the beauty of black skin and African physique; associated with origins of African nationalist movements.
Leopold Sedar Senghor
(1906 - 2001) One of the post-World War I writers of the negritude literary movement that urged pride in African values; president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980.
Rasputin
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death (coincidence? I think not).
***uzawa Yukichi
The father of the Japanese Enlightenment. ***uzawa translated works of great foreign thinkers into Japanese and also changed them in such a way so that their works would be relevant to specifically a Japanese audience. He was very influenced by Dutch Learning, and valued a scientific, objective approach. Therefore, he hated Chinese learning and hated its influence on his country.
Alexander I
"Liberal" tsar of Russia (1801-25) who had played a major role in downfall of Napoleon. Feared by representatives of other powers as dreamer, self-chosen world saviour(Holy Alliance) who wanted to bring Christianity into politics. Some even thought of him as a crowned liberal.
Holy Alliance
Alliance among RUssia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and the established order; formed at Congress of Vienna by most conservative monarchies of Europe.
Decembrist Uprising
Political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms; put down by Tsar Nicholas I.
Crimean War
War bewteen the Ottoman Empire and Russia from 1853 to 1856. Britain and France supported the OE so that the Eastern Question wouldn't have to be answered. Russia loses.
Dutch Studies
Group of Japanese scholars interested in implications of Western science and technology beginning in the 18th century; urged freer exchange with West; based studies on few Dutch texts available in Japan.
Emancipation of the serfs
Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land.
zemstvoes
Local political councils created as part of Alexander II's reforms; gave the
middle class professional experience in government but did not influence national policy.
Trans-Siberian Railroad
Constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role.
Sergei Witte
Russian minister of finance from 1892 to 1903; economic modernizer responsible for high tariffs, improved banking system; encouraged Western investors to build factories in Russia.
Intelligentsia
Russian term for articulate intellectuals as a class; desired radical change in the Russian political and economic systems; wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from that of the West
Bolsheviks
Literally, the majority party; the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by V.I. Lenin and dedicated to his concept of social revolution; actually a minority in the Russian Marxist political scheme until its triumph in the 1917 revolution.
Anarchists
Political groups that sought the abolition of all formal government; particularly prevalent in Russia; opposed tsarist autocracy; eventually became a terrorist movement responsible for assassination of Alexander II in 1881
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
Better known as Lenin; most active Russian Marxist leader; insisted on importance of disciplined revolutionary cells; leader of Bolshevik revolution of 1917
Duma
National parliament created in Russia in the aftermath of the revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II; failed to forestall further revolution.
Russo-Japanese War
1904-05 war between Russia and Japan over imperial influence and territory in Manchuria; Japan won and gained Manchuria and Port Arthur
Sino-Japanese War
War fought between Japan and Qing China between 1894 and 1895; resulted in Japanese victory; frustrated Japanese imperial aims because of Western insistence that Japan withdraw from Liaodong peninsula.
Florence Nightingale
English nurse remembered for her work during the Crimean War (1820-1910). Est 1st nursing school. Est. Standards for hospitals. Est. nursing education, made nursing a respectable occ. for women.
Kulaks
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class.
Stolypin Reforms
Reforms introduced by the Russian minister Stolypin intended to placate the peasantry in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; included reduction in redemption payments, attempt to create market-oriented peasantry.
Tsushima Strait
Russia sent its baltic fleet halfway around the world to the east, only to be defeated by the new japanese army here-__________ off the coast of japan
Tolstoy
Which famous artist warned the Czar of growing class tension?, Also remembered for "War and Peace" and" Anna Karina".
Dostoevsky
Russian novelist who wrote of human suffering with humor and psychological insight (1821-1881), Fear of loss of spiritual belief b/c people were only using human belief. Wrote "Crime and Punishment"
Chopin
Polonaise in A major, Op. 40, No. 1; Polish[2][3] composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic period. He is widely regarded as the greatest Polish composer, and ranks as one of music's greatest tone poets
Gregor Mendel
Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884) Czech.
Nicholas II
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
Tsarina Alexandra
Wife of Nicholas II left in power when he joined army on front lines; allowed Rasputin to control government and went into shock when he was assassinated
Terakoya
Commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by the middle of the 19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West, about 40% for Japanese Males.
Matthew Perry
An American commodore in the navy, who made a couple trips to Japan. He forced the opening of Japan to western trade, and prompted a revolution against the shogunate. It also foreshadowed later American imperialistic foreign policy.
Great White Fleet
Name for the steam-powered ships of the enlarged and modernized American Navy of the early 1900s, Navy force that circumnavigated the globe to show off US naval prowess
Meiji
The period of Japanese History from 1867 - 1912 during which the country was ruled by Emperor Mutsuhito and Experienced Modernization. "Enlightened"
Mutsuhito
Young emperor of Japan who took control of the nation's government from the shogun in 1867. He led a reform and modernization movement in Japan that resulted in it being a world power.The Meiji Era began under this Empero
Iwasaki Yataro
Industrial entrepreneur who founded the Mitsubishi zaibatsu, the second largest of the family-owned industrial-financial combines that dominated the economic life of Japan in the late 19th century and early 20th centuries.Originally built steamships for government, then tanks, aircrafts.
Diet
Japanese parliament established as part of the new constitution of 1889; part of Meiji reforms; could pass laws and approve budgets; able to advise government, but not to control it.
Zaibatsu
Huge industrial combines created in Japan in the 1890s as part of the Meiji Reforms as part of the process of industrialization
Meiji Constitution
Set forth the principle all citizens were equal, the emperor had autocratic power, but still a Diet or one elected house and one house appointed by the emperor; voting rights were limited; ended distinction between classes, set up schools, literacy increased, womens position went up; what were all these a part of in Japan?
Yellow Peril
Western term for perceived threats of Japanese imperialism around 1900; met by increased western imperialism in region
Eastern Question
The question of who will benefit from the crumbling Ottoman Empire. The Great Powers are like vultures circling a corpse. Which will dive first to pick over the bones of the Ottomans.
Puyi
Last emperor of China; deposed as emperor while still a small boy in 1912
Mustafa Kemal
Led the Turkish nationalist overthrow of the Ottoman sultan in 1922. He then became the president of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. To modernized Turkey, he separated Islamic laws from the nation's laws.
Hong Xiuquan
Leader of the Taiping rebellion; converted to specifically Chinese form of Christianity; attacked traditional Confucian teachings of Chinese elite.Thought himself the younger brother of Jesus
Ayan
The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule
Selim III
Sultan who ruled Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807; aimed at modestly improving administrative efficiency and building a new army and navy; toppled by Janissaries in 1807
Mahmud II
Ottoman sultan; built a private, professional army; fomented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents
Tanzimat Reforms
Series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire started under Mahmud II between 1839 and 1876; established Western-style universities, state postal system, railways, extensive legal reforms; resulted in creation of new constitution in 1876
Abdul Hamid
Ottoman sultan who attempted to return to despotic absolutism during reign from 1878 to 1908; nullified constitution and restricted civil liberties; deposed in coup in 1908
Qing
Manchu dynasty that seized control of China in mid-17th century after decline of Ming; forced submission of nomadic peoples far to the west and compelled tribute from Vietnam and Burma to the south.LAST Dynasty
Ottoman Society for Union and Progress
Organization of political agitators in opposition to rule of Abdul Harmid; also called the "Young Turks"; desired to restore 1876 constitution.
Young Turks
Group of revolutionary and nationalistic Turks who revolted against Ottoman empire in 1908 attempting to make reforms and then sided with the central powers in WWI
Mamluk
Slave soldiers who converted to Islam the mamluks eventually became a powerful military caste and even governed Egypt from 1250 to 1517.
Battle of the Pyramids
Took place at Embadah, near Giza; the French routed 20,000 Mamluks, Napoleon defeated Mamluk forces at this battle
Murad
Head of the coalition of Mamluk rulers in Egypt; opposed Napoleonic invasion of Egypt and suffered devastating defeat; failure destroyed Mamluk government in Egypt and revealed vulnerability of Muslim core.
Muhammad Ali
Won power strugle in egypt following fall of mamluks; established mastery of all egypt by 1811; introduced effective army based on western tactics and supply and a variety of other reforms; by 1830s was able to challenge ottoman government in constantinople; died in 1848
Khedives
Descendants of Muhammad Ali in Egypt after 1867; formal rulers of Egypt despite French and English intervention until overthrown by military coup in 1952.
Suez Canal
Built across isthmus of Suez to connect Mediterranean Sea with Red Sea in 1869; financed by european investors; with increasing indebtedness of khedives, permitted intervention of British into Egyptian politics to protect their investment
Muhammad Abduh
Egyptian intellectual who launched modern Islamic reform movement; said Islam should return to purity of earliest, most essential doctrines, but still flexible and reasoned approach to change and foreign social ideas
al-Afghani
Muslim thinker at the end of the 19th century; stressed need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology; recognized importance of tradition of rational inquiry.
Ahmad Arabi
Egyptian military officer who led a revolt against Turkic dominance in the army in 1882, which forced the Khedival regime to call in British forces for support.
Banner Armies
Eight armies of the Manchu tribes identified by separate flags; created by Nurhaci in early 17th century; utilized to defeat Ming emperor and establish Qing dynasty.
Khartoum
River town that was administrative center of Egyptian authority in Sudan.
Muhammad Ahmad
Muslim cleric, Mahdi, led a revolt in 1881 that gave him control over much of Sudan, British sent an army to overthrow but they were overthrown
Mahdi
In Sufi belief system, a promise deliverer; also a name given to Muhammad Achmad, leader of late 19th century revolt against Egyptians and British in the Sudan
Khalifa Abdallahi
Successor of Muhammad Achmad as leader of Mahdists in Sudan; established state in Sudan; defated by British General Kitchener in 1598
Nurhaci
Architect of Manchu unity; created distinctive Manchu banner armies; controlled most of Manchuria; adopted Chinese bureaucracy and court ceremonies in Manchuria, entered China and successfully captured Ming capital at Beijing
Kangxi
First Manchu emperor of the Qing Dynasty who became emperor in 1661, ruling for 60 years. Reduced government expenses and lowered taxes. Patron of the arts and enjoyed Jesuits in his court.
Kitchener
An English general that conquered Sudan in 1898. He secured the English control of the Suez Canal and most of the Red Sea.
Zhu Xi
(1130-1200) Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action, still had great influence through the Qing Dynasty. Cheating however did flourish throughout the ceivil service exams.
Compradors
Wealthy new group of Chinese merchants under the Qing dynasty; specialized in the import-export trade on Chian's south coast; one of the major links between China and the outside world
Opium War
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
Treaty of Nanking
Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain an indemnity of $100 million from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain for 99 years.
Taiping Rebellion
Broke out in south China in the 1850s and early 1860s; led by Hong Xiuquan, a semi-Christianized prophet; sought to overthrow Qing dynasty and Confucian basis of scholar-gentry
Lin Zexu
Distinguished Chinese official charged with stamping out opium trade in southern China; ordered blockade of European trading areas in Canton and confiscation of opium; sent into exile following the Opium War
Hakka
Ethnic minority people of south‑central China. Famous Hakkas include Taiping leader Hong Xiuquan and the Soong family.
Zeng Guofan
Qing official who raised effective military forces against the Taiping assault on Northern China
self strengthening movement
Late 19th century movement in China to counter the challenge from the West; led by provincial leaders
Boxer Rebellion
Popular outburst in 1898 aimed at expelling foreigners from china; failed because of intervention of armies of western powers in china; defeat of chinese enhanced control by europeans and the power of provincial officials
Sun Yat-sen
Head of Revolutionary Alliance, organization that led 1911 revolt against Qing dynasty in China; briefly elected president in 1911, but yielded in favor of Yuan Shikai in 1912; created Nationalist party of China (Guomindang) in 1919; died in 1925
Empress Cixi
Empress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported anti-foreign movements like the so-called Boxers, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces. Even built a boat out of marble.
Yuan Shikai
Chinese general and first president of the Chinese Republic (1912-1916). He stood in the way of the democratic movement led by Sun Yat-sen.
Simon Bolivar
Creole military officer in northern South America; won victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822 that led to the independent state of Gran Colombia. "The Great Liberator"
Benito Juarez
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico
Father Miguel de Hidalgo
Mexican priest who established independence movement among American Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed
Creoles
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples.
War of the Triple Alliance
That conflict with Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina was known by this name, and so decimated Paraguay's eligible soldiers that polygamy flourished in the country afterwards.paraguay suffered immense economic and emotial devastation, losing over one half of its population and almost all of its adult males.
Toussaint L'Overture
Leader of slave rebellion on the french sugar island of st. domingue in 1791; led to creation of independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
Federalists
Latin American politicians who wanted policies, especially fiscal and commercial regulation, to be set by regional governments rather than centralized national administrations; often supported by politicians who described themselves as liberals
Centralists
Latin American politicians who wished to create strong, centralized national governments with broad powers; often supported by politicians who described themselves as conservatives.
Augustin de Iturbide
Conservative Creole officer in Mexican army who signed agreement with insurgent forces of independence; combined forces entered Mexico City in 1821; later proclaimed emperor of Mexico until its collapse in 1824.
Gran Colombia
Independent state created in South America as a result of military successes of Simon Bolívar; existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate nations.
Jose de San Martin
Leader of independence movement in Rio de la Plata; led to independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movement in Chile and Peru as well
Portenos
People who settle in and around Buenos Aires were Europens who came to the port city for trade. Resented Spanish Trade Restrictions.
Joao VI
Portuguese monarch who fled the French to establish his court in Brazil from 1808 to 1820; Rio de Janeiro became the real capital of the Portuguese empire.
Pedro I
Son and successor of João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor.
Winfield Scott
Old Fuss and Feathers, marched on Mexico City in 1847, considered to be the ablest general of his generation, nicknamed old fuss and feathers.
Battle of Maipu
A battle fought near Santiago, Chile on April 5, 1818 between South American rebels and Spanish royalists, during the Chilean War of Independence. The Patriot rebels led by José de San Martín effectively destroyed the Spanish forces commanded by General Mariano Osorio, and completed the independence of Chile from Spanish domination.
Battle of Ayacucho
The final stand of Spanish royalist forces in which they suffered a defeat against the liberating army of Bolivar and San Martin. Thwarted the final Spanish effort to retain their empire in the Americas.
Caudillos
Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of latin america
Andres Santa Cruz
Mestizo general who established a union between independent Peru and Bolivia between 1829 and 1839.
Uruguay
A South American republic on the southeast coast of South America achieved independence from Brazil in 1825, was made a buffer zone between Argentina and Brazil.
Juan Manuel de Rosas
Federalist leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Political opportunist and general who served as president of Mexico eleven different times and commanded the Mexican army during the Texas Revolution in the 1830s and the war with the United States in the 1840s.
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Guano
Bird droppings utilized as fertilizer; exported from Peru as a major item of trade between 1850 and 1880; income from trade permitted end to Indian tribute and abolition of slavery.
Positivism
A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America.
Auguste Comte
French philosopher remembered as the founder of positivism. Saw human history as 3 stages: theological, metaphysical and scientific. Founded "sociology." Influenced Realpolitik
Realpolitik
"realistic politics," practical politics, ends justified the means, power more important than principles
Manifest Destiny
Belief of the government of the United States that it was destined to rule the continent from coast to coast; led to annexation of Texas and Mexican-American War.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Agreement that ended the Mexican-American War; provided for loss of Texas and California to the United States; left legacy of distrust of the United States in Latin America
Mexican American War
Fought between Mexico and the United States from 1846 to 1848; led to devastating defeat of Mexican forces, loss of about one-half of Mexico's national territory to the United States.
La Reforma
A liberal reform movement against Santa Anna in 19th-century Mexico, led by Benito Juarez
Maximilian von Habsburg
Proclaimed emperor of Mexico following intervention of France in 1862; ruled until overthrow and execution by liberal revolutionaries under Benito Juárez in 1867.
Porfirio Diaz
Dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foreign companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants. Had power 1876-1911
Argentine Republic
Replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862 as a result of a compromise between centralists and federalists.
Domingo F. Sarmiento
Liberal politician and president of the Argentine Republic; author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade and launched reforms in education and transportation.
Facundo
A caudillo in Argentina. Sarmiento wrote about his life and his "politics," or lack thereof. Anti-rule of law, violent military leader. Sarmiento wrote the book as anti-Rosas propaganda; the main character was barbaric and the opposite of order and progress.
Jamaica Letter
Written by Simón Bolívar in response to a letter from Henry Cullen, in which he put forward the reasons that caused the fall of the Second Republic of Venezuela within the context of the independence of the nation; fundamental objective was to gain the attention of the most powerful liberal nation of the 19th century, Britain, with the aim that it would decide to involve itself in American independence
Plan of Iguala
Independence plan for Mexico that included three promises (written by Iturbide): 1) Iturbide was to be emperor, 2) the Roman Catholic Church would remain official church of mexico, 3) Equal rights for all mexicans
Fazendas
Coffee estates that spread within interior of Brazil between 1840 and 1860; created major export commodity for Brazilian trade; led to intensification of slavery in Brazil.
Canudos
Rebellious village angered at locals leaving and labor shortages (deadliest civil war in Brazil's history)
Jose Hernandez
Author of martin Fierro that depicted gaucho as victim of modern world stripping him of freedoms. forces of modernization cause protagonist to become an outlaw. wrote in gaucho dialect
Indian
A word that is still an insult in most places in Latin America.
War of the Pacific
Conflict over the Atacama nitrate fields led in 1879 to this war, which resulted int he humiliating defeat of Bolivia and Peru by Chili. It also resulted in Bolivia becoming a landlocked country.
Modernization Theory
The belief that the more industrialized, urban, and modern a society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were abandoned or transformed.
Dependency Theory
A structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop.
cientificos
Advisors of government of Porfirio Díaz who were strongly influenced by positivist ideas; permitted government to project image of modernization.
Golondrinas
"swallows"; Italian workers who migrated annually between Europe and South America to take advantage of different growing seasons
Panama Canal
An aspect of American intervention in Latin America; resulted from United States support for a Panamanian independence movement in return for a grant to exclusive rights to a canal across the Panama isthmus; provided short route from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean; completed 1914.
Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Yongle Emperor
Zhu Di - . 3rd emperor of the Ming. Ruled in the early 1400s and relocated the capital to its present-day capital of Beijing; rebuilt the whole city, built the Forbidden City. Immense symbol of power. He is known for appointing Zheng He to captain the treasure fleet and sending him on seven major expeditions around the world
Junk
A very large flatbottom sailing ship produced in the Tang and Song Empires, specially designed for long-distance commercial travel.
Vasco da Gama
in 1497 he sailed eastward past the Cape of Good Hope across the Indian Ocean and landed in India in 1498 and returned home with spices and jewels. His successful voyages represented a tremendous stroke of good fortune for the Portuguese.
Caravel
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
1498
The year that Vasco da Gama of Portugal reaches India by sailing around Africa
Asian Sea Trading Network
Divided, from West to East, into three zones prior to the European arrival: an Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; an Indian zone, with cotton textiles; and a Chinese zone, with paper, porcelain, and silks, there was no central control and there was general peace until Europeans arrived.
Mercantilists
An age of prominent economic theorists teaching that a state's power depended heavily on the amount of precious metals a monarch had in its coffers, a steady flow of bullion to Asia was unthinkable.
Ormuz
Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located at the southern end of the Persian Gulf; site for forcible entry into the Asian sea trade network
Factories
Portuguese trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce.
Goa
Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on the Western Indian Coast; site for forcible entry into the Asian sea trade network.
Malacca
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca. Also spelled Melaka.
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan
Batavia
Fort established in 1619 as headquarters of Dutch East India Company operations in INdonesia; today the city of Jakarta.
Dutch Trading Empire
The Dutch system extending into Asia with fortified towns and factories, warships on patrol, and monopoly control of a limited number of products.
Luzon
Northern island of Philippines; conquered by Spain during the 1560s; site of major Catholic missionary effort.
Mindanao
Southern island of the Philippines; a Muslim Kindom that was able to successfully resist Spanish conquest.
Francis Xavier
Early Jesuit missionary often called the Apostle to the Indies. He was an associate of St Ignatius of Loyola, with whom he took the vow founding the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). From 1541 he traveled through India, Japan, and the East Indies, making many converts.
Robert di Nobili
Italian Jesuit missionary; worked in India during the early 1600s; introduced strategy to convert elites at first; strategy later widely adapted by Jesuits in various parts of Asia; mission eventually failed.
Hongwu
First Ming emperor in 1368; originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; restored position of scholar-gentryncreased amount of food production, improved irrigation, raising cotton and sugar cane, made changes that improved the Chinese government, later grew suspicious and untrusting
Macao
One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty along with Canton
Canton
One of two port cities in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty along with Macao
The Water Margin
Is known as one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. Attributed to Shi Naian, the novel details the trials and tribulations of 108 outlaws during the Song Dynasty period of Chinese history.
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
Matteo Ricci
An Italian Jesuit who by his knowledge of Astronomy and science was accepted as a missionary of China
Adam Schall
Along with Matteo Ricci, Jesuit scholar in court of Ming emperors; skilled scientist; won few converts to Christianity
Chongzhen
Last of the Ming Emperors; committed suicide in 1644 in the face of Jurchen capture of the Forbidden City of Bejing.
Oda Nobunga
One of the three unifiers of the late warring states period, known for his ruthlessness in battle, and for establishing many of the institutions contributing to lasting peace during the Tokugawa era.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
General under Nobanga; suceeded as leading military power in Japan; continued efforts to break power of daimyos; constucted a series of military alliances that made him the military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598.
Edo
Tokugawa capital city; modern-day Tokyo; center of the Tokugawa shogunate.
Deshima
Island in Nagasaki Bay; only port open to non-Japanese after closure of the islands in the 1640s; only Chinese and Dutch ships were permitted to enter.
School of National Learning
18th-century ideology that emphasized Japan's unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Confucianism and other Chinese influences.
Tokugawa shogunate
Shogunate started by Tokugawa Leyasu; 4 class system, warriors, farmers, artisans, merchants; Japan's ports were closed off; wanted to create their own culture; illegal to fight; merchants became rich because domestic trade flourished (because fighting was illegal); had new forms of art - kabuki and geishas
Sick man of Europe
The phrase is used to describe economic poverty in a European country. This term was coined when the Ottoman empire was in decline and increasingly began to lose territory to the Europeans through defeats in battle. (Overstatement).
Sati
A ritual that required a woman to throw herself on her late husband's funeral pyre or burn herself. This was done gladly and if a woman didn't comply with this she would be disgraced.
Safavid Dynasty
Originally a Turkic nomadic group; family originated in Sufi mystic group; espoused Shi'ism; conquered territory and established kingdom in region equivalent to modern Iran; lasted until 1722. Disputed with Mughal Dynasty frequently because of Sunni-Shia split.
Babur
He founded the Mughal Empire in 1526 when he defeated the Lodi army and the Hindu warrior princes, he encouraged military buildup and arts, contributions: creation of a centralized government with ministries that controlled the provinces and introduction of a policy of religious toleration (unity with the Hindu princes), he introduced a new calendar, helped the poor, made an anti-alcohol campaign, and tried to improve the lives of women, was actually trying to raid in order to get other kingdom back.
Mughal Empire
An Islamic imperial power that ruled a large portion of Indian subcontinent which began in 1526, invaded and ruled most of Hindustan (South Asia) by the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and ended in the mid-19th century. Founded by Babur
Ottoman Empire
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
Osman
The ruler of the turks who began to build a new empire in the corner of Asia Minor. these turks became known as the Ottoman Turks
Mehmed II
Also called "The Conqueror", Murad's son, conquered Constaninople in 1453 and opened it to new citizens of many religions and backgrounds. The rebuilt city was renamed Istanbul.
Janissaries
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.
Dhimmis
A person of a non-Muslim religion whose right to practice that religion is protected within an Islamic society, People of the Book: Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians
Vizier
Ottoman equivalent of the Abbasid wazir; head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after 15th century often more powerful than sultan
Suleymaniye
Famous Ottoman mosque. Obelisks/minarettes. Built 1550's during reign of Suleyman, who also built resthouses, schools, gardens, and coffee houses. Designed by Sinam.
Suleyman
Ruled Ottoman Empire for 46 years and when it was at its height, he was also called "The Magnificent", spread the empire, many cultural interests, expanded military, millet system, devshirme system,
Golden Horn
Nickname for Constantinople (capital of Byzantine empire) because it was shaped like a horn and brought in lots of trade (money, gold) because of its access to the Mediterranean, Black, and Aegean seas
devshirme
'Selection' in Turkish. The system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries.
Battle of Lepanto
A naval battle fought between a Spanish and Venetian fleet and the German navy. The Spanish won. The battle meant that European navies had finally surpassed the Muslims. The Ottoman Turks could no longer challenge Europeans on international routes.
Sail al-Din
Early 14th century Sufi mystic; began campaign to purify Islam; first member of Safavid dynasty.
Red Heads
Name given to Safavid followers because of their distinctive red headgear.
Isma'il
Sufi commander who conquered the city of Tabriz in 1501; first Safavid to be proclaimed "shah" or emperor
Battle of Chaldiran
16th Century. The Safavid vs the Ottomans. Ottomans won, and this symbolized the two greatest world powers at the time clashing together, + religious war (Shiites Vs. Sunnis), determined modern day boundaries (Iran vs. Iraq)
Taj Mahal
Most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India; originally built as a mausoleum for the wife of Shah Jahan, Mumtaz Mahal
Abbas the Great
Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology.
Tahmasp I
1534-1576. Won the throne after Isma'il , rebuilt the Safavid dynasty. Brought Turkic chiefs under control. Longest reign in the Safavid dynasty.
Padishah
Safavid term used for king of kings
mullahs
Local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert all of population to Shi'ism
imams
Shi'a religious leaders who traced their descent to Ali's successors.
Isfahan
Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; planned city exemplifying Safavid architecture.
Nadir Khan Afshar
Soldier-adventurer following fall of Safavid dynasty in 1722; proclaimed himself shah in 1736; established short-lived dynasty in reduced kingdom.
Akbar
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus. , son and successor of Humayan; oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes; attempted to create new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India.
Humayan
Son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but restored Mughal rule by 1556; died shortly thereafter
Jizya
Head tax paid by all non-believers in Islamic territories, Eliminated by Akbar during his reign, but reinstated by other rulers.
Din-i-Ilahi
Religion initiated by Akbar in Mughal India; blended elements of the many faiths of the subcontinent; key to efforts to reconcile Hindu and Muslims in India, but FAILED.
Purdah
the practice among Hindu and Muslim women of covering the face with a veil when outside the home
Aurangzeb
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death, despotic ruler, whose strict laws led to divisions and decentralization of government in the Mughal Empire
Red Fort
The fortified structure built by the Mughal emperor in Delhi that served as the home of the imperial family of India under Shah Jahan.
Shah Jahan
Mughal emperor of India during whose reign the finest monuments of Mogul architecture were built (including the Taj Mahal at Agra)
Jahangir
Son of Akbar he was the "Grasper of the World." He married the Persian princess Nur Jahan, who really controlled the state affairs because he was a weak ruler. He was overthrown by his son Khusrau.
Mumtaz Mahal
Shah Jahan's wife who had a building named after her (Taj Mahal) , as he was only passinate about her and beautiful buildings,took an active political role in Mughal court;
Nur Jahan
Wife of Jahangir; amassed power in court and created faction of male relatives who dominated Mughal Empire during later years of Jahangir's reign
Marattas
Western Indian peoples who rebelled against Mughal control early in the 18th century and contributed to its downfall mainly because of Aurangzeb's draconian religious policies.
Sikhs
Sect in northwest India; early leaders tried to bridge gap between Hindus and Muslims, but Mughal persecution led to anti-Muslim feelings
Asantehene
Title taken by rule of Asante Empire; supreme civil and religious leader; authority symbolized by golden stool.
William Wilberforce
British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.
El Mina
The Most important of early Portuguese trading factories in forest zone of Africa. Located in present day Ghana
Oyoko
A matrilineal clan within the Asante Empire that dominated because of their access to firearms .
Luo
Nilotic people who migrated from Upper Nile valley; established dynasty among existing Bantu population in lake region of central eastern Africa; center at Bunyoro. ( I'M THIS )
Factories
Portuguese trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce.(First and most important was El Mina.
Charles Boxer
Historian who says that no people can enslave another for 400 years without developing an air of superiority..
Nzinga Mvemba
King of Kongo south of Zaire River from 1507 to 1543; converted to Christianity and took title Alfonso I; under Portuguese influence attempted to Christianize all of his kingdom. He also tried to end slave trade and limit Portuguese officials and was somewhat successful early on.
Luanda
Portuguese factory established in 1520s south of Kongo; became basis for Portuguese colony of Angola. Showed how Portugal tried to dominate existing trade system of the African Ports.
Monomotapa
Kingdom which stretched between Zambezi and Limpopo rivers of southern Africa, named that by Portuguese, dominance over gold found in interior of Africa, communicated with Arab port of Sofala on coast. Also called Mwenemutapa by Africans. Just Think GOLD, GOLD , GOLD.
1441
The year the first slaves were brought to Portugal from Africa, early on this was very limited(maybe 50 a year till 1450) before the Europeans realized that raid tactics were not working and tried trading.
Royal African Company
Chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia. Early on had a survival rate of 10% due to tropical diseases like malaria.
Indies Piece
Term utilized within the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave.
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa, Long term profits of this trade are heavily disputed.
Polygyny
A polygamous mating system involving one male and many females. May have been caused Sub-Saharan Africa because of the nature of the slave trade.
Zambezi River
A river in southern Africa, flowing east through Zimbabwe and Mozambique into the Indian Ocean. 4th largest in Africa
Asante Empire
Established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi; dominated by Oyoko clan; many clans linked under Osei Tutu after 1650.
Osei Tutu
Member of Oyoko clan of Akan peoples in Gold Coast region of Africa; responsible for creating unified Asante Empire; utilized Western firearms. Took the name asantehene.
Dahomey
Kingdom developed among Fon or Aja peoples in 17th century; center at Abomey 70 miles from coast; under King Agaja expanded to control coastline and port of Whydah by 1727; accepted Western firearms and goods in return for African slaves.
Fon clan
One of the major ethnic groups in the West African nation of Benin;Ruled Kingdom of Dahomey in 18th century.
King Agaja
Under this King, the kingdom of Dahomey moved toward the coast (seizing the port town of Whydah in 1727
Bight of Benin
A region in Africa on the coast between the Volta and Benin Rivers.
Oba
Another word for ruler; of Benin; based his right to rule on claims of descent from the first king of Ife
Yoruba
A West African people who formed several kingdoms in what is now Benin and southern Nigeria, contrasted with Dahomey in the fact that several of its state had governing councils.
Hausa
Peoples of northern Nigeria; formed states following the demise of Songhay empire that combined Muslim and pagan traditions.
Fulani
Pastoral people of western Sudan; adopted purifying Sufi variant of Islam; under Usuman Dan Fodio in 1804, launched revolt against Hausa kingdoms; established state centered on Sokoto. Their attack on a fellow Muslim kingdom(Bornu) demonstrated that it was for political not just religious gain.
Usuman Dan Fodio
A studious Muslim Fulani scholar, preached reformist ideology in Hausa kingdoms- ideas became revolution in 1804- preached a jihad against Hausa kings ( who he felt wern't following Muhammad's teachings)
Xhosa
One of the original ethnic groups of South Africa. There population was largely diminished by the 1779-1878 Frontier Wars. One day, a young girl was down by the creek, and she claims to have been told by her ancestors that if the killed of their remaining cattle population (a large majority had been killed off due to a disease like anthrax), then their ancestors would rise up and defeat the white men. They killed off their cattle, but died off due to the lack of food and a great famine.
Cape Colony
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus. The British came to power in 1795- 1806.
Orange River
-longest river in South Africa
-flows west into the Atlantic
-1,367 miles long
-originates in the Drakensburg Mountains
horizontally across South Africa from Lesotho
Great Trek
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.
Frontier Wars
A series of nine wars between the Xhosa people and European settlers from 1779 to 1879 in what is now the Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Nguni
Meta-cultural classification referring to the Zulu, Swazi, and Xhosa peoples in Southern Africa; heavy emphasis on singing (Mande), began their unification under Shaka Zulu by 1818.
mfecane
Wars of 19th century in southern Africa; created by Zulu expansion under Shaka; revolutionized political organization of southern Africa.
Swazi
New African state formed on model of Zulu chiefdom; survived mfecane.
Lesotho
Southern African state that survived mfecane; not based on Zulu model; less emphasis on military organization, less authoritarian government
Zulu Wars
Fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Empire in Africa. The war ended the Zulu nation's independence.
Middle Passage
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies.
Saltwater Slaves
Slaves transported from Africa (African-born); almost invariably black
Creole Slaves
American-born descendants of saltwater slaves; result of sexual exploitation of slave women or process of miscegenation.
Obeah
African religious ideas and practices in the English and French Caribbean islands.
candomble
African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people.
Vodun
African religious ideas and practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti.
Palmares
Kingdom of runaway slaves with a population of 8,000 to 10,000 people; located in Brazil during the 17th century; leadership was Angolan.
Suriname
Formerly a Dutch plantation colony on the coast of South America, location of runaway slave kingdom in 18th century; able to retain independence attempts to crush goriella resistence
John Wesly
English Anglican minister and founder of Methodism, a new religious movement
Maroon Wars
A series of struggles between the British and the Jamaican Maroons, mid 1700s, Jamaican Maroons were runaway slaves who successfully stayed hidden in the topography of Jamaica and eventually signed a treaty acknowledging them as free people as long as they returned other slaves. They made North American slave/plantation owners nervous because they could travel through the island as they wanted and were supposed to stay away from plantations but often didnt.
Ferdinand of Aragon
Along with Isabella of Castile, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Isabella created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
Isabella of Castile
Along with Ferdinand of Aragon, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Ferdinand created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima, took gold, silver and enslaved the Incas in 1532 .
Iberians
The natives or inhabitants of the Iberian peninsula, where Spain and Portugal are located. They conquered much of Latin America between 1450 and 1750. During this time the Catholics kicked the Muslims out of the Iberian Peninsula in the Reconquista.
Granada
The Muslim kingdom that Spain later conquested. In 1502, the Muslims were forced to convert to Christianity or be expelled or killed.
Francisco Cordoba
Explorer who arrived in Yucatan by orders of Velazquez, credited with founding Nicaragua. Was captured and beheaded.
Ponce de Leon
Discovered and claimed Florida (Land of the Flowers) for Spain while looking for the Fountain of Youth, The place where he first landed was later settled by the Spanish. In 1565, St. Augustine became the first permanent Spanish settlement in what is now the United States. It is the oldest city in our country.
St. Augustine
Founded in 1565, the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in United States territory
Hispaniola
First island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards; settlement founded by Columbus on second voyage to New World; Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in New World.
Ecomienda
In the spanish colonies, the grant to a spanish settler of a certain number of indian subjects, who would pay him tribute in goods and labor.
Encomendero
The holder of a grant of Indians who were required to pay a tribute or provide labor. Was responsible for their integration into the church.
Santo Domingo
Sugar-rich island where Toussaint L'Ouverture's slave rebellion disrupted Napoleon's dreams of a vast New World empire, now known as Haiti.
Tainos
Also called the Caciques. A people indigenous to the Caribbean, and the largest people living there for a while. They were pretty chill; they were into woodcarving, big houses, hammocks, and ceremonial ballgames instead of war.
Caribbean
First area of Spanish exploration and settlement; served as experimental region for nature of Spanish colonial experience; encomienda system of colonial management initiated here.
Caribs
A people indigenous to the Caribbean. They were pretty aggressive. They were known for their dug-out canoes, which made them a seafaring people. When the Europeans arrived in the 16th century, they had pretty much intermarried with the Tainos.
Bartolome de Las Casas
Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of Native American population of Spanish colonies; opposed forced labor and advocated Indian rights, He convinced Charles I to signs the "New Laws" prohibiting Indian slavery and attempted to put an end to the encomienda system by limiting ownership of serfs to a single generation.
New Laws
A royal edict that helped establish that Indians were human, capable of salvation, and worthy servants of the Crown. It happened in 1542, and helped outlaw Indian slavery as well. It is significant because it determined the human aspect of the Indians as well as freeing them, or helping to, from slavery.
Hernan Cortes
Led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519; conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochtitlan
Moctezuma II
Last Aztec emperor, overthrown by the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes.
Mexico City
Capital of New Spain; built on ruins of Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
New Spain
Spanish colonial possessions in Mesoamerica in territories once part of Aztec imperial system.
Francisco Coronado
A Spanish soldier and commander; in 1540, he led an expedition north from Mexico into Arizona; he was searching for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold, but only found Adobe pueblos.
Pedro Valdivia
Spanish conquistador; conquered Araucanian Indians of Chile and established city of Santiago in 1541.
Araucanians
The indigenous group native to chile, resisted many attempts made by the more organized incas to conquer them, and also killed Pedro de valdivia when he tried to take over chile. The ___ held off the Spanish for a considerable amount o time
Ines Suarez
Mistress of the conqueror of Chile, fundamental in attacks on indigenous populations (Pedro Valdivia)
Juan Sepulveda
He was the adversary of Bartolomé de las Casas in the Valladolid Controversy in 1550 concerning the justification of the Spanish Conquest of the Indies.Was the defender of the Spanish Empire's right of conquest, of colonization, and of evangelization in the so-called New World.
Mita
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
Potosi
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America.
Huancavelica
Location of greatest deposit of mercury in South America; aided in American silver production; linked with Potosí.
Zacatecas
A major silver mine of Mexico opened in 1540s
Consulado
Merchant guild of Seville; enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America and handled much of the silver received in return.
Haciendas
Rural estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Signed in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession in New World; reserved Brazil and all newly discovered lands east of Brazil to Portugal; granted all lands west of Brazil to Spain.
Letrados
University-trained lawyers from Spain in the New World; juridical core of Spanish colonial bureaucracy; exercised both legislative and administrative functions
Recopilacion
Body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish possessions in New World; basis of law in the Indies.
Council of the Indies
Body within the Castilian government that issued all laws and advised king on all matters dealing with the Spanish colonies of the New World.
Line of Demarcation
An imaginary line that the Pope Alexander VI drew through the New World. The land east of the line belonged to Portugal; the land west of the line belonged to Spain.
Pope Alexander VI
This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America
Ivan the Terrible
This king of Muscovy defeated the Mongols and added a great deal to his kingdom. He did not, however, conquer Livonia, a port on the Baltic sea which he desperately wanted. He was known as terrible for his treatment of boyars, the hereditary nobility in Muscovy, as he abused, killed, and/or transplanted them and then replaced them with others who were loyal to him. (Ivan IV), also killed his son, which is what the above painting entails.
Peter the Great
Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
Cossack
Member of a group form Ukraine, many of whom served as horsemen to the Russian czars and were famed for their fierceness in battle
Emelian Pugachev
Cossack soldier who sparked a gigantic uprising of serfs (1773) in Russia during the reign of Catherine the Great-he proclaimed himself the true tsar and issued decrees abolishing serfdom, taxes, and army service-thousands joined him, slaughtering landlords and officials-lost to Russian army-he was captured and savagely executed during Catherine the Great's Reign.
Peter III
Husband of Catherine the Great, was mentally unstable, and was murdered by a group of Russian army officers. Whether or not Catherine was involved in the murder is unknown, but she did benefit by it as she then had the throne to herself., Withdrew from the Seven Year's War because he liked Frederick II of Prussia. This essentially stopped the war.
Ivan the Great
Ivan III, was the Grand Duke of Moscow, ended Mongol domination of his dukedom, extended territories, subdued nobles, and attained absolute power; made Moscow the center of a new Russian state with a central government
Michael Romanov
Grandnephew of Ivan IV's wife, Anastasia, chosen by an assembly of Russian boyars and representatives to be the first Czar of the Romanov dynasty in 1613
Alexis Romanov
Second Romanov tsar; abolished assemblies of nobles; gained new powers over Russian Orthodox church
Romanov
the Russian imperial line that ruled from 1613 to 1917(Revolution)
Catherine the Great
Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire., German-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightened rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry.
Vitus Bering
He was a Danish explorer who explored the northern Pacific Ocean for the Russians and discovered the Bering Strait which made it easier to travel to North America.Led the way for future Russian mariners, who eventually reached Hawai`i. He discovered Alaska and the Aleutian Islands
Alexis de Tocqueville
1805-1859 Frenchman who wrote Democracy in America (1835), in which he explored the uniqueness of American character and its sources. He ALSO wrote about Russia and compared the two and said that BOTH would play a huge role in future World History.
Partition of Poland
Division of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in eastern Europe.
Pugachev Rebellion
Eugene Pugachev, a Cossack soldier, led a huge serf uprising-demanded end to serfdom, taxes and army service; landlords and officials murdered all over southwestern Russia; eventually captured and executed
Tsar
From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III
Old Believers
Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization.
Khan of the North
The name that Peter III( The Great) used when he was talking to the Mongols, he also swore his promises on the Koran while he was in their territories.
Tatar
A member of the Turkic-speaking people living from the Volga to the Ural Mountains (the name has been attributed to many other groups), LIKE THE mongols.
Bohemia
Protestant kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire where the people defied their new ruler who tried to close down Protestant churches. It is in modern day Czechoslovakia. Was conquered by Russia in one of ts many late phases of expansion.
Potemkin
"Cyclops" Secretly married to Catherine The Great, even after stepping down from position of head lover, stayed one of her closest advisers, almost Co-Tsar, general/ lover of catherine, we use this name today; potemkin village- fake image you think everything is okay although it is really not.
Fort Ross
Ivan Kuskov and a group of fur trapper built this fort near San Francisco., a trading post, near Bodega Bay, built by Russians in 1812. It was a base for sea otter hunters. they sold tools in exchange for salt, wheat, and other foods
Russo-Turkish War
This war had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans as well as in the Russian goal of recovering territorial losses it had suffered during the Crimean War, reestablishing itself in the Black Sea and following the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire.
Crimean War
A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. RUssia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed
Ivan Kuskov
In 1812 he led a group pf Russian and native Alaskan fur trappers to north San Francisco and founded Fort Russia.
St. Petersburg
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweden
Boyars
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts, In Picture is a ______ House
Rurik
Legendary Scandinavian, regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 C.E., ALL Russian Rulers claimed to be descended from him.
Lapu lapu
Due to his victory, he is recognized as one of the first to have successfully fought back Spanish authority. A monument to him stands in Mactan on the site where Magellan was killed.
Magna Carta
This document, signed by King John of England in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
Leif Ericsson
was Eric the Red's son. He was probably the first European to set foot on North America. He founded a Viking colony called Vinland in North America.
Christopher Columbus
Genoese captain in service of king and queen of Castile and Aragon(Ferdinand and Isabella); successfully sailed to New World and returned in 1492; initiated European discoveries in Americas.
World Economy
Established by Europeans by the late 16th century; based on control of seas including the Atlantic and Pacific; created an international exchange of foods, diseases, and manufactured products. Early on was based on SILVER not gold.
Encyclopedie
Was an encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1766 by some of the most prominent philosophers. It originally consisted of 28 volumes and covered everything then known about the sciences, technology, & history. It criticized the Church and government and praised religious tolerance, Collection of works compiled during the Enlightenment; explained many aspects of society; compiled by Denis Diderot
Potosi
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America, produced 80% of all Peruvian silver
mita
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control. However the Spanish also imposed it on the Indians in order to get silver and resources from them.
Vinland
means "Land of Wine", given by Leif Ericsson to the present-day Canadian province of Newfoundland
Eric the Red
Was a Viking who found and named Greenland. Even thought this was a cold land he named it Greenland to encourage people to come to this area to settle. Father of Leif Ericsson
Cape of Good Hope
Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese explorer who found a sea route to the Spice Island by sailing around the American continent. His crew was the first to circumnavigate the world. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519, The same year Charles V became empreor, he wa skilled in the Philippines in 1521, but one of his ships returned to Spain in 1522 completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
Strait of Magellan
The strait separating South America from Tierra del Fuego and other islands south of the continent, found by Magellan at the tip of South America during his voyage around the globe
Tierra del Fuego
The large island, maybe archipelago whose name means "Land of Fire". it is located near the southern tip of Chile, but administered by Argentina and Chile.
Charles V
Holy Roman emperor and king of Spain as Charles I . He summoned the Diet of Worms (and the Council of Trent, He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Spanish Armada
The Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
Francis Drake
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada
Dutch East India Company
Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in Asia; acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed until the British took over.
British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
Battle of Lepanto
A battle in which Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece-ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean, Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the Pope, loss of large international routes for Muslims.
Macao
One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty, controlled by the Porteguese.
Core Nations
Nations, usually European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international banking and commercial services such as shipping; exported manufactured goods for raw materials.
Mercantilism
Economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe.
Mestizos
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory
Northwest Passage
This is the passage that many European explorers attempted but never succeeded to navigate to reach other nations more quickly, the Engish thought they might have found it by discovering the St. Lawrence River, but alas it was but a foolish dream.
Antigua
Old capital of Guatemala, noble and loyal of , was a British West Indian island colony used for sugar export in the age of imperalism.
Mughal Empire
an Islamic imperial power that ruled a large portion of Indian subcontinent which began in 1526, invaded and ruled most of Hindustan (South Asia) by the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and ended in the mid-19th century.
Vasco de Balboa
First Spanish captain to begin settlement on the mainland of Mesoamerica in 1509; initial settlement eventually led to conquest of Aztec and Inca empires by other captains. He also led an expedition across Panama and "discovered" the Pacific Ocean.
Francisco Pizarro
The Spanish conquistador who crushed the Inca civilization in Peru; took gold, silver and enslaved the Incas in 1532., Double crossed Indian people. He captured their chief, Atahualpa, and promised to release him if they paid a huge ransom which they agreed to pay, yet he killed the chief anyways. Then he made the Inca empire under Spanish rule.
Atahuallpa
Was the last emperor of the Inca Empire.He was invited to a dinner and kidnapped by fought unsuccessfully against Pizarro and spent the rest of his life in captivity. the Inca empire raised a large ransom for his return, but after it was paid he was executed Pizarro
Lima
The capital of Peru, founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1535.
San Salvador
The FIRST Land claimed for Spain by Columbus. Renamed "Holy Savior", now the capital and largest city of El Salvador
New France
French colonies in Canada and elsewhere; extended along the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes and down into the Mississippi River valley system, had capital in Quebec, founded 1608. Fell to the British in 1763. Under King Louis the 14th(Sun King).
Seven Years War
Fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in India and North America, loss of New France at the Treaty of Paris of 1763 to the British,However France did gain back a lot of sugar colonies,
Treaty of Paris of 1763
Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceeding Florida to the British. However France did gain back a lot of sugar colonies,
John Locke
Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rights, people enter social contract to create government with limited powers. If a government did not protect these rights or exceeded its authority, the people have the right to revolt. The ideas of consent of the governed, social contract, and right of revolution influenced the United States Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. He also laid the foundations for criticism of absolute monarchy in France.
Glorious Revolution
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
John White
Roanoke's colony leader who returned to England for more food and tools--when he finally returned to Roanoke the colony had vanished--the only clue he found of Roanoke or the "Lost colony" was the native american tribes name "CROATAN"
Roanoke
Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.
Sir Walter Raleigh
English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure.
Cape Colony
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus.
Boers
Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Afrikaners.
Calcutta
Headquarters of British East India Company in Bengal in Indian subcontinent; located on Ganges; captured in 1756 during early part of Seven Years' War; later became administrative center for all of Bengal.
Aurangzeb
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death, Was a despotic ruler whose strict laws would ultimately led to divisions and decentralization of government in the Mughal Empire.
Black Hole of Calcutta
British trading post at Calcutta lay within the important Indian state of Bengal, who's troops(allied with the French) captured Calcutta and imprisoned many British citizens, locking them up overnight in a small Jail cell, by the morning, was only 20 feet square in a fort in Calcutta where as many as 146 English prisoners were held overnight by Siraj-ud-daula, 120 people died before the British were released and they then used it as a rallying point.
Ceylon
What was the colonial name of Sri Lanka? gained BY THE British in the Early Modern Era (about 1756) fro the British. It followed after a series of wins against the French in India.
The Prince
A short political treatise about political power how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it. Machiavelli explores the problems of human nature and concludes that human beings are selfish and out to advance their own interests
Niccolo Machiavelli
Italian Renaissance writer, described government(practically) in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince (the end justifies the mean).Florentine statesman and historian, was reacting against Humanist of the time who only seemed to write in LATIN. Wanted a internally reunified Italy.
Ventoux
A mountain that Francesco Petrarch climbed in Southern France, and said he used as a symbol of what he could actually accomplish.
Humanism
Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages, Renaissance.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter he is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
Northern Renaissance
Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; influenced by earlier Italian Renaissance; centered in France, the Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than in Italy, Christian Humanism criticizing the church & society, Painting/ Woodcuts/Literature
Giorgio Vasari
Italian painter and art historian wrote "The Lives of the Artists". Massive patronage of the arts came from this and was lead by families like the Medici's and also the churches, who saw art as a means of glorifying God.
Johann Winckelmann
18th century German enlightenment scholar who greatly influenced Modern art history by shifting away from Vasari's biographical emphasis to a rigorous study of stylistic development as related to historical context.
Jan Van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting,characterized by brilliant coloring and minute realistic detail, include Arnolfini and His Wife, Actually would influence Grant Wood centuries later.
Francis I
King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against Holy Roman emperor in order to distract his main rival the Hapsburg ruler of Austria and Spain. Illustrated the increasing abandonment of religious and feudal justifications of the previous era.
Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form
Don Quixote
The main character in Miguel de Cervantes' book about the changing times in the early 1600's. He was a man who did not like how the Middle Ages were ending and people were becoming more materialistic, so he set of to become a knight and bring back chivalry to Spain
Johannes Gutenberg
German goldsmith and printer who is credited with inventing movable printing type in Europe abround 1439. Created the 42-line Gutenberg Bible, noted for its high aesthetic and technical quality. His printing technology was a key factor in the European Renaissance, and is considered on of the most important inventions of all time.
European Style Family
Originated in 15th century among peasants and artisans of western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on the nuclear family, and a large minority who never married.
Martin Luther
German monk; initiated Protestant Reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to door of Wittenberg church; emphasized primacy of faith over works stressed in Catholic church; accepted state control of church, also he was excommunicated by Catholic Church in 1521 after dispute with Charles V. Translated the Bible into German, and this contributed to the further development of the German language
Augsburg Confession
Codification in 1530 of Luther's doctrines as established since time of Diet of Worms and subsequent confinement at Wartburg, 1521-22. Included priesthood of all believers, two sacraments, authority of the bible, justification by faith alone, end to monasticism and celibacy, consubstantiation. Luther's friend, Philip Melancthon, worked on this codification with him.
Wittenberg church
The church on which Luther posted his 95 theses
Philip Melancthon
Luther's friend who helped with the codification of the Augsburg Confession, big supporter of education and literacy, Arrived in Wittenberg in 1518 at the age of 21 to teach greek and Hebrew.
Protestanism
General wave of religious dissent against the Catholic church; generally held to have begun with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many many MANY varieties of religious belief
Anglican Church
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death
Henry VIII
King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England(Anglican Church) in 1532.
Elizabeth I
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England, was the daughter of Henry the 8th.
Jean Calvin
French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America
Predestination
doctrine of John Calvin that adhered to the idea that each person's fate is predetermined by god(COMPLETELY Retarded to Think about)
Catholic Reformation
Restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation (16th century); established councils(Like council of Trent) that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs.
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
Ignatius Loyola
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.Was a Spanish soldier whose leg had been shattered fighting from Charles V against the French. He said that salvation could be achieved by self-discipline and by doing good deeds
Edict of Nantes
A decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
Thirty Years War
War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia, destroyed 60 % of population of Germany in some areas and stagnated it for the next hundred years.
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended thirty years war in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the holy roman empire to choose their own religion-either protestant or catholic
English civil war
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king, Think King Charles I >>>> Oliver Cromwell etc etc.
Henry IV
The irst Bourbon king-most important kings in French history-rise to power ended French Civil Wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris, also devised Edict of Nantes.
King Charles I
The English monarch who was beheaded by Puritans (see English Civil War) who then established their own short-lived government ruled by Oliver Cromwell (Mid 1600s).
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
Proletariat
Class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries
Levelers
During Cromwell's reign, this group wanted voting rights for all men, the church and state separate, alcoholic prohibition, and universal male suffrage. More radical than radical Cromwell, and crushed by Cromwell. Example of how revolutionaries want to make their changes and then STOP the revolutionary spirit from going any farther. It rarely works.
Witchcraft Persecutions
Reflected resentment against the poor, uncertainties about religious truth; resulted in death of over 100,000 Europeans b/w 1590 and 1650; particularly common in Protestant areas
Scientific Revolution
Culminated in the 17th century; period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations; resulted in change in traditional beliefs of Middle Ages, was initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics but by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science.
Copernicus
Polish astronomer who was the first to formulate a scientifically based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the earth from the center of the universe. This theory is considered the epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution. Wrote "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres "
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
Copernicus published his book the year of his death fearing ridicule, Destroyed the notion for believing in crystal spheres capable of moving the stars around the earth.
Johannes Kepler
Assistant to Brahe; used Brahe's data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit; Wrote 3 laws of planetary motion based on mechanical relationships and accurately predicted movements of planets in a sun-centered universe; Demolished old systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy
Tycho Brahe
Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data.Kepler was one of his assistants
Galileo
Publicized Copernicus's findings; used the telescope to study moon and planets; added discoveries concerning the laws of gravity; condemned by the Catholic church for his work.
William Harvey
Discovered the circulation of blood and the role of the heart in propelling it. Developed an accurate theory of how the heart and circulatory system operated. He speculated that humans and animals reproduced through the joining of an egg.
Francis Bacon
English politician and writer, advocated that new knowledge was acquired through an inductive reasoning process (using specific examples to prove or draw conclusion from a general point) called empiricism; rejected Medieval view of knowledge based on tradition, believed it's necessary to collect data, observe, and draw conclusions. This was the foundation of the scientific method
Renes Descartes
He developed analytical geometry; relied on math and logic; he believed that everything should be doubted until proven by reason; believed that scientists needed to reject old assumptions and teachings, Cogito Ergo Sum
Novum Organum
A volume from Instauratio Magna that was published in 1620. Translates to New Method of Acquiring Knowledge . In Sir Francis Bacon insisted on use of the inductive method. Should proceed from the particular/specific to the general, from the concrete to the abstract.
Instauratio Magna
(Great Renewal) written by Sir Francis Bacon in the early 17th century. It was to contain several volumes in which Bacon called for a new start in science and civilization. He only actually completed two full volumes but it's title and intent is significant because he was anticipating a complete new start - a revolution - a fresh page for all knowledge on which everything would be examined again.
Issac Newton
English scientist during the 17th century; author of Principia; drew the various astronomical and physical observations and wider theories together in a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion; defined forces of gravity
Principia Mathematica
In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton wrote this. It was filled with contributions to many areas of science, and included the three well-known laws of motion. NOT the one by Whitehead and Russel/.
Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment. Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life. Locke, maybe (Paine, but not likely ) etc etc.
Versailles
This enormous, ostentatious monument to the power of the French Monarchy, built by Louis XIV over a long period of time, served as a manifestation of the power of absolute monarchy. Meant to impress and scare nobility, foreigners, and commoners alike, this palace was where Louis XIV moved his court in order to keep them under his control and away from the uncontrollable social scene in Paris.
King Louis XIV
Ruled with an iron fist for 60 years as the self proclaimed "Sun King" of France, and always wanted war. Believed in Divine Right of Kings, in which God chose him to rule over the masses and that anyone who challenged him would be challenging God. Thought that an absolute monarchy was the best form of government, and that men couldn't be trusted to govern themselves. Also built the magnificent palace at Versailles. He said " I am the State".
absolute monarchy
Concept of government developed during rise of nation-states in western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churches, imposed state economic policies, think of the Sun King.
Parliamentary Monarchy
Originated in England(Glorious Revolution) and Holland, 17th century, with kings partially checked by significant legislative powers in parliaments.
Fredrick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy, abolished the use of torture except in treason and murder cases. He also granted limited freedom of speech and press, as well as greater religious toleration.
Enlightenment
Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; argued for scientific advance, the application of scientific methods to study human society; believed that rational laws could describe social behavior.
Adam Smith
Established liberal economics (Wealth of Nations, 1776); argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of the operation of market forces
The Wealth of Nations
A book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith, promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics
Denis Diderot
French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France, encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope.
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia,encouraged science, art, lierature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations, gave appearance of enlightened rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women, mother of Mary Shelly(* Yeah the one that you are thinking about), she also wrote a "Vindication of the Rights of Women"
Edmund Burke
A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published "Reforms on The Revolution in France", one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited privileges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Glorified unrepresentitive Parliament and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.
mass consumerism
refers to the spread of deep interest in acquiring material goods and services spreading below elite levels, along with a growing economy capacity to afford some of these goods, can be found in several premodern societies, it developed most clearly, beginning in western Europe, from the 18th century onward.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland; believed that the natural goodness of man was warped by society; ideas influenced the French Revolution Wrote "The Social Contract"; Emile.
Vindication of the Rights of Women
Mary Wollstonecraft's treatise of 1792, in which she argued that reason was the basis of moral behavior in all human beings, not just in men. She concluded that women should have equal rights with men in education, politics, and economics. Also attacked Edmund Burke
Reforms on The Revolution in France
A treatise by Edmund Burke which largely defended inherited thrones, the aristocracy, while condemning revolutions as radical, dangerous and useless, was very conservative. Attacked by Rousseau, Wollstonecraft, and Paine.
Vindication of the Rights of Man
A political pamphlet, written by the 18th-century British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, which attacks aristocracy and advocates republicanism. Wollstonecraft's was the first response in a pamphlet war sparked by the publication of Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), a defence of constitutional monarchy, aristocracy, and the Church of England.
Journal des Dames
French journal written originally by a man for women, but taken over by Madame de Beaumere. In Germany a similar publication suggested that men were partly to blame for women's lowly position in society.
Madame de Beaumere
Took over the direction of the French Journal des Dames from a man.
Encyclopaedia Britannica
A Compilation of scientific and philosophical findings that was popularized during the enlightenment and found a wide audience.
Pamela
Book written by Samuel Richardson which focused on a servant girl and her master; virtue is rewarded in the novel , This epistolary form became a popular technique in literature during this time period
Samuel Richardson
A major 18th century writer best known for his 3 epistolary novels: "Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded," "Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady," and "Sir Charles Grandison."
proto-globalization
Is a period of the history of globalization roughly spanning the years between 1600 and 1800. First introduced by historians A. G. Hopkins and Christopher Bayly, the term describes the phase of increasing trade links and cultural exchange that characterized the period immediately preceding the advent of so-called 'modern globalization' in the 19th century
noble savage
The notion, often associated with Rousseau, that non-Western or "primitive" people are actually happier and more virtuous than Westerners. Based on the idea that humans are free and equal in "a state of nature" but that social institutions deprive them of that freedom and equality.
Medici
The family members were wealthy politicians, businessmen, and patrons of the arts who influenced both individuals and the bigger picture, in Florence and all of Europe. Cosimo de Medici ruled Florence for five years after strategically getting himself elected, used his grandson Lorenzo as a diplomat to get aquainted with other leaders of Europe, and became a great patron of the arts, like other members of his family, and helped many artists such as Michelangelo Used diplomatic prowess to end a war against Naples and the Papacy in 1479, but shortly after his death, wars tore apart Italy and lowered it from its status of the center of European civilization.
Lorenzo Medici
Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492)
Cosimo de Medici
A wealthy Florentine and an astute statesman, who brought power back to Florence in 1434 when he ascended to power; controlled the city behind the scenes, He skillfully manipulated the constitution and influencing elections; through his informal, cordial relations with the electoral committee, and was able to keep councilors loyal to him in the Signoria (the governing body of Florence, composed of 8 councilors); as head of the Office of Public Debt, He was the grandfather of Lorenzo the Magnificent
Signoria
A council in Florence of 8 men representing the major guilds. Cosimo de Medicci controlled the guild
Maori
A native of New Zealand whose ancestors first traveled from Asia to Polynesia, and later to New Zealand about 800 C.E. Created the most elaborate of all polynesian art, had a population of 200, 000 and also had a caste sytem similar to the one observed in Hawaii in the years before the start of the Modern Era.
Feng Shui
an ancient Chinese system of aesthetics grounded in astronomy that strives to pair human-built environments with locations that have perfect qi, or energy - literally wind and water, may have been firdt used with compasses.
Giotto
Florentine painter who gave up the stiff Byzantine style and developed a more naturalistic style, and THUS led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body, apprentice to Cimabue
Dante Alighieri
An Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice
The Destruction of the Philosophers
A book by Al- Ghalazi that shows the increasing European Influence on Middle Eastern Philosophy, used Aristotle's logic to show that it was impossible to discover religious myths by human reason. Also illustrated the diminishinh, however strong role of Islamic Science.
Francesco Petrarch
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his "lady love" who spoke no latin.
Averroes
Spanish-Arabian philosopher and doctor, wrote and translated commentaries on Aristotle, emphasized the compatibility of faith and reason, said philosophical knowledge was derived from reason, strongly influenced medieval Christian scholars with his writings on Aristotle
Ming Dynasty
Succeeded the Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368 and was founded by a rebel peasent leader Zhu Yuanzhang ; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge state sponsored trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China. Means "brilliant". Capital at Beijing was built.
Zhu Yuanzhang
Buddhist monk and leader of the Red Turbans
became emperor of the new Ming dynasty in 1368, succeeding the Mongol controlled Yuan Dynasty
Red Turbans
a religious sect believing in the incompatibility of the forces of good and evil; rebelled against the government(Mongol controlled Yuan Dynasty in China) in 1351 and were joined by Zhu Yuanzhang
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yunglo with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
Yunglo
The third emperor in the Ming dynasty. Launched the expedition of the seven major overseas and sends Zhenghe as the leader. Orders the expeditions in order to explore other lands and proclaim the glory of the Ming empire to the wider world. Successor did not continue his interest and the overseas expedition died out.
Black Plague
A disease that engulfed Europe during the Middle Ages. It killed about one-third of the population and was carried by fleas. Because of this, the feudal system died out, and centralization of pwer became more prominent.
Jean de Venette
French friar and master of theology at the University of Paris; account of plague, monk who witnessed the ravages of the Black Death in France, he wrote this account in the late 1350s, died in 1368
Ibn al-Wardi
The most important figure in the field of History and Sociology in Muslim History. Wrote an account of the Black Plague , died in 1349
Renaissance
A cultural and political awakening which began in Italy and spread through Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Its emphasis on human abilities helped promote a spirit of discovery, exploration, and expansion.; began in Italy 1400 CE, rested on urban vitality and expanding commerce; combined art and literature with more secular views
Divine Comedy
Literary work of the religiously-influenced humanist, Dante Alighieri, which, in addition to Petrarch's sonnets, make up the cornerstone of Italian vernacular literature, about a imaginary journey to places where Christians believed souls went in afterlife
Cimabue
One of first artists to break away from Italio-Byzantine style, Giotto's teacher,
Castile
Along with Aragon, a regional kingdom of the Iberian peninsula; pressed reconquest of peninsula from Muslims(Reconquista) ; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda. Think marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella / Inquisiton etc
Aragon
Along with Castile, a regional kingdom of the Iberian peninsula; pressed reconquest of peninsula from Muslims(Reconquista); developed a vigorous military and religious agenda.Think marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella/ Inquisiton etc
Inquisition
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.
Vivaldis
Two Genoese brothers who attempted to find a Western route to the "Indies"; disappeared in 1291; precursors of thrust into southern Atlantic.
Azores
Islands in the Atlantic Ocean belonging to Portugal.
Vasco de Gama
A Portuguese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean, and brought back Indian goods, which was a huge blow to Italian monopoly of trade with Asia
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince responsible for direction of series of expeditions along the African coast in the 15th century; marked beginning of Western European expansion, spread Christianity to new lands.
Polynesia
Islands contained in a rough triangle whose points lie in Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island
Hawaii
A polynesian Island that had recurrent migration and expansion after the first people reached it in the 7th century. Even brought Pigs from other Society Island(whatever that means), society was structured into a caste system with Priests and Nobles at the top. Traced their families back to original war canoes. Example of change in the few years before the Modern Era in Polynesia, alomg with the Maori
ethnocentrism
tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups, Happens ALL the time in historical accounts.
Volga River
The longest river in Europe and Russia's most important commercial river, includes canals connecting Moscow to the Baltic, Black, and Caspian Seas
Chinggis Khan
Born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all MOngol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227 prior to conquest of most of the Islamic world. Was shaministic, created a legal code and the Mongolian language to facilitate record keeping. 3 son problem at his death.
Muhammad Shah
The Turkic ruler of Khwarazm, __________ II, attempted to resist the Mongol conquest by Chingiss Khan but failed. Fled and left his people, he would later die on a island in the Caspian Sea.
Khwarazm
A old Islamic empire that was invaded by the mongols under Chingiss Khan.
Bukhara
City in Uzbekistan with an oasis on the Silk Road; former capital of Muslim dynasty(Khwarazm)
Caspian Sea
a large saltwater lake between Iran and Russia fed by the Volga River, the largest inland body of water; the largest lake made of salt water
Bamian
City where Chingiss Khans grandson died when they Mongols where attacking Muhammad Shah's Khwarazm. Was given the name "accursed city"
Karakorum
Capital of the Mongol empire under Chinggis Khan, 1162 - 1227.
Rashid al Din
Doctory, historian and adviser to the Il-khans, created some of the most concise writing on the Mongol Empire er who attempted the first history of the world
Khans
Mongol family that conquered a vast empire from Pacific to Danube River; there were five great these, the most famous was Kublai Khan of China.
Kabul Khan
Chinggis khan's great grandfather, defeats army of Jin Kingdom in northern China
Kuriltai
Meeting of all Mongol chieftans at which the supreme ruler of all Mongol tribes was selected.
Khagan
title of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes; Chinggis Khan chosen 1206
Tumens
Basic fighting units of the Mongol forces; consisted of 10,000 cavalrymen; each unit was further divided into units of 1000, 100, and 10.
Jebe
One of Chinggis' leading generals who first attracted his attention when he held his ground against overwhelming opposition and shot Chinggis' horse out from under him.
Tangut
Rulers of the Xi Xia kingdom of northwest china; one of the regional kingdoms during the period of Southern Song; conquered by Chinggis Khan's Mongols in 1226.
Jin Empire
A Chinese empire ormed by Jurchens (Manchurian people) attacked Song and the song empire eventually fell.Mongols 1211-Chinggis Khan attacked Jin.
Jurchens
Founders of Qin kingdom(Jin) that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced the Song to flee south.
Kara Khitai Empire
An empire which had actually been established by Mongolian empire, Chinggis Khan mongols swiftly attacked it and annexed it.
Giovanni Carpini
The monk who asked the Mongols to join the Crusades(Pope Innocent the 4th sent him). He also wrote a book about the Mongolian empire.
Batu
Ruler of the golden horde; one of Chinggis Khan's grandsons; responsible for the invasion of Russia beginning in 1236.
Jochi
Eldest son of Genghis Khan and Borte. legitimacy was always questioned because of his conception time.
Ogedi
Third son of Chinggis Khan; succeeded Chinggis Khan as khagan of the Mongold following his father's death, Attacked Russia, E. Europe, Was a diplomat, not fighter,Islamic heartlands, and China
Golden Horde
One of four subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after Genghis Khan's Death; territory covered much of present south-central Russia, Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde.
Khanates
Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan.
Tatars
Mongols who captured Russian cities and destroyed the Kievan state in 1236. However, they left the Russian Orthodox church and aristocracy intact.
Alexander Nevskii
Prince of Novgorod. He submitted to the invading Mongols in 1240 and received recognition as the leader of the Russian princes under the Golden Horde.
Battle of Kulikova
Russian army victory over the forces of the Golden Horde; helped break Mongol hold over Russia
Prester John
In legends popular from the 12th to 17th centuries, he was a mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom was cut off from Europe by Muslim conquests; Chinggis Khan was originally believed to be this ruler.
Hulegu
Khubilai's brother who conquered the Abbasid dynasty and established the Ilkhanate of Persia. Captured the Abbasid capital of Baghdad after besieging it in 1258. Attempted to capture Syria but was expelled by Egyptian Muslims, who stopped Muslim expansion to the southwest, defeated Seljuk Turks.
Mamluks
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria , defeated MONGOLS.
Baibars
Commander of Mamluk forces at Ain Jalut in 1260; originally enslaved by Mongols and sold to Egyptians.
Ain Jalut
A battle when the Egyptians slaves stopped the Mongols from conquering all of the Muslim world
Berke
A ruler of the Golden Horde; converted to Islam; his threat to Hulegu combined with the growing power of Mamluks in Egypt forestalled further Mongol conquests in the Middle East.
Kublai Khan
Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis(chingiss) Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China and founded the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
Dynasty in China set up by the Mongols under the leadership of Kublai Khan, replaced the Song (1279-1368)
Dadu
In 1264, Khubilai established this new capital at the site of the Liao and Jin capitals. It became the main capital of the khanate of the Great Khan, which stretched from Mongolia through north China and Korea.
Chabi
Influential wife of Kubilai Khan; promoted interests of Buddhists in China; indicative of refusal of Mongol women to adopt restrictive social conventions of Chinese.
Marco Polo
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.,and he served Kublai Khan
The Romance of West Chamber
Chinese dramatic work written during the Yuan period; indicative of the continued literary vitality of China during Mongol rule.
White Lotus Society
Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in China; typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule
Ming Dynasty
A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
Zhu Yuanzhang
A former monk that led this army in a final victory over the Mongols, became emperor of China and founded the Ming Dynasty
Timur-i-lang
Leader of Turkic nomads; beginning in 1360s from base at Samarkand, launched series of attacks in Persia, the Fertile Crescent, India, and southern Russia; empire disintegrated after his death in 1405
Ibn Khaldun
Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states. Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city. Conversed with Tamerlane, proves the strangness of Tamerlane personality.
Black Death
An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons. Thought to be related to Mongolian Conquest and fleas on their horses/ equipment.
The Tale of Genji
Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any languange; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor's son; evidence for mannered style of the Japanese society.
Kinkakuji
The Golden Temple built by Ahikaga Yoshimitsu, built on a small lake near Kyoto in the 15th century, zan and shinto stress of simplicity
Nara
Along with Heian, capital of the Yamato emperors; patterned after ancient imperial centers of Tang Dynasty China; never fully populated, instituted a series of reforms to centralize power. It was built as a replica of Chang'an
Taika
The reforms enacted in 646 that intended to thoroughly incorporate chinese culture and politics into Japanese society
Taika Reforms
Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army.
Kami
Gods or nature spirits of Japanese religion, which lived in all things, such as waterfalls, sand, and great trees
Kammu
A descendent of Tenchi and Emperor of Japan , he moved capital to Heian(Later called Kyoto) in 794. one of the last powerful functioning emperors
Heian
Capital city of Japan under the Yamato emperors, later called Kyoto; built in order to escape influence of Buddhist monks; patterned after ancient imperial centers of China; never fully populated
Lady Murasaki
Upper class women who married and widowed early on and later become the lady to an Empress and would describe the lives of aristocrats in the Tale of Genji, becoming the first ever novel.
Fujiwara
Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power. By the end of the 10th century one chief minister of this family had sent FOUR of his daughters married to Emperors.
Bushi
Regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies. Helped weaken the Imperial power of Japan during the Postclassical Period.
Samurai
Literally 'those who serve,' the hereditary military elite of the Tokugawa Shogunate. , Mounted troops of Japanese warrior leaders (bushi); loyal to local lords, not the emperor
Bushido
Code of conduct for Samurai during the feudal period in Japan, did not fully develop until the LATE Postclassical Period.
Seppuku
Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor.
hara- kiri
A form of Japanese ritual suicide preformed of many Japanese soldiers, especially officers, following defeat. Literally "belly splitting"
Kuya
Early propagator of Pure Land. Was a dancing monk and entertainer; went around singing and dancing. Wore bells, drums, taught ecstatic worship, appealed to the masses.
Taira
Powerful Japanese family in 11th and 12th centuries; competed with the Minamota family; defeated after the Gempei Wars.
Minamoto
Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th century Japan.
Gempei Wars
Waged for five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira, and the establishment of the Bokufu Gov't, this war brought great suffering to the peasantry.
Bakufu
Military government established by the Minamoto following the Gempei Wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai
Kamakura
Yorimoto's capital during his shogunate, destroyed in 1331
significance: head of the true power of Japan
Shoguns
Military leaders of Japan during its feudal era and the actual powers behind the emperor until the Meiji restoration.
Hojo
Warrior family closely allied with the Minamota; dominated Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamota rulers who claimed to rule in name of the Japanese Emperor at Kyoto.
Ashikaga Takuaji
Member of the Minamota family; overthrew the Kamakuro regime and established the Ashikaga Shogunate from 1336-1573; drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino.
Ashikaga Shogunate
Replaced the Kamakura regime in Japan, ; ruled from 1336 to 1573; destroyed rival Yoshino center of imperial authority
Daimyos
Warlord rulers of 300 small states following civil war and disruption of the Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded ministates
Kamakura Shogunate
The first of Japan's decentralized military governments., (12th-14th century) First shogun position instated after toppling the Fujiwara . Named after the home town of the first shogun of the Minamoto clan
Yorimoto
Founder of Kamakura Shogunate
Himeji
Largest Castle in Japan
Disinheritance
Was one of the tools that made woman that were married with warrior elites(In Comparison with Woman in the merchant class, whose quality of life increased) increasingly more dependent, where they received little or no land or income< In addition they were also replaced in theatrical performances by men>
Ryoanji Temple
Zen Buddhist temple (in Kyoto), design of garden consists of islands of volcanic rock set amidst white pebbles.
Choson
Earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by Han emperor Wudi in 109 b.c.e.
Wudi
Chinese empire from 140-86 b.c; brought the han dynasty to its peak; expanded the Chinese empire; made Confucianism the state religion, - conquered foreign territories like Manchuria, parts of Vietnam, and Korea - conquered Xiongng (nomads) terrorized border, defeated them
Koguryo
Tribal people of northern Korea; established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula; adopted cultural Sinification.
Silla
Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies; submitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; ruled united Korea by 668.
Paekche
Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated by rival Silla kingdom and its Chinese Tang allies in 7th century.
Sinification
Extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea and Japan, less typical of Vietnam.
Koryo Dynasty
Korean dynasty that ruled from 935-1392, Replaced the Silla Dynasty in Korea capital was Songak metal type print led to mass productionn of books also produced celadon
Kumsong
Capital of Korea in the Medieval Era modeled after the Chinese capital of Chang'an
Celadon
Type of pottery having the a pale green glaze, originally produced in China. Chemically it is formed by combining chromium oxide, cadmium yellow, and titanium-zinc white. It was most commonly used in Korean art.
Yi Dynasty
Korean Dynasty that succeeded Koryo dynasty following period of Mongol invasions; established in 1392; ruled Korea to 1910; resotred aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence
Mekong River
A major river that runs from southern China through Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam.
Khmers
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south
Nam Viet
Han dynasty conquered the kingdom of ?, northern Vietnam, , 207- vietnam dominated by Mahayana Buddhism. 939- victory brought independence from China, founding Dai Viet.. adopted confucianism.
Betel nut
seed of betel palm (used as a stimulant in SE Asia), can mouth and throat cancer (addictive substance chewed in India and Vietnam, Chinese found repulsive.
Trung Sisters
Leaders of one of the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule; revolt broke out in 39 c.e.; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society.
Chams
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; driven into the highlands by the successful Vietnamese drive to the south.
Nguyen
Rival Vietnamese dynasty that arose in southern Vietnam to challenge traditional dynasty of Trinh in north at Hanoi; kingdom centered on Red and Mekong rivers; capital at Hue.
Trinh
Dynasty that ruled in North Vietnam at Hanoi, 1533- 1772; rivals of the Nguyen family in the south.
Hue
The capital of the Nguyen dynasty was located here.
The Tale of Kieu
Is an epic poem in Vietnamese written by Nguyễn Du, and is widely regarded as the most significant work of Vietnamese literature ,the poem recounts the life, trials and tribulations of Thúy Kiều, a beautiful and talented young woman, who had to sacrifice herself to save her family. To save her father and younger brother from prison, she sold herself into marriage with a middle-aged man, not knowing that he is a pimp, and was forced into prostitution.
Nguyen Du
is a celebrated Vietnamese poet who wrote in Chữ Nôm, the ancient writing script of Việt Nam. He is most known for writing the epic poem The Tale of Kiều.
Chabi
Influential wife of Kubilai Khan; promoted interests of Buddhists in China; indicative of refusal of Mongol women to adopt restrictive social conventions of Chinese.
Luoyang
During Wu's reign, the court frequently moved East to this location to recruit officials.
Xuanzong
Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755, though he encouraged overexpansion. Defeated Empress Wei.
Kublai Khan
Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan; In 1271, he founded the Yuan Dynasty, and became the first Yuan emperor., He defeated the Song Dynasty in the process
Grand Canal
Built in 7th century during reign of Yangdi during Sui dynasty; designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin to the south; nearly 1200 miles long.
Footbinding
Practice in chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household, Song Dynasty
Chang'an
The capital city of the Tang Dynasty located in the Wei Valleywhere 2 million people lived during the 700s and 800s... it was the center of government, culture and trade.
Mahayana Buddhism
Great Vehicle' branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment. Main start in Tang Dynasty
Yang Jian
Northern ruler who finally ended the Period of Disunion., Founder of Sui Dynasty, considered the "cultured emperor" In Public work: repair Great Wall, constructed Grand Canal, rebuilt former capital Changan, used FORCED laborers; Emperor Wen. Was murdered by his son (the Yangdi Emperor)
Sui Dynasty
The short dynasty between the Han and the Tang; built the Grand Canal, strengthened the government, and introduced Buddhism to China
Wendi
Member of prominent northern Chinese family during period of Six Dynasties; proclaimed himself emperor; supported by nomadic peoples of northern China; established Sui dynasty. ALSO known as Tang Jian, Was murdered by his son (the Yangdi Emperor)
Yangdi
Second member of Sui dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system;Extravagance and luxurious he also built a new palace at Luoyang, forced peasants to build a game park responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; Led his subjects into a series of unsuccesful wars against Korea and he was assassinated in 618.
Li Yuan
Was the Duke of Tang, he founded the Tang dynasty; minister for Yangdi; took over empire following assassination of Yangdi; first emperor of Tang dynasty; took imperial title of Gaozu
Tang Tiazong
First great Tang emperor, and 2nd son of Li Yuan its founder., Was able to conquer into Afghanistan.
Gaozong
Third emperor of the Tang Dynasty. He had a stroke and became a vegetable, rendering him unable to technically rule China for several decades. Ws the Husband of Empress Wu. Under his rule, Korea was over run by Chinese Armies ans Silla was created
Silla
Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies; submitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; ruled united Korea by 668.
Bureau of Censors
A powerful Bureau in Tang era China that tracked all the officials and their records, also conducted the Chinese Census.
Ministry of Rites
Administered examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars in the Tang Dynasty.
Jinshi
Title granted to students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature; became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office
Pure Land
The place where Amida Buddha has vowed to have reborn those who call on his name ten times at death
Chan Buddhism
Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society
Zen Buddhism
Known as Chan Buddhism in China; stressed meditation and the appreciation of natural and artistic beauty. Main start in Tang Dynasty
Empress Wu
Tang ruler 690-705 C.E. in China; supported Buddhism establishment; she tried to elevate Buddhism to state of religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created
Hymn to Wisdom
A treatise that followed Chan Buddhism, where the ultimate goal is to achieve and know the ultimate Wisdom and find release from the cycle of rebirth.
Wuzong
Chinese emperor of Tang dynasty who openly persecuted Buddhism by destroying monasteries in 840s; reduced influence of Chinese Buddhism in favor of Confucian ideology
Empress Wei
Woman who poisoned her husband, son of Empress Wu, to try and get power but failed.
Yang Guifei
Royal concubine of Tang emperor Xuanzong; introduction of relatives into administration led to revolt.Young woman belonging to harem of Tang prince; raised to status of royal concubine during reign of Xuanzong
Zhao Kuangyin
Founder of Song dynasty; originally a general following fall of Tang; took title of Emperor Taizu; failed to overcome northern Liao dynasty that remained independent. Was also a scholary man who collected books while out on campaigns.
Liao Dynasty
Founded in 907 by Nomadic Khitan peoples from Manchuria; mantained independence from Song dynasty in China.
Khitan
Nomadic peoples of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture; forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th century
Song Dynasty
(960 - 1279 AD); this dynasty was started by Taizu(Zhao Kuangyin); by 1000, a million people were living there; started feet binding; had a magnetic compass; had a navy; traded with india and persia (brought pepper and cotton); first to have paper money, explosive gun powder; Also promoted the scholar gentry over the Military and Aristocracy*landscape black and white paintings, Dynasty that replaced the Tang
Zhu Xi
Most prominent neo-Confucian scholar during the Song dynasty; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life.
Neo- Confucians
Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era of China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences.
Tangut Tribes
Rulers of the Xi Xia kingdom of northwest China(Tibet; one of the regional kingdoms during period of Southern Song; conquered by Mongols in 1226, collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry
Xi Xia
Kingdom of the Tangut people, north of Song Kingdom, in the mid-11th century; collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened chinese peasantry.
Wang Anshi
Confucian scholar and chief minister of the Song emperor Shenzong in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalists; advocated greater state intervention in society.
Shenzong
Emperor who gave power to Wang Anshi to make mainly legalistic changes during the Song Dynasty
Jurchens
Founders of Qin kingdom(Jin) that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced the Song to flee south.
Jin
Kingdom north of the Song Empire; established by the Jurchens in 115 after overthrowing the Liao dynasty; ended in 1234.
Southern Song
Rump state of the Song Dynasty from 1127 to 1279; carved out of the much larger domains of the Tang and northern Song; Culturally, one of the most glorious reigns in Chinese history.
Junks
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula, especially in the Song and Tang Dynasty's were the BEST ships in the world.
Flying Money
Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency, (fei-chien) because it could blow out of your hand. Started in Tang Dynasty
Abacus
An ancient Chinese counting device that used rods on which were mounted movable counters, a tablet placed horizontally on top of the capital of a column as an aid in supporting the architrave, Was introduced in the Song Dynasty
Li Bo
Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings
Pyramid of the sun
Pyramid found in ancient Teotihuacan, it was 200-feet tall and had a base larger than that of the Great Pyramid in Egypt. Located on the Avenue of the Dead
Hernan Cortes
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain. With the help of the Indian allies, he and his followers won. Although the Aztec confederacy put up a stiff resistance, disease, starvation, and battle brought the Tenochtitlan. down in 1521
Bernal Diaz del Castillo
Soldier in Cortez's army, wrote the True History of the Conquest of New Spain, a populist history, exalting courage of common soldier. Along with Cortes he greatly admired the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
Lake Texcoco
A lake, now drained, in central Mexico where Mexico City now stands formally the site of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, was connected to the shore by many waterways.
Indians
Columbus believed he had reached the Indies and therefore called the people living there _______.
Teotihuacan
First major metropolis in Mesoamerica, collapsed around 800 CE. It is most remembered for the gigantic "pyramid of the sun".
Tula
The capital city of the Toltec; when it was destroyed, the civilization ended
Toltec Culture
Succeeded Teotihuacan culture in central Mexico; strongly militaristic ethic (set of principles) including human sacrifice; established a capital at Tula about 968;influenced large territory after 1000 C.E.; declined after 1200 C.E. Actually spread as far as Chichen Itza in the Yutacan Peninsula at some point
Topiltzin
Religious leader and reformer of the Toltecs in 10th century; dedicated to god Quetzalcoatl; after losing struggle for power; went into exile in the Yucatan peninsula. disappearance and promised return coincided with the arrival of Cortes
Quetzalcoatl
Aztec nature god, feathered serpent, his disappearance and promised return coincided with the arrival of Cortes
Tlaloc
Major god of Aztecs; associated with fertility and the agricultural cycle; god of rain
Chac
Mayan rain god; appears in the form of a serpent
Chimor
A coastal kingdom; centered on capital of Chan-Chan; emerged as most powerful small state; between 900 and its conquest by the Incas in 1465, gained control of most of north coast of Peru
Chichen Itza
Originally a Mayan city; conquered by Toltecs circa 1000 and ruled by Toltec dynasties; architecture featured pyramid of Feathered Serpent (Quetzacoatl).
Obsidian
A usually black or banded, hard volcanic glass that displays shiny, curved surfaces when fractured and is formed by rapid cooling of lava, was a very important trade thing that was mined in Northern Mexico and maybe traded for Turquoise in the Southwest (Maybe with the Anasazi)
Anasazi
Important culture of what is now the southwest (1000-1300 C.E.). Centered on Chaco Canyon in New Mexico and Mesa Verde in Colorado, they Built multistory residences and worshipped in subterranean buildings called kivas. May have traded with Toltec/ Aztecs/Mayans
Chaco Canyon
An urban center established by Anasazi located in southern New Mexico. There, they built a walled city with dozens of three-story adobe houses with timbered roofs. Community religious functions were carried out in two large circular chambers called kivas.
Mesa Verde
The largest complex of Anasazi cliff-dwellings in the United States Southwest, built between about AD 1150 and AD 1300
kivas
Underground chamber in a pueblo village(especially Anasazi Culture), used by the men especially for ceremonies or councils
Hopewell Culture
Amerindian peoples from Ohio; major part in regional trade, searching for metals, shells, obsidian, manufactured items for their economy and religion, was generally larger and bigger than the other mound building Adena Culture.
Adena Culture
Centered in the Ohio Valley (800B.C. - A.D. 600) left behind enormous earthworks and burial mounds sometimes elaborately shaped like great snakes, birds, or other animals. Also had an elaborate trade network as far as the Gulf and Atlantic.
Cahokia
A large city that were once inhabited by the Mound Builders. It was filled with mounds, which were like graves, Declined in 13th century CE. At hieght had a population of about 30,000 people and contact with parts of Mesoamerica. Located in modern day east ST. Louis with a administrative capital that covered almost 300 acres. Had huge burial mound that was 98 ft tall with a base larger than the Egyptian pyramids. Monk's Mound
Monk's Mound
Largest prehistoric structure in the United States
Covers 16 acres with 4 platforms with ceremonial structure at the top possibly temple of chiefs residence, could be seen through the city
Artifacts at Cahokia (Woodhenge formed by upright timbers that align with solstices and equinoxes, also rebuilt multiple times)
Aztlan
"The place of the white heron" , the supposed home of the Aztecs. Unknown where or if it is real. Most scholars assume that they made up this history to suit their purposes.
Nahuatl
Native Central American people who live(d) in southern Mexico and Central America, including the ancient Aztecs; also, the language spoken by these people
Aztecs
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshiped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor. Their capital was Tenochtitlan. They worshipped everything around them especially the sun. Cortes conquered them in 1521.
Pyramid of the Moon
A pyramid complex used for both symbolic functions and the production of military supplies and located at the north end of the Avenue of the Dead in Teotihuacan
Flower Wars
aztecs, to catch prisoners to use in human sacrifice, to control time and purpose of war was to capture people. (olmecs were before Aztecs, sacrifice was the main reason, felt necessary to "civilize"
Olmec
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., they co created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction. Most remembered for their large stone heads.
Moctezuma 2
1466-1520 Aztec emperor who was the last to reign the Aztec empire before it fell to Spain
Huitzilopochtli
The chief god of the Mexica or Aztec. Originally associated with war, as the empire grew, he became the Sun god and was worshiped throughout Mesoamerica. Aztecs believed he required a steady diet of human hearts.
Nezhualcoyotl
King of Texcoco. Wrote hymns to the "lord of the close vicinity" (an invisible creative force that supported the gods) that survived in oral form until being written down in the 16th century. His poetry wondered about life after death and the existence of the gods. Believed in a monotheistic concept.
Chinampas
Beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create "floating islands"; system of irrigated agriculture utilized by Aztecs
Pochteca
Aztec merchants. Extremely wealthy. Had a huge quantity of material goods etc. But explicitly forbidden to take part in political hierarchy so as not to throw off the balance of power. May have sold at Tlatelolco
Tlatelolco
Originally a separate island city in Lake Texcoco; later incorporated into Tenochtitlan; Market remained the most important in combined city.
Calpulli
7 Clans in Aztec society, later explanded to include residential groups that distributed land and provided labor and warriors
Flowery Death
Death while taking prisoners for the sacrificial knife. It was a fitting end to a noble life and ensured eternity in the highest heaven. (A reward also promised to women who died in childbirth)
Polygamy
This form of marriage was common ONLY among the nobles, and not allowed among the peasants in Aztec society.
metates
a mortar, a ground stone tool used for processing grain and seeds; in traditional Mesoamerican culture,were typically used by women who would grind calcified maize and other organic materials during food preparation, this pointed to a lack of technological sophistication that increasingly defined and limited female Gender Roles.
Florentine Codex
A document that is a major source of information on Aztec history and culture; compiled soon after the spanish conquest of the Aztecs, complied by Fray Bernardino de Shagun in 1550's based on interviews, main source in Nahuatl about the events of the Spanish conquest
Bernardino de Sahagun
Spanish missionary to Aztecs of Mexico, "Florentine Codex", wrote encyclopedia "Father of modern ethnography" (study of culture) and described the effects of smallpox on the Aztecs in, "Seeds of Change."
Seeds of Change
Another name of the Columbian Exchange
The Great Speaker
The ruler of Tenochtitlan that was considered a living god. His court was magnificent and surrounded with elaborate rituals. Those who approached him could not look him in the eyes and were required to throw dirt upon their heads as a sign of humility (humbleness).
Tarascans
A mesoamerican people who were located to the west of the Aztecs., rivals to and subjects of Aztecs, 15th cent
Tlaxcala
Autonomous from Aztec Empire, state of war with Mexica of Tenochtitlan, forced alliance with Spanish, not destroyed after Conquest, under direct protection of Spanish crown after conquest
Great Temple
Temple where priests made sacrafices. One shrine dedicated to Huitzilopochtli, other dedicated to Tlaloc
Twantinsuyu
Word for Inca Empire; region from present-day Colombia to Chile and eastward to northern Argentina
Split Inheritance
Inca practice of descent, all titles and political power went to successor, but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendents for support of cult of dead Inca's mummy, was Major reason that Inca pushed to expand,
Allyus
Incan society lived in a community, or village and family extension
Chan Chan
What was the capital of the Chimor?
Huari
Along with Tihuanaco, large center for regional chiefdoms between 300 and 900 CE; located in southern Peru; featured large ceremonial center supported by extensive irrigated agriculture; established widely diffused religious and artistic symbols spread all over Andean zone
Cuzco
The capital city of the Incan Empire, Located in present-day Peru
Inca
A member of the small group of Quechuan people living in the Cuzco valley in Peru who established hegemony over their neighbors to create the great Inca empire that lasted from about 1100 until the Spanish conquest in the early 1530s
Pachacuti
Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca called "he who shakes the earth"
Topac Yupanqui
Pachacuti's son and successor from 1471 to 1493; conquered northern coastal kingdom of Chimor by seizing it's irrigation system; extended Inca control into the southern area of what is now Ecuador.
Huayna Capac
the Incan ruler under whom the Incan empire reached its widest extent (died in 1525), onsolidated conquests and suppressed rebellions on the frontier, instead of allowing his oldest son Huascar to succeeed him to the throne, he divided the empire between him and his favorite son, the youngest, Atahualpa which lead to Civil War which led to an easy conquest of them by The Europeans.
Lake Titicaca
The lake between Bolivia and Peru; highest lake in the world on which ships can travel
Sapa Inca
The emperor of the Incan Empire. People believed that he was descended from the sun god.
Quechua
the language of the Inca Empire, now spoken in the Andes highlands, a member of a South American Indian people in Peru who were formerly the ruling class of the Inca empire
Temple of the Sun
Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas.
Huacas
holy shrines; mountains, stones, caves, rivers, tombs, temples, etc; places of worship and prayer
Tambos
Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on move; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages
Curacas
Ayllu chiefs with privileges of dress and access to resources; community leaders among Andean societies.
Mita
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
Atahualpa
Last Inca ruler who was tricked into a conference by Francisco Pizarro, tried to ransom himself with a hoard of gold, and was executed by garroting. The Spaniards then fought their way to Cuzco and conquered his Empire
Huascar
After Huayna Capac died; there was a civil war between his two sons. He was the older brother and was heir to the throne., fought brother in civil war for leader of Inca, killed shortly before Pizarro's arrival
Inca Socialism
A view created by Spanish authors to describe Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.
Garcilaso de la Vega
A Peruvian writer who was the son of a Spanish conquistador and an Inca princess. he wrote accounts of inca life before the Spanish and the Spanish conquest of Peru, and served in Europe as a soldier and established the concept of what is now called "Inca Socialism".
Yanas
A class of people within Inca society removed from their ayllus to serve permanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the inca or the Inca nobility.
Pizzaro
For Spain. led a small army in an invasion of the Inca Empire. He conquered the Inca and gained huge amounts of gold and silver for himself and Spain.
Quipu
An arrangement of knotted strings on a cord, used by the Inca to record numerical information.
Arawaks
Peaceful tribe from the Carribean who were exploited by Columbus for gold and eventually wiped out by war and disease., The first "Indians" so called because they were taught to be residents of India.
Tainos
Also called the Caciques. A people indigenous to the Caribbean, and the largest people living there for a while. They were pretty chill; they were into woodcarving, big houses, hammocks, and ceremonial ballgames instead of war.
Taos
- lived adobe homes
- most significant trading post between the spanish, americans,and indians
- spoke the language of Tiwa
Natchez
Great Sun was their ruler. His advisors were noble men and were chiefs of villages. The Stinkards were peasant farmers. They were a tribe of the Mississippi Valley. Lived past the time of whites. Were warlike, practiced torture as well as sacrifice. Died of European conquest and disease.
Iroquois
A term which designates a confederacy of 5 tribes originally inhabiting the northern part of New York state, consisting of the SENECA, CAYUGA, ONEIDA, ONONDAGA and MOHAWK.
Clovis
King of Franks; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting; Ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy
Saint Godric
12th century Englishman who participated in urban trade but then became a religious hermit; he felt tension between religion and the state
Charles Martel
the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
Vikings
one of a seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of northern and western from the eighth through the tenth century.
Middle Ages
the period between the fall of the Roman Empire in the west (470) and the beginning of the European Renaissance in the 1400s. This period is also known as "Medieval."
Manoralism
System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the MIddle Ages.Large fields for agriculture, and serfs to work the land. The land and inhabitants were called a manor and both belonged to the lord.
serfs
men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection
moldboard
Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils; a technological innovation of the medieval agricultural system.
three field system
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.
Franks
Germanic people who lived and held power in Gaul. Their leader was Clovis and he would later bring Christianity to the region. By 511 the Franks had united into one kingdom and they controlled the largest and strongest parts of Europe.
Carolingian
of or relating to the Frankish dynasty founded by Charlemagne's father
Battle of Tours
BATTLE IN 732 IN WHICH THE CHRISTIAN FRANKS LED BY CHARLES MARTEL DEFEATED MUSLIM ARMIES AND STOPPED THE MUSLIM ADVANCES INTO EUROPE
Charlemagne
King of the Franks emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival.
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806
vassals
members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty
Normandy
A region in northwestern France on the English channel
William the Conqueror
invaded England from Normandy in 1066; extended tight feudal system to England; established administrative system based on sheriffs; established centralized monarchy
Parliment
a body of representatives that makes laws for a nation, The lawmaking part of the British government
Hundreds Year War
(1337-1453) Large war between France and England that was fueled by territorial disagreements and started when Edward III declared himself king of France. In the end, it weakened both countries for some time France WINS(For like the 2nd time in history).
Capetian
Weak dynasty but unified France for 300 years and helped it become sovereign
lay investiture
the practice by which secular rulers both chose nominees to church offices and gave them the symbols of their office
Black Death
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
Siege of Paris
a siege of Paris by the Prussian force in order to force a French surrender; Paris never did, but Versailles did
Fuedalism
a political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king, in exchange for thier loyalty, military service and protection of of the people who live on the land
Guilds
an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards
Hanseatic League
An organization of cities in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.
Low Countries
the lowland region of western Europe on the North Sea: Belgium and Luxembourg and the Netherlands
Jacques Coeur
One of Europe's most extrordinary merchants; demonstrated the opportunities and risks of new forms of trade.
Thomas Aquinas
Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology
Beowulf
the legendary hero of an anonymous Old English epic poem composed in the early 8th century, a great warrior, goes to Denmark on a successful mission to kill Grendel; he returns home to Geatland, where he becomes king and slays a dragon before dying; poem; alliterative verse, elegy, small scale heroic epic; author unknown; setting around 500 AD
The Song of Roland
one of the earliest and most famous Medieval epic poems; it's glorifies a band of french soldiers who perished after fighting the Muslims from Spain
Canterbury Tales
a book written by Geoffrey Chaucer are stories that a group of pilgrims tell to entertain eachoter as they travel to the shrine of Saint Thoman Becket in Canterbury. Fictional stories.
Chaucer
In England, he was a courtier, who traveled and mastered philosophy and literature. He wrote from the perspective of various pilgrims to a tomb, and uses them as individuals representing many different walks of life. He thus subtly commented on cultural, religious and literary traditions., Remembered as author of the Canterbury Tales (1340-1400)
Romance of the Rose
Poem written by Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meung during the 13th century; details the ideas of courtly love. Romance between men and women of the upper class
Villon
Wrote about reality beauty and the hardships of life for people on earth, "Grand Testament"
Flying Buttress
A free-standing support attached to the main vessel (nave, choir, or transept wall) by an arch or half-arch which transmits the thrust of the vault to the support attached tot he outer wall of the aisle.
Romanesque Arches
typical rounded arches are usually called.
Gothic
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries
Scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century
Summas
Highest works of Aquinas, eliminated opposition to Aquinas theories
Averroes
Spanish-Arabian philosopher and doctor, wrote commentaries on Aristotle, emphasized the compatability of faith and reason, said philosophical knowledge was derived from reason
Peter Abelard
Author of Yes And No; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
Yes and No
Peter Abelard's book; issues or Biblical statements with theological resolutions not provided, 158 theological questions—Bible & various authorities not agree. —theology enslaved to citing examples
—sought overcome limitation & reconcile authorities...
Method: 1. Pose question, 2. Cite authorities for various answers
3. Solution...
Abelard's method will be used by Scholastic movement
Bernard of Clairvaux
Powerful monk who stressed the importance of a mystical union with God and believed reason was dangerous, Emphasized role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Peter Abelard and had him driven from the universities.
Gregory 7
The pope from 1073 to 1085; excommunicated Henry 4 over the issue of lay investiture and then forgave him, and later deposed by Henry, wanted to institute reforms, limit secular influence on the church
Clare of Assisi
Born in 1194 to a representative of an ancient roman family in Assisi, She left a wealthy life to pursue holiness through poverty after hearing Francis preach.
Henry 4
Only 6 years old when he became King. Pope Gregory's the 7th greatest struggles were with __________. ____________ was Excommunicated by Pope Gregory the 7th and then ________ pleaded for mercy to come back. Finally Gregory Revoked his excommunication after he agreed to several conditions of the pope's forgiveness. Conflict was over lay investiture.
excommunication
the most severe penalty for refusing to obey Church laws; if this happened to you (as it did to Holy Roman Emperor Henry 4 - could not be buried on sacred ground and could not receive the sacraments
Pope Urban 2
In The First Crusade he can be seen as one attempt to realize this vision, He was the successor to a legacy of extensive ecclesiastical reform, a legacy unpopular with many powerful people, he tried to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims
Reconquista
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492. Ended with Ferdinand and Isabella who unified it into a powerful nation state.
Toledo
In 1085 the king of Castile won a great victory over the Moors by capturing the city of ?
Grand Testament
Villons, includes legacy to a prostitute, exposes and celebrates human condition, humor, depth, rebellion
Constantinople
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome. It was strategically located for trade and defense purposes. Later became the capital of the Ottoman Empire and is know known as Istanbul
Justinian
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code, people thought he was a "moron", was married to Theodora. Wanted to recapture "Old Rome".
Procopius
Historian of the Byzantine Empire who in his "Secret History" revealed the cruelty of the autocratic system in which the emperor ruled by divine providence., Wrote two histories of Byzantine Emperor Justinian's rule. One good and sponsored by Justinian, one bad and secret.
Secret History
Written by the historian Procopius; says bad things about Justinian and his wife(Theodora); published posthomuously
Theodora
The wife of Justinian, she helped to improve the status of women in the Byzantinian Empire and encouraged her husband to stay in Constntinople and fight the Nike Revolt. Was seen as being overambitious, and power hungry by the public.
Nike Revolt
A revolt in which riots were started due to team rivalries in the chariot races (specifically the Greens and Blues). Justinian arrested the leaders of the Greens and Blues and sentenced them to hang, which made the people angry. The revolt happened in the Hippodrome against Justinian for imprisoning the leaders of two chariot racing groups. His actions of slaughtering all the rebels at once was considered one of the bloodiest things ever decreed by an emperor against his own people.
Hippodrome
Built by Justinian; A huge stadium; Held athletic events and games; Seated 60,000 people located in Constantinople. Site of Nike Revolt
Hagia Sophia
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
Cyril
Along with Methodius, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic.
Methodius
Along with Cyril, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic.
Magyars
Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary, barbarian people who migrated into southern Europe, and in the early 10th century ad occupied Hungary, from where their horsemen raided into France, Italy, Germany, and even Spain
Belisarius
One of Justinian's most important military commanders during period of reconquest of Western Europe; commended in North Africa and Italy, best general of the late Roman world, quickly destroyed Vandals in North Africa, defeated Ostrogoths in 552, , slaughted rebels in Nike Rebellion
Greek Fire
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals (petroleum, quicklime, sulfur) that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople
Bulgaria
Slavic kingdom established in northern portions of Balkan peninsula; constant source of pressure on Byzantine Empire; defeated by Emperor Basil II in 1014
tsar
From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462-1505).
Basil II
Emperor who led the Byzantines to their last period of greatness; nicknamed "Basil the Bulgur Slayer"
Byzantine
characterized by elaborate scheming and intrigue
Icon
a representation or image of a sacred personage, often considered sacred itself; an image or picture; a symbol; a graphic symbol on a computer monitor display; an object of blind devotion
Great Schism
a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
Battle of Manzikert
A battle between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turks (Muslims) in 1071, where the Byzantine lost; as a result, the Byzantine asked Europe for help.The turkish victory allowed them to take over most of the anatolian peninsula
Fourth Crusade
Initiated by Pope Innocent III six or seven years after Saladin's death; crusaders attacked Constantinople and set up their own government; Byzantine Empire restored by 1261 but never fully recovered from the fourth crusade
Kiev
Trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to 12th century.
Dnieper River
Flows from Russia through Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea. Kiev is a port city here.
Rurik
Legendary Scandinavian(Swedish), regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 C.E.
Rus
Slavic word for "Viking"; land Rurik the Viking ruled was called "Rus" or "Russia"
Vladimir I
Grand prince of Kiev who converted to Orthodox Christianity and made it the state religion, One of the first Czars; Tried to expand south, which conflicted with Byzantine Empire. Eventually formed deal with emperor of BE
Russian Orthodox
Church that developed under Vladimir I whose priests were trained from church leaders imported from Byzantium. This king characteristically ruled over the church as well as many major appointments, shows east west divide.
Yaroslav
Vladimir's son became a Grand Prince in A.D. 1019. Under his rule, Kievan culture reached its "Golden Age". First library established and legal system organized.
Boyars
Russian aristocrats; possessed less political power than did their counterparts in western Europe
Tatars
Mongols who captured Russian cities and destroyed the Kievan state in 1236. However, they left the Russian Orthodox church and aristocracy intact.
Greek
of or relating to or characteristic of Greece or the Greeks, actually used more in the Eastern civilization than in Western/
Siege of Constantinople
The Ottoman Empire(Sultan conquered Constantinople in 1453. Through expansion into the Balkans and the Mediterranean the Ottoman empire gained political stability. From a European perspective this event ended the Middle Ages and gave way for the Renaissance.
Russia
formerly the largest Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR occupying eastern Europe and northern Asia
Balkans
a large peninsula in southeastern Europe containing the Balkan Mountain Range, , including Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, and Yugoslavia
Seljuk Turks
nomadic invaders from Central Asia via Persia; staunch Sunnis; ruled in the name of Abbasid caliphs from mid-11th century; able to restore political initiative to the much reduced caliphate; ended threat of Shi'a conquest
Ravenna
Capital in Western Roman Empire, more strategic than Rome, easily accessible by sea from Constantinople and gave access to Rhine frontier (area of greatest military urgency).
Pope Innocent II
Most powerful pope; claimed to rule the whole world; covened 4th Lateran Council---annual confession of sin mass on Easter, mass became sacrifice, Jews live in ghettos, declared ordeal system was "irrational"
Pope Innocent III
clashed with King John and won; Church reached height of political power under his papacy; believed pope was the supreme judge of all European affairs; used interdicts, initiated the Fourth Crusade. Summoned the Albigension Crusade. Creates order of the Franciscans- formed to fight heresy.
Lateran Council
These were gatherings of high ranking Church officials in a council, formed to resolve issues within the Church.
Ordeal System
An early form of Medieval justice: a task was assigned for wrongdoing.
Emperor Leo III
Byzantine emperor who founded Syrian dynasty and sucessfully avoided Arab invasions, , Byzantine emperor who banned the use of icons., 730 AD; banned the use of icons; had his army break into churches and smash icons
Mehemet II
Restored the Ottoman military to it's former power. Kept empire expanding. Defeated the Venetians, invaded Hungary, overcame Italian crusaders,repelled by Greek Fire
Oba
title for the king of Benin
Great Zimbabwe
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state.
Maghrib
The Arabic word for western North Africa, the part of North Africa that is today the Mediterranean coast of Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco
Bantu
a member of any of a large number of linguistically related peoples of Central and South Africa
Bantu Migration
the movement of the Bantu peoples southward throughout Africa, spreading their language and culture, from around 500 b.c. to around A.D 1000
Stateless Societies
African societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states, sometimes more large and extensive than state societies.
Ifriqiya
The Arabic term for eastern north Africa and the , term used by the Romans for Africa. Also largely called Tunisa was ruled by Muslims between 640 and 700 CE.
Fez
Located in Morocco, the oldest continuous operating university in the world
Almoravids
The followers of the Great Puritanical Reformist Movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of northern Africa; rejected Sufism and were very violent (launched a series of jihads, or holy wars)
Almohadis
A reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of northern Africa; later than the Almoravids; penetrated into sub-Sahara Africa.
King Lalibela
Ethiopian king and monarch of zagwe dynasty who directed a remarkable building project in which 11 great churches were sculpted from rock into the ground
Amharic
the dominant and official language of Ethiopia, was actually first used in the 13 and 14th centuries.
Ghana
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast.
Sahel
A strip of dry grasslands on the southern border of the Sahara; also known as "the shore of the desert" Was a point of exchange between the forests to the south and northern Africa
Umma
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
Axum
Was a trading center and a powerful ancient kingdom in northern present-day Ethiopia. Had th language of Ge'ez
Sheba
African trading partner to Israel during Solomons reign and they were supposedly married; present-day Ethiopia
Ge'ez
An ancient Afro-Asiatic language of Axum; it is still used today as a ceremonial language in the Ethiopian Coptic Church (Christianity), one of the 1st written language in Africa
Takrur
Kingdom that was in northern Mali, declared it's independence from Mali, was located near the Senegal River at the same time Ghana was at the height of its power.
Gao
Prosperous capital city of the kingdom of Songhai, had caravan trade routes.
Ghana
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast. Islam was mainly used to reinforce the concept of kingship(A Royal Cult), and much of the population never converted.
Mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade. Timbuktu, Sundiata, Griots, juula, Mansu Musa, (GOLD and lots of it) might also come to mind. Was after Ghana Empire but before Songhay Empire.
Juula
Malinke merchants; formed small partnerships to carry out trade throughout Mali empire; eventually spread throughout much of West Africa
Sundiata
The founder of Mali empire and the "Lion Prince" according to the griots. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes., a leader whose exploits were the foundation of a great oral tradition. created unified state & basic rules for malinke society. Created "16 clans" and divided up the world.
Griots
Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire
Ibn Batuta
Arab traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records, providing historians with much information about the Saharan trade
Mansa Musa
King of the Mali empire in West Africa from 1312 the 1337, is known mostly for his fabulous pilgrimage to Mecca and for his promotion of unity and prosperity within Mali, also brought the attention of Muslim world to Mali. Also constructed the Great Mosque of Jenne during his time.
Great Mosque of Jenne
Largest Muslim architecture in (Sub-Sahara), was constructed during the Mali King Mansu Musa's reign.
Timbuktu
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali Empire, it became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning. Has great Sanskore Mosque
Tuareg
Desert nomads who live in small groups throughout the central and south Sahara., Nicknamed "the Blue Men of the Desert"
Sankore Mosque
A mosque located in Timbuktu, that Mansa Sulayman founded a university in this building during the Malwi Empire which was (of course) that was used for prayer.
Songhay
Successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali
Berber
a cluster of related dialects that were once the major language of northern Africa west of Egypt, also an ethnic minority descended from and Arabs and living in northern Africa
Sunni Ali
Leader of Songhai that drove out the Berbers and built the largest empire in West Africa by his death in 1492, conquered Timbuktu and Djenne, which gave Songhai control of trade; focus on trading empire , was very ruthless even with fellow Muslims who got in his way. Line of leaders after him were called "askia"
Djenne
West African city that became a center of learning and culture, conquered by Mansa Musa. Known for it's libraries and universities. Also later by Songhay leader Sunni Ali.
askia
Ruler adopted name for the muslim leader of the Songhai Empire after the death of Sunni Ali. Best was Muhammad the Great.
Muhammad the Great
Extended the boundaries of Songhay to include Central Sudan so by the mid 16th century, Songhay dominated the area. a great Askia (songhay ruler)
Hausa
Peoples of northern Nigeria; formed states following the demise of Songhay empire that combined Muslim and pagan traditions. Largest City state at Kano.
Kano
The most prosperous Hausa city-state, 14 mile circumference; 30,000 people, best king was the Muslim Muhammad Rumfa ( Picture is of a Kano knot)
Manding Bory
Son of Maghan Kon Fatta and Namandje Kamara; half-brother and best friend of Sundiata; (aka Manding Bakary)
emir
A chieftain or prince/ commander or head of state in some Islamic countries. Name was used by the ruling families of some African States to enforce authority (along with Caliphate).
Sharia
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed, was not followed to some extent in early sudanitic socities as anscestors were traced from the matrilineal line.
mirab
hole(niche) in wall, the direction of mecca
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
A 1st century account of the Indian Ocean, mentioned many port cities in Africa but was vague on inhabitants. Indicator of how far technology had developed at this point. Navigation and technologies at the time.
Zenj
Arabic term for the east African or Swahili coast. By the 13th Century, a string of urbanized trading ports had developed and were governed by separate Muslim ruling families. (Mombasa, Mogadishu, Kilwa, Pate etc etc).
Swahili
a Bantu language with Arabic words spoken along the East African coast (The official language of Kenya) and MY Ancestors.
Kilwa
A city-state found on east African coast(Zenj); fishing limited trade from 800-1000; turned to agriculture, increased trade in pottery and stoneware; major trading center by 14th century
Fort Jesus
Early 1600's barracks found in Mombassa( on the Zenj Coast). Was a Christian and Portugese thing, but then Omani sultans take it over in 1696. in the 1700's Portugese tried to recapture it, but failed.
Nok
West Africa's earliest known culture; lived in what is now Nigeria; between 500 B.C. and A.D. 200; first people known to smelt iron; fashioned iron into tools for farming and weapons for hunting
Yoruba
city-states that developed in northern Nigeria; Ile-Ife had an artistic style similar to that of the Nok culture. ag society supported by peasantry; dominated by an aristocracy
Ile-Ife
the capital of a kingdom with a lot of sculptures of the West African rain forest; seen as the birthplace of the Yoruba, holiest city; an agricultural society dominated by a ruling family and an aristocracy
Oduduwa
YORUBA (IFE) one of OLODUMARE's two sons, saw OBATALA sleeping and got the board mask and chicken and set it free on earth. it scratched up 16 mounds of dry ground and became the 16 kingdoms and the first one was the kingdom of IFE(YORUBA), CREATION MYTH WHATEVER PROBABLY doesn't matter
Kwa
a group of African language in the Niger-Congo group spoken from the Ivory Coast east to Nigeria
demography
the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
demographic transition
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population. First observed in Western Europe and the United States in the 19th century.
Ogboni
A secret society of religious and political leaders that actually reviewed the decisions of the King and his council. Example of non absolute rule of kings in Africa in the postclassical period.
Edo
a member of a west African people living in the tropical forest region of southern Nigeria, founded Benin kingdom with Ewuare the Great
Benin
A powerful city-state formed around the 14th century; was not relatively influence by the Europeans despite coming into contact with the Portuguese'; important commercial and political entity until the 19th century( OBAS) Founded by Ewuare the Great
Ewuare the Great
Was the greatest warrior legend andand the most outstanding Oba in the history of the Benin Empire, "it is cool, or the trouble has ceased, and as a result the war is over." The title symbolizes an epoch of reconciliation, reconstruction and the return of peace among the warring factions in Benin between 1435-1440 AD
Kongo
Kingdom, based on agriculture, formed on lower Congo River by late 15th century; capital at Mbanza Kongo; ruled by hereditary monarchy.
Luba
modified the older system of village headmen to a form of divine kinship in which the ruler and his relatives were thought to have a special power that ensured fertility of people & crops in Katanga
Manikongo
The title given to the king of Kongo.
Monomotapa
Kingdom which stretched between Zambezi and Limpopo rivers of southern Africa, named that by Portuguese, dominance over gold found in interior of Africa, communicated with Arab port of Sofala on coast
Sofala
A seaport village in eastern Mozambique in the 1300s an important trading center for the gold miners of Great Zimbabwe
Koran
The sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Ka'ba
Most revered religious shrine in Pre-Islamic Arabia; located in Mecca; focus of obligatory annual truce among bedouin tribes; later incorporated as important Shrine in Islam. Owned by the Quraysh for a while.
Cordoba
Capital of Umayyads(established by Abd al Rahman) in Spain; became known as the center for learning and intellectual life b/c of its libraries, was also widely tolerant of "the people of the book".
Abd al-Rahman
Only survivor of the abbasid raid, he crossed the arabian peninsula into spain and was accpeted into Cordoba as unquestioned leader. He set up to Ummyyad Cordoba Caliphate in Spain.
Straits of Gibraltar
Between the Iberic Peninsula (Portugal) and Africa; according to Plato's account, the legendary Atlantis, a land mass, was just outside the straits. It is also known as the Pillars of Hercules, joined Mediterranean Sea with N.Atlantic Ocean
Great Mosque of Cordoba
A graceful Mosque that was built on the ruins of a ruined Christian Church, Famous for its horseshoe arches, it provides a striking example of the sophistication provided by the fusion of Jewish, Muslim and Christian art. Is now a museum.
Bedouin
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam., the key towns(Mecca, Medina) found in Arabia were as much an extension of these groups culture and were heavily shaped by them, also largely contributed heravily to the safety of the trade routes.
Shaykhs
Leaders of tribes and clans within bedouin society; usually possessed large herds, several wives, and many children. The aythority was enforced by a band of free warriors whose families made up a majority of a given clan group.
Mecca
City located in the mountainous region along the Red Sea in Arabian Peninsula; founded by Umayyad clan of Quraysh; site of Ka'ba; original home of Muhammad; location of cheif religious pilgrimage point in Islam, becaue it has the Kaba
Umayyad
Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan later able to establish dynasty(Caliphate) as rulers of Islam located in Damascus Syria, until the Abbasids took over.
Quraysh
A local tribe in Mecca that became the keepers of the Ka'ba. Gave them prestige and power, tribe of which Mohhamad was born
Medina
Also known as Yathrib; town located northeast of Mecca; grew date palms whose fruit was sold to bedouins; became refuge for Muhammad following flight from Mecca, established in the oases. Early on the political controtl was divided between 2 beduoin tribes and 3 jewish ones, which is the main reason that it did not really rival Mecca in terms of trade or prestige.
Hubal
An ancient pre Islamic God that was common in Arabia, he was associated with the cool nights and the moon that brought dew. Proof that early on at least they concentrated on praying and sacrificing to these minor gods instead of Allah. Raised by Abu Talib after Mother and Father died.
Khadijah
The woman who consoled Muhammad and expressed her faith that God had chosen him as a prophet to communicate his words to the people. She ended up marrying him, and helping him establish himself.
Muhammad
Prophet of Islam; born c. 570 to Banu Hashim clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca; raised by father's family; received revelations from Allah in 610 C.E. and thereafter; died in 632. Married Khadijah, and established the Koran and the 5 pillars of Islam after a "revelation" from Gabriel.
Banu Hashim
Muhammad's clan in the tribe of Quraysh Named after Prophet's great grandfather
Poor clan with traditional emphasis on tribal connectivity that shift to individualism with Islam's emphasis on individual responsibility to God and society, not tribes.
Abu Talib
A wealthy clan leader and Uncle who raised Muhammad when both his parents died when he was very young
Ali
Prophet Muhammad's son-in-law; a leading figure in the Shi'a branch of Islam, the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites,he was meant to be the original successor of Muhammad but was too young. Caused warfare between the Sunnis and Shi'a for not punnishing the murderer of the 3rd caliph, Uthman Us
Uthman
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan
Hijra
The flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution a.d. 622: regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era(or at least of the Islamic Calender. Was helped by his cousin Ali.
Umma
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
Zakat
Religious tax, one of the five basic requirements (arkan or "pillars") of Islam(The 4th). All adult Muslims of sound mind and body with a set level of income and assets are expected to pay this
Five pillars
The obligatory religious duties of all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj
hajj
The pilgrimage to Mecca, which every adult Muslim is supposed to make at least once in his or her lifetime: the fifth of the Pillars of Islam.
Ramadan
a holy month in the calendar of Islam. During this time Muslims must fast between dawn and sunset. A simple meal is eaten at the end of the day. This reminds Muslims that their spiritual needs are more important than their physical needs. A special time during this month is the Night of Power, which is said to be when Gabriel gave Muhammad his message. Is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar and is observed by Muslims everywhere, and the 3rd pillar of Islam.
Caliph
A supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government or the successor to Muhammad on earth.
Abu Bakr
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death. Oversaw raids into Africa and the Ridda Wars.
Ridda Wars
Wars that followed Muhammad's death in 632; resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored unity of Islam.
Jihad
the obligation of Muslims to struggle or exert themselves "in the way of God ; doesn't necessarily refer to an armed struggle, early on in Islamic histrory it did not involve mass conversions but instead to increase the amount of booty.c (BTW Picture is a Joke)
Sasanian
The new people descended from the Achaemenids that challenged the Romans; the last of the Near Eastern groups, Was driven out by Arabs.
Mazdak
A visionary reformer and spiritual leader who had won considerable support in the Sasanian Empire(New Persia) , but whose teachings were brutally supressed
Achaemenids
Name for Persian rulers because they traced their lineage back to an ancestor named Achaemenes. Married members of the Median court.
Copts
Christian sect of Egypt; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule, because they were generally treated better, and resented Orthodox Christianity.
Nestorians
Early branch of Christianity, named after the fifth-century Greek theologian Nestorius, that emphasized the human nature of Jesus Christ. ended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions.
Nestorius
Bishop of Constantinople who called for the council of Ephesus because he believed Jesus was 2 persons, started Nestorian branch.
Council of Ephesus
The third ecumenical council in 431 which delcared Mary as mother of God and condemned Pelagius, Also began to refute the Nestorian "heresy}"
Umar
The 2nd Caliph. Friend of Muhammad. A merchant. Spread Islam to Syria, Egypt, and Persia; redesigned government; paid soldiers; held a census; made taxes more fair; built roads & canals; aided poor, Assasinated by an angry Persian
Battle of Camel
A battle that took place at Basra. in 656 between forces allied to Ali (Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Commander of the Faithful) and forces allied to Aisha (widow of Muhammad, who wanted justice for the assassination of the previous caliph Uthman). Wasn't supposed to happen but some broke out and Aisha rode into battle to try to stop it but her army thought she was cheering them on and continued to fight. Ali's army defeated Aisha's forces, she was allowed to return to her home in Medina. Gave the Shiites the early advantage over the Sunnis.
Battle of Siffin
A battle fight between Ali's forces(Shiites) and the Umayyad(Sunnis). While on the verge of winning on part of Ali's forces he was won over by a plea for meditation. While pleading for mediation he appeared weak to his followers, and some of his strongest followers renounced their support( and splintered into small Shia groups).,
Mu'awiya
Leader of Umayyad clan proclaimed in Jerusalem; first Umayyad caliph following civil war with Ali. Pressured Hasan( Ali's son after Ali was assinated).
Hasan
Alis son who took over his position but was pressured by the Umayyads into renouncing his claimes to the caliphate, instead Husayn took up his challenge/
Husayn
Grandson of Muhammad and son of Ali and Fatimah. He was martyred when refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid I of the Umayyad Caliphate and especially revered by the Shi'a Muslims for this. Died at the battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
A battle in which Husayn(he had about 70 people, 2nd of Ali, fought against the Umayyad army(had about a thoudand), and lost. Many Shi'i Muslims see Husayn as a martyr and honor him still today. Signified the conflict between Sunni and Shi'i Muslims.
Battle of Poitiers
The battle(732 CE) between the invading Arab army and the french, led by Charles Martel. It marked the height of Arabian expansion in Europe, and the French won, However the Arabs did not go back below the Pyrenennes until a couple of decades after this battle.
Sunnis
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries. Supported the Umayyads.
Shi'a
The branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendents as the rightful successors of Muhammad, FOLLOWERS OF ALI. HATED Umayyads.
Damascus
The Umayyads moved the capital to ____, which was centrally located in the expanding Islamic state
Mawali
Non-Arab converts to Islam., In the Umayyad Era they still had to pay the Jizya.
Jizya
Head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories.
Dhimmi
Literally "people of the book"; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus & Buddhists, were treated very well by Muslim conquerors.
Hadiths
Reports of sayings and actions of Muhammad, written down fairly early after his death, but took a deal of time (over several hundred years)
Arabian Nights
This was a book thought to be written by a courtier from the court of Harun al-Rashid. Story telling like this one was created by the Arabs and was considered high art. It is one of the most famous books of fictional history in the world.
Harun al-Rashid
Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession
Abu al-Abbas
The chief leader of the rebellion that brought the Umayyad Dynasty to an end; a descendant of Muhammad's uncle; he was a Sunni Arab
Abbasid
Dynasty that overthrew the Umayyad to rule the Muslim caliphate from 750 to 1258; for 150 years they maintained the unity of the caliphate and Islamic civilization and culture flourished, descended from Abu al-Abbas, the great grandson of Muhammad Uncle. Many Mawali supported to attain full acceptance in the community of believers. Also was a major result of the Battle of the River Zab, Capital at Baghdad and large bureacracy contained many wazirs.
Battle of the River Zab
The Battle victory near the Tigris of Abbasids over Umayyads; resulted in conquest of Syria and capture of Umayyad capital
Baghdad
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphon, it was second only to Constantinople in terms of size and grandeur in 1000 C.E, location on key trade routes gave the caliph access to trade goods, gold, and information about far empire.
Ctesiphon
Capital city of the Parthian and Persian Empire,it is located on the Euphrates River near modern Baghdad; was captured three times by Roman armies; the Sasanids used it as their capital as well
wazir
Chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from Persian provinces of empire. Oversaw the building of most of the infrastructure of the Abbasid Caliphate
dhows
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design, helped them spread their trade empire and sufi missionaries, which lad to the massive expansion of their religion.
lateen sails
Triangle-shaped sails whose design allowed ships to sail against the wind. These sails were perfected by Arab traders.
Minbar
in a mosque, the pulpit on which the imam stands
Minarets
Tower attached to a Muslim mosque, having one or more projecting balconies from which a crier calls Muslims to prayer.
Qibla Wall
The mosque wall oriented toward Mecca indicated by the mihrab
Ayan
The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule. Was a reason that many peasants during this dynasty did not own there own land.
Al-Mahdi
Third of the Abbasid caliphs; attempted but failed to reconcile moderates among Shi'a to Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve problem of succession(EPIC FAIL ), his court was also known for extravagant excess. His death did clear the way for Harun al Rashid to ascend to the throne
Siege of Acre
A siege that took place in 1291 and ended the last Crusader stronghold in the Middle East.
Harun al-Rashid
Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession. Sent presents to Charlegmane's court. Al- Ma'mun would succed him
Al- Ma'mun
The son of Harun al-Rashid and a Caliphate; founded astronomical observatory and a foundation for translating classical Greek works, established House of Wisdom.
House of Wisdom
The combination library, academy, and translation center in Baghdad established in the 800s by Al- Ma'mun
Harem
The living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household which first developed in the Abbasid Caliphate. Along with the Veil it became a symbol of women's increasing subjugation durring this period.
Buyids
Regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled Abbasid Empire under title of "sultan"; retained Abbasids as figureheads
Sultan
In arabic it means "Victorious", first used by the Buyids dynasty after they had captured Baghdad away from the Abbasid Dynasty. This term came to designate Muslim Rulers especially in the West.
Seljuk Turks
Nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly, followed the failure of the splinter Buyid Dynasty to prevent the disintegration of the Abbasid dynasty. Were very staunch Sunnis.
Crusades
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. Brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation.
Saladin
Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin and took Jerusalem, sultan of Syria and Egypt, was defeated at some point by Richard the Lionhearted.
Battle of Hattin
Battle during the 3rd Crsade where Saladin draws crusaders outside of Jerusalem: dehydrates them by building huge fires and defeats them allowing him to recapture Jerusalem.
Richard the Lionhearted
Along with phillip II he organized the third crusade(Kings Crusade), the Christians took back acre, muslims kept jerusalem, negotiated a settlement with Saladin to allow Christians access to Jerusalem, Actually perferred Muslim Physicians over Christian ones.
Childrens Crusade
Failed crusade made by children; european reaction to corruption of fourth crusade, Pope sent some of them back home and others reached southern france where they were tricked onto boarding ships that carried them off into slavery and thousands were lost
Ibn Khaldun
Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states(3 Generations). Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city. The Muqaddimah
The Muqaddimah
A political and universal history written by Arab Historian Ibn Khaldun. Describes the 3 generation cyvle of Dynasties, strong, weak ,dissolute. Just look on Pg 168 Document.
Shah-Nama
Persian literary work written by the poet Firdawsi, related history to Persia from creation to the Islamic conquests (Book of Kings
Firdawsi
A great poet who wrote the epic Shah Nama which is a prodigious collection of tales and anecdotes during the early 11th century.
Rubaiyat
Epic poem of Omar Khayyam; seeks to find meaning in life and a path to union with the divine
Omar Khayyam
Persian Sufi poet and mathematician and astronomer whose poetry was popularized by Edward Fitzgerald's translation. Wrote the Rubaiyat
Al- Razi
A Persian Philosopher and physician who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. , classified all materials into 3 catogaries: animal, vegatable, and mineral.
Al-bruni
A Muslim scientist who in the 11th century calculated the specific weight of 18 major mineral in the 11th century.
Ulama
Orthodox Muslim religious scholars. From the ninth century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies. Pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology, and opposed non islamic ideas and non scientific thinking, was probably the result of the Crusades.
Al- Ghazali
Brilliant Islamic theologian; struggled to fuse Greek and Qur'anic traditions; not entirely accepted by ulama, he argued argued human reason was too frail to understand the nature of Allah and hence could not explain the mysteries of the world, Also known as the "Great Synthesizer". Early Sufi
Sufism
An Islamic mystical tradition that desired a personal union with God--divine love through intuition rather than through rational deduction and study of the shari'a. Followed an ascetic routine (denial of physical desire to gain a spiritual goal), dedicating themselves to fasting, prayer, meditation on the Qur'an, and the avoidance of sin.
Mongols
Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph
Chinggis Khan
Born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227 prior to conquest of most of the Islamic world, grandson Hulegu continued the coquest.
Khagan
Title of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes.
Hulegu
Khubilai's brother who conquered the Abbasid dynasty and established the Ilkhanate of Persia. Captured the Abbasid capital of Baghdad after besieging it in 1258. Attempted to capture Syria but was expelled by Egyptian Muslims, who stopped Muslim expansion to the southwest
Kabul Khan
Chinggis khan's great grandfather, defeats army of qin kingdom in northren china
Mamluks
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria, they defeated the Mongols.
Tamerlane
A "second Genghis Khan" who united Mongols and led them in a series of conquests. His enemies called him "Prince of Destruction"; he subdued Asia, Persia, Mesopotamia and India. Samarkland.
Muhammad ibn Qasim
At age 17 was an Arab general. He led warriors into Sind to avenge the assault on Arab shipping.Declared the region of the Indus valley provinces of Umayyad Empire.
Rajas
India was a world of warring kingdoms... Aryan leaders; a term for princes
Mahmud of Ghazni
Third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression.
Muhammad of Ghur
Military commander of Persian extraction who ruled small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan; began process of conquest to establish Muslim political control of northern India; borught much of Indus valley, Sind, and northwestern India under his control.
Qutb ud din Aibak
Lieutenant of Mahmud of Ghur; established kingdom in India with capital at Delphi; proclaimed himself Sultan of india
Mira Bai
Celebrated Hindu writer of religious poetry; reflected openness of bhaktic cults to women.
Bhaktic Cults
Hindu groups dedicated to gods and goddesses; stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the god or goddess who was the object of their veneration; most widely worshipped gods were Vishnu and Shiva
Kabir
Muslim mystic during 15th century; played down the importance of ritual differences between Hinduism and Islam
Shrivijaya
Trading empire centered on Malacca Straits between Malaya and Sumatra; controlled trade of empire; Buddhist government resistant to Muslim missionaries; fall opened up southeastern Asia to Muslim conversion.
Malacca
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca.
Demak
Most powerful of the trading states on the north coast of Java; converted to Islam and served as point of dissemination to other ports
Ajanta
Place where Buddhist artists painted rich murals in cave temples in Western India Give evidence along with Ellora to the religious ferment that could be found in India during the Classical Period. Also a testament to religious blending (Hindu, Jain, Buddhist) that is a part of India's enduring culture.
Ellora
One of India's( along with Ajanta) most important holy sites in the Deccan Plateau. It is a series of caves carved into a huge cliff
Ramayana
One of two classical Hindu epics written in Sanskrit telling of the banishment of Rama from his kingdom and the abduction of his wife by a demon and Rama's restoration to the throne.
Gangetic Plains
Most populated area of India; Place where the Aryans searched for Iron ore for axes, tools, and new land.
Aryans
Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 BC after the fall of Harappan Culture, vedas from this time show the subjugation of the the existing inhabitants and institution of the caste system
Brahmans
One of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; the priestly class (in charge of the religious ceremonies that were so important in Indian society), also called Vedic Preists, were the dominant force in Indian Society during the Classical Era.
varnas
The social divisions of the Aryan Society that included from top to bottom: 1)priests (Brahmins), 2) rulers or warriors; 3) farmers, craftspeople, traders; 4) workers and servants (Sudras)
Buddha
An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming an 'enlightened' ascetic under a bo tree (the meaning of Buddha) he enunciated the principles of Buddhism.
Buddhism
The teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth, provided the most powerful challenge to the brahmans and many of the ancient Vedic beliefs and practices, also helped establish the Mauyran Empire.
Alexander the GREAT
Successor of Philip II; successfully conquered Persian Empire prior to his death in 323 BCE; attempted to combine Greek and Persian cultures, Spread Hellenistic Culture.
Hellenistic Culture
It began from Philips conquest of Greece to the beginning of the Roman Empire. During this time the laws, calendar, money, and language of Greece was used by millions of people. Homes and public buildings were very elaborate.
Himalayas
The highest mountains in the world, which stretch along northern India, separating it from the rest of Asia. Is the main example of how topography helped shape vital features of its civilization in the classical period. Made political unity very difficult and contributed to greater diversity in culture.
Indus River
A river in South Asia that flows from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea., the location of the first river valley civilization of India
Ganges River
India's most important river, flows across northern India into Bangladesh. this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals.
Monsoons
Seasonal reversals of wind patterns caused by the differential heating and cooling rates of the ocean's and continents. During the summer it can bring massive rain throughout India, and if it comes too late induce drought.
Sanskrit
a sacred Indo-European, Indic language, in use since c1200 b.c. as the religious and classical literary language of India.
Vedic Age
A period in the history of India; It was a period of transition from nomadic pastoralism to settled village communities, with cattle the major form of wealth. When the Vedas were first composed.
Veda
(from the Sanskrit word for 'knowledge') any of the most ancient sacred writings of Hinduism written in early Sanskrit
Rig- Veda
A collection of 1,028 Sanskrit hymns composed about 1500 BC or earlier; Hinduism's oldest sacred text.
Epic Age
A period of time in India that followed the Vedic Age and lasted from 1000-500 B.C.E. in India. The important epics of the time were Mahabharata, Upanishads and Ramayana.
Mahabharata
Indian epic of war, princely honor, love, and social duty; written down in the last centuries BCE; previously handed down in oral form
Upanishads
Later books of the Vedas; contained sophisticated and sublime philosophical ideas; utilized by Brahmans to restore religious authority; religion/mysticism, also stressed the very shallowness of wordly concerns
Untouchables
the name of the group of people in the caste system that were the outcasts of society; were not considered a part of Indian society or the caste system, also called pariahs
Indra
Chief deity of the Aryans; depicted as a colossal, hard-drinking warrior. Also known as the God of Thunder and strength
Kshatriyas
The second level of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; Warriors and the governing class.
Caste System
A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life, a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
Sudras
Caste that made up most of the Indian population; most were peasants and manual laborers; they had limited rights in society
Jati
sub castes; were groups of people within each caste that worked together for one economic function
Vaisyas
Third level of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; identifies merchants who engaged in commerce; COMMONERS
Bactria
The ancient region stretching from the Hindu Kush mountain range to the ancient Ganhara region of the Indian subcontinent. and ruled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexander's campaigns
Magadha
A kingdom that emerged as a result of strife for land and power among minor kings; occupied almost all of the Indian subcontinent in the second century BC, most significant remaining kingdom after Alexander's departure located on the Central Ganges plian. Had economic strength and dominated surrounding regions in northeastern India.
Chandragupta Maurya
King and founder of the Mauryan Empire, he seized power along the Ganges River following Alexander the Great's Incursion. Was the first of the Mauryan Rulers to unify the entire subcontinent, he was highly autocratic. His grandson was Ashoka
Ashoka
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India.He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing. Believed in Dharma. After his death the empire began to disentigrate and new invaders( Kushans) from the Hindu Kush Mountains surfaced.
Ashoka's Edicts
A collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BC.
Dharma
in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste, In Hinduism, it stands for law, obligation and duty. To follow this, it means to perform and live life as one should.
Kushans
Dynasty that succeeded the Mauryas in northwestern India; sponsors of Buddhism; empire did not extend to Ganges River valley., came into central India from northwest; greatest king: Kanishka, converted to Buddhism but hurt religions population;
Kanishka
Leader of the Kushan Empire in Classical India, 120-162 CE, Created Therarvists and Mahayanists, Considered "Second Ashoka" Warrior before converting to Buddhism Had deep support of Buddhism. Actually hurt Buddhism in India because it was associated with foreign rule
Hindu-Kush
A mountain range Northwest of the Indus River. The Khyber Pass is a pass through this mountain range. South of Tajikistan, North of Pakistan, Northeast of Afghanistan. Himalayas are to the east.
Guptas
The dynasty the succeeded the Kushans in the 3rd century CE in classical era India; built empire that extended to all but the southern regions of Indian subcontinent; less centralized(and smaller) than Mauryan Empire; claimed divine rule; demanding system of taxation; established many universities
Kautilya
Political adviser to Chandragupta Maurya; one of the authors of Arthashastra( a political treatise ; believed in scientific application of warfare.
Arthashastra
Ancient Indian political treatise from the time of Chandragupta Maurya; its authorship was traditionally ascribed to Kautalya, and it stressed that war was inevitable and thus advocated use of spies and assassins, bribery, and scientific forms of warfare
Hinduism
A body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a lack of central founder. developed gradually
Gurus
Brahmans who served as teachers for the princes of the imperial court of the Guptas.
Vishnu
The Brahman, later Hindu, god of sacrifice; widely worshipped, who, in the trinity of gods, is the Preserver
Shiva
The Brahman, later Hindu, god of destruction and reproduction; worshipped as the personification of cosmic forces of change.
Varuna
In Vedism, god of the night sky( who changed to the guardian of right and wrong) who with his thousand eyes watches over human conduct and judges good and evil and punishes evildoers.
Reincarnation
The Hindu or Buddhist doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions
Kamasutra
Written by Vatsayana during Gupta dynasty offered instructions on all aspects of life for higher caste males, including grooming, hygiene, etiquette, selection of wives, and instruction on lovemaking
Nirvana
in Buddhist teachings, the ideal state in which the individual loses himself in the attainment of an impersonal beatitude
Stupas
Stone shrines built to house pieces of bone and personal possessions said to be relics of the Buddha; preserved Buddhist architectural forms.
Aryabhatta
famous mathematician, wrote a book that summarized Hindu mathematics, discovered pi, calculated the length of the solar system, and the circumference of the earth during India's Classical Era.
Nalanda
A Buddhist monastery which was university where they studied Buddhism, Hindu text, philosophy, astronomy, and medicine. Peaked at the end of the Gupta dynasty.
Panchatantra
The "Five Books" of fables, or moral stories, from the Gupta period in India, advocates proper behavior and high moral standards, including "Sinbad the Sailor" and "Jack the Giant Killer." Best-known Indian stories around the world. The Epics final written form during the classical period
Scholar gentry
Chinese class created by the marital linkage of the local land-holding aristocracy with the office-holding shi; superseded shi as governors of China. (Don't really know why they put it in this chapter but whatever)
Analects
The collected saying of Confucius, laid the foundation for China's enduring civilization. It idealized a strong rulers, the consolidation and centralization of power, a highly educated , EXCLUSIVELY male elite, that was responsible for the well being of all the subjects in the state. ("Confucious Says")
Syncretism
The fusion of cultural elements from more than one tradition. In colonial Latin America religious this was common, with both Amerindians and Africans blending their existing beliefs and rituals with Catholicism. There was a small amount of this developing during the classical period which would hint at what would occur much later.
Kong Fuzi
Also known in the West as Confucius, was an opinated middle aged scholar in the late 6th century BCE, went on a search for an "ideal ruler".` Attracted a number of disciples and published the "Analects". Never found an ideal ruler. He stressed respect for superiors(in a proper hierarchy) , moderation in behavior, veneration of custom and ritual , and love of wisdom. If these were accomplished then a solid political life would develop.
Shi
The emerging social scholar gentry that was developing in the classical period.; transformed into corps of professional bureaucrats because of knowledge of writing during Zhou dynasty.
Confucianism
A philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.
Zhou Dynasty
The dynasty that displaced Shang Dynasty, Lasted from (1029 - 258 BCE); alliances with regional princes and families, overtook Yangtze River Valley (Middle Kingdom); invoked the "Mandate of Heaven" rationality in goverment; and beginnings of Mandarin Chinese language(Resulted in the largest single group speaking the same language in the world). They banned human sacrifice. Fell because of an inability to control vassals, external nomadic invaders which lead to a mini- assimilation of cultures and also to a new dynasty(Qin) and ruler Shi Haungdi who united ALL of china. (Think of this as China's Feudal Period)
Yangtze River Valley
A valley that the Zhou dynasty seized in order to expand territorial boundaries, also called middle earth.
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou dynasty, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.
Shi Haungdi
The Chinese ruler(First Emperor) who came to power in 221 B.C. and unified and expanded China by ending internal battles and conquering rival states, established the brief Qin Dynasty in 221 BCE, which only lasted for 14 years. Name means the "the tiger". He vigorously organized and centralized the government into a bureaucracy , selected his officials from non-aristocratic backgrounds. He also built the Great Wall of China(3000 miles) to the North to protect against nomadic invaders.
Qin Dynasty
The Chinese dynasty (221 BC to 204 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall, Replaced the Zhou dynasty and employed Legalist ideas in order to control warring states and unify the country. Burned a lot of books that would be "subversive" to his autocratic rule. There was the National Census, Great Wall of China, standardization of coinage, weights, and measures throughout the entire realm, and made all script length uniform. Shi Huangdi unpopularity lead to the dynastys downfall and a peasant family established the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
Imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time from 206 BC to AD 220) 400 YEARS and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy; remembered as one of the great eras of Chinese civilization, succeeded the Qin Dynasty. Expanded into Korea, Indochina( Cambodia) , and central Asia. Was a very prosperous and large dynasty(established the FIRST Civil Service examinations), however the nomadic Huns overturned the dynasty, and marked the end of the classical period for chinese civilization.
Shang Dynasty
Second Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy mostly concerned with war. They're best remembered for their art of bronze casting.Succeeded the Xia . Rulers and their relatives gave orders through a large network of cities
Sons of Heaven
The Zhou called themselves the __________, because they supposedly derived their lineages from the old Shang Rulers and heavens Mandate.
Mandarin Chinese
The main language of (ancient) China, had the most people speak it, with other languages spread out over China aswell. Mainly established by the Zhou rulers.
Era of Warring States
The period of Chinese history between c. 402 and 220 B.C.E. characterized by the breakdown of the central government and feudal war.; regional rulers made their own armies and fought for control; during this time Zhou Dynasty disentigrated.
Great Wall of China
One of the biggest building projects in history that was started by Shi Huangdi and took thousands of forced workers and hundreds of years to complete/built to protect the empire from northern invaders
Wu Ti
Han "Warrior Emperor" who greatly expanded the empire, (140-87 BCE); promoted peace; supported Confucianism; Conducted trade with the Parthian Empire in the Middle East. He also conducted the FIRST Civil service examinations in the world.
P'an Ku
Mythic ancestor whcih ancient chinese said was their creation myth, he created the world after breaking out of an egg.
Legalism
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin rulers and early Han rulers invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime. Not as popular as Confucianism, and did not seek popular approval anyway.
Daoism
Chinese philosophy based on the teachings of Laozi; taught that people should turn to nature and give up their worldly concerns, emphasized harmony and was largely a spiritual alternative to Confucianism, which actually developed at the same time in the last centuries of the Zhou dynasty. Remember Dao, humility, frugalty, learning/politics was IRRELEVANT under this philosophy.
Laozi
Also known as Lao Tsu; major Chinese philosopher; recommended retreat from society into nature; individual should seek to become attuned with Dao. Established Daoism
Dao
the central idea of Daoism also called "The Way"
Mencius
Confucius's greatest disciple; he has been called the second sage; , Also known as Meng Ko; stressed the consent of the common people.Said that humans were essentially GOOD and that governments required the consent of their subjects.
Xunzi
A Confucian follower, suggested humans are lazy(and naturally EVIL) and required a totalitarian government to make them good
Became an advocate of Legalism, or more accurately a mesh of legalism and Confucianism.
Five Classics
A corpus of texts considered authoritative by the early Confucians. They include poetry, historical, speeches, chronicles, ritual, and divination, Texts used to train scholars and civil servants in ancient China
Calligraphy
A style of beautiful or elegant handwriting that became a very important art form in early classical Chinese culture.
Religion
The lack of this(or at least the abundance) is the main reason that the Chinese classical period was not marked by a large amount of monuments( excluding the Great Wall of China/ Terracotta)
Terracotta Army
Soldiers and horses of the first Chinese emperor ( Shi Huangdi). The soldiers dated back to 210 B.C. discovered by a farmer. Vary in height and are usually 6 feet. They are all different and have different characteristics. Their purpose was to help rule another empire with Shi Huang Di in the after life. Made during Qin Dynasty
Seismographs
An instrument that records vibrations in the ground and determines the location and strength of an earthquake, first developed in classical period , specifically the Han Dynasty.
Patriarchalism
Ideas that social organization should be ordered with the male as the head of the family and institutions.