Create an account
Hawaiian prince; with British backing he created a unified kingdom by 1810; promoted the entry of Western ideas in commerce and social relations.
Architect of British victory at Plassey; established foundations of British raj in northern India (18th century)
Lord Charles Cornwallis
Reformer of the East India Company administration of India in the 1790's; reduced power of local British administrators; checked widespread corruption. YES also the same one that surrendered at the battle of Yorktown.
Zulu chief in 1879 who refused to dismiss his army and accept British rule, the British invaded the Zulu nation and lost control of their kingdom in the Battle of Ulundi in 1887
Battle of Isandhlwana
First major encounter in the Anglo-Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Despite a vast disadvantage in weapons technology, the numerically superior Zulus ultimately overwhelmed the poorly led and badly deployed British, killing over 1,300 troops, including all those out on the forward firing line. The Zulu army suffered around a thousand killed.The battle was a crushing victory for the Zulus and caused the defeat of the first British invasion of Zululand.
War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. From complex beginnings, the war is notable for several particularly bloody battles, as well as for being a landmark in the timeline of colonialism in the region. The war ended the Zulu nation's independence.(1879)
Battle of Ulundi
Battle between Britain and Zulu in 1879. Britain wanted to make claim to South Africa for gold, diamonds, and power. As a result Britain won and took control of South Africa.
Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium.
Kingdom that controlled interior regions of Java in 17th century; Dutch East India Company paid tribute to the kingdom for rights of trade at Batavia; weakness of kingdom after 1670's allowed Dutch to exert control over all of Java
Troops that served the British East India Company; recruited from various warlike peoples of India.
The rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the East India company and then by a British Government
Battle of Plassey
Took place on June 23, 1757; how Great Britain really gained control in India. Despite their low number of soldiers, the British were able to win the battle against Siraj, the leader of Bengal, and his army. Soldiers fighting for Great Britain(Robert Clive leading) had a few specific qualities that made them successful on the battlefield—a strong army, gun skills, unity of their army (unlike Siraj's army), the Royal Navy, and support from other countries
Ram Mohun Roy
"Father of Modern India" modern thinking, tried to move india towards independance and away from traditional ideas like sati.
A Muslim prince allied to British India; technically, a semi-autonomous deputy of the Mughal emperor.
Three districts that made up the bulk of the directly ruled British territories in India; capitals at Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay.
Domains of Indian princes allied with the British Raj; agents of East India Company were stationed at the rulers courts to ensure compliance; made up over one-third of the British Indian Empire
British administrator who brought new school system, wrote "Minute on Education" where he stated the English was the supreme language and western civilization the supreme culture.
Captain James Cook
Made voyages to Hawaii from 1777-1779 resulting in openings of islands to the West; convinced Kamehamehah to establish a unified kingdon in the islands
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
Name given to British representatives of the East India Company who went briefly to India to make fortunes through graft and exploitation.
A medicine developed to prevent malaria. This allowed Europeans to travel to the interior of tropic regions and carve up Africa.
The greater portion of the European empires consisting of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific were small numbers of Europeans ruled large populations of non-Western peoples.
A religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead, Spiritual revival in 1890 by Indians that would lead to the massacre at Wounded Knee
In the ___________ rebellion, African warriors in German East Africa sprinkled "magic water" on their bodies in hopes that it would turn the German bullets into water
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Areas, such as North America and Australia, that were both conquered by European invaders and settled by large numbers of European migrants who made the colonized areas their permanent home and dispersed and decimated the indigenous inhabitants.
Colonies in which European settlers made up the overwhelming majority of the population; small numbers of native inhabitants were typically reduced by disease and wars of conquest; typical of British holdings in North America and Australia with growing independence in the 19th century
King Leopold II
-Only a constitutional monarch of Belgium
-tried to convince parlement to expand via colonies (Argentina, Philippines, china, Japan and Vietnam)
-When the government wouldn't listen He bought himself Congo (called Congo Free State).
-He was horrible to the natives and eventually Belgium had to intervene and take it over (then Belgium Congo).
White Racial Supremacy
Belief in the inherent mental, moral, and cultural superiority of whites; peaked in acceptance in decades before World War I; supported by social science doctrines of social Darwinists such as Herbert Spencer.
The White Mans Burden
The idea that the more civilized countries need to take care of the countries that "need" it.Rudyard Kipling: poem addressing the unpopularity of foreign rule and that it was a duty to bring order and serve people
In 1879 King Leopold II hired H.M. Stanley to make treaties with African chiefs, giving control of the Congo to Leopold. It became his personal playground and was recognized as such in 1884 by the Berlin conference. Was quested for its rubber and ivory. Soldiers of the Belgian army forced the natives to do work and treated them savagely, often cutting off their hands to prove they used ammunition on humans when they were really using the ammunition on wildlife. Twain and author Conan Doyle spoke out. The Belgian Parliament was horrified and took the colony away from the king in 1908 and it became a Belgian colony.
British, developed a system of philosophy based on the theory of evolution, believed in the primacy of personal freedom and reasoned thinking. Sought to develop a system whereby all human endeavours could be explained rationally and scientifically.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
City at the southern tip of Africa; became the first permanent European settlement in Africa in 1652; built by Dutch immigrants to supply ships sailing to or from the East Indies.
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.
British colony in south Africa; developed after boer trek north from cape colony; major commercial outpost of Durban.
Boer free states established in southern Africa by Afrikans of Dutch descent from the British colonial government in Cape Colony (1850)
Region of Southern Africa originally founded by Afrikaners; became a source of interest for the British following the discovery of gold and diamonds => Boer War
Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe. Founded the De Beers Mining Company
• War between Britain and Boers
• South Africa
• Bloodiest conflict in colonial times. Boers won the first time. British won the second time. Brought about the first concentration camp ever.
Leader of Hawaii who took the throne after her brother died. Was forced to give up her throne when the U.S. marines were sent.First and only reigning Hawaiian queen
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Younger member of Committee of Public Safety who said, " whatever is outside the French revolution is an enemy" Executed with Robespierre
He was a lawyer and a member of the National Convention. Led the Mountain side of the National Convention(Montagarde). and Chairman on the Committe of Public Safety. Helped France's financial situation through the concept of planned economy (setting price limits on certain products). Was a very large part of the radicalization of France, but efforts eventually led to the fall of France and take-over by Napoleon Bonaparte. He claimed that the Revolution was over. In a sense he was right; the last reforms were made in 1791. The people strongly disliked him for his views on the disablement of speaking against the republic. He was one of the main contributors to the laws that stated the death penalty for those who went against the revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of man and the Citizen
One of the fundamental documents of the French Revolution, defining a set of individual rights and collective rights of all of the estates as one. Influenced by the doctrine of natural rights, these rights are universal: they are supposed to be valid in all times and places, pertaining to human nature itself.
Introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror.
The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress subsequently acted quickly to implement the suspension of Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.
This treaty with China was ratified in 1868. It encouraged Chinese immigration to the United States at a time when cheap labor was in demand for U.S. railroad construction. It doubled the annual influx of Chinese immigrants between 1868 and 1882. The treaty was reversed in 1882 by the Chinese Exclusion Act.
Age of Revolution
Period of politcal upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
The notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland, believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
Political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe; often allied with other "isms"; urged importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin.
Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation. The watt, an electrical measurement, is named after him.
Huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50 percent, England and Prussia 100 percent.
Preliminary shift away from agricultural economy in Europe; workers become full- or part-time producers of textile and metal products, working at home but in a capitalist system in which materials, work orders, and ultimate sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to Industrial Revolution.
A law passed by the British Parliament in 1765 requiring colonists to pay a tax on newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, and even playing cards.The colonists heartily objected to this direct tax and in protest petitioned the king, formed the Stamp Act Congress, and boycotted English imports. In 1766 Parliament repealed this Act, a major victory for colonists.
Reign of Terror
Period in the French Revolution. It was established by the government on Sept. 5, 1793, to take harsh measures against those suspected of being enemies of the Revolution (including nobles, priests, and hoarders). Controlled by the radical Committee of Public Safety and Maximilien Robespierre, the Terror eliminated enemies on the left (Jacques Hébert and his followers) and the right (Georges Danton and the Indulgents).
Committee of Public Safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Congress of Vienna
The Quadruple Alliance met, to discuss the Balance of Power. Great Britian got to have their conquered colonies, Austria got Venetia and Lombardy and Polis lands, and Prussia and Russia were compensated.
Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy). Leader of the Congress of Vienna.
G.B., Austria, Prussia, and Russia united to defeat France and their Bonapartism, and also to ensure peace after war. After Napoleon, they resotred the Bourbon monarchy to France.
This island in the Mediterranean Sea off of Italy where Napoleon was initially exiled after he abdicated the throne for the first time. He promised to never leave, but does so and regains power in France for a short period called the Hundred Days
Where Napoleon was exiled until the end of his life. 1815,1821 Revolution comes to an inglorious end.
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
American Civil War
Fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition of slavery in the United States and reunification of North and South.
Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th Century; opposed revolutionary goals; advanced restoration of monarchy and defense of Church
Political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; stressed limited state interference in individual life, representation of propertied people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.
Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; advocated broader voting rights than liberals; in some cases advocated outright democracy; urged reforms in favor of the lower classes
Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
French Revolution of 1830
Second revolution against the Bourbon dynasty; a liberal movement that created a bourgeois government under a moderate monarchy.
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers. Probably the first populist President.
Reform Bill of 1832
Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain.
Attempt to by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the vote during 1840s; demands for reform beyond the reform bill of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movement failed
French Revolution of 1848
Overthrew the monarchy established in 1830; briefly established a democratic republic; failure of the republic led to the reestablishment of the French Empire under Napoleon III in 1850.
Named after mythical leader, Ned Ludd, machine-breakers tyrannized parts of Great Britain in an attempt to frighten masters. Workers damaged and destroyed property for more control over the work process, but were met with repression.
Any of a group of British workers who between 1811 and 1816 rioted and destroyed laborsaving textile machinery in the belief that such machinery would diminish employment.
Otto Von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire
Political system in late 19th-century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals; parliamentary deputies of all parties supported the status quo.
Issues relating to workers and women in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.
Political movement with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man.
German socialist of the mid-19th century; blasted earlier socialist movements as utopian; saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached necessity of social revolution to create proletarian dictatorship.
Socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions.
Sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on right to vote; won support particularly from middle-class women; active in Western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in the 1960s.
British suffrage leader. Led movement to win the vote for women in Great Britain. Founded the Women Social and Political Union in 1903, which held public meetings and led protest marches to the House of Commons. Jailed several times between 1908 and 1913, and used hunger strikes to protest. World War I compelled her to stop her feminist campaigns and join the war effort.
Group of English socialists, including George Bernard Shaw, Emmeline Pankhurst, Beatrice Webb, and H.G Wells who advocated electoral victories rather than violent revolution to bring about social change.
Published in 1867 by Karl Marx. Volumes II and III edited by Engels and published after Marx's death. More mature thought and sophisticated/academic approach than the Manifesto. Outlined the system for producing the revolution. Concentrated on economic theory. Emphasized the labor theory of value. Saw capital as "stored-up labor from former times." Justified his theories in more academic way. Had spent years in British Museum doing his research. Justified his brand of "socialism" as being more scientific.
The Communist Manifesto
Written by Marx and Engels; said that human societies have always been in warring class; put the middle class as "haves" and the working class as "have-nots"; said that IR had enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor, predicting that the workers would overthrow the owners; inspired revolutionaries to adapt Marx's beliefs to their own situations
Mass Leisure Culture
An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; based on newspapers, music halls, popular theater, vacation trips, and team sports.
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution.-
On the Origin of the Species
Darwin wrote this book in 1859 in which he presented his theory of evolution in the principle of natural selection. The basic idea of this book was that all plants and animals had evolved over a long period of time from earlier and simpler forms of life. In this book, Darwin also presented the theory of natural selection and "survival of the fit." In this book, Darwin discussed plant and animal species only. He was not concerned with humans themselves.
1879-1955. German born theoretical physicist. Best known for his theory of relativity and his theory of energy equivalence. Received Nobel Prize in 1921 for physics.
Leading psychologist of the twentieth century. Assumed that a single, unified conscious mind processed sense experiences in a rational and logical way. Analyzed dreams and hysteria. Believed that rational thinking and traditional moral values will repress sexual desires too effectively, causing guilt and neurotic fears.
German physiologist who founded psychology as formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879
Artistic and literary movement of the 19th century in Europe; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
American writer who lived in England. Wrote numerous novels around the theme of the conflict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption, with an emphasis on the psychological motivations of the characters. Famous for his novel Washington Square and his short story "The Turn of the Screw."
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I.
Movements to create independent nations within the Balkan possessions of the Ottoman Empire; provoked a series of crises within the European alliance system; eventually led to World War I.
Powerful companies, mainly from the West or Pacific Rim, with production as well as distributin operations in man different countris. Multinationals surged in the decades after World War II
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
A computer glitch that only showed the year by the last two digits. It was feared that when the year changed from 1999 to 2000, computers would think it was really 1900 as it only read the last two digits.
Transmit and receive signals using high frequency microwaves. Signals are sent as microwaves to towers that then send the signal to a HUB. The HUB then transmits the signal to the receiving cell phone.
A modern form of slavery in which people are sold, coerced or forced under threat of violence to work agains their will for little or no pay. Has increased with the advent of globalization.
World Trade Organizations
An international agency which encourages trade b/w member nations administers global trade agreements and resolves disputes when they arise.
Nonprofit, open membership organization that is not connected to any government and active in at least 3 states
North American Free Trade Agreement
Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States in December 1992 and which took effect on January 1, 1994 to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries.
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
International Monetary Fund//a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies.
The Lexus and the Olive Tree
1999 book by Thomas L. Friedman that posits that the world is currently undergoing two struggles: the drive for prosperity and development, symbolized by the Lexus, and the desire to retain identity and traditions, symbolized by the olive tree
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
(Abbr.) Chemical compounds originally developed for use in refrigeration systems, now used widely in industry. When released into the air, they break down and release chlorine, which causes damage to the Earth's ozone layer and is responsible for creating the ozone hole.Cholorofluorocarbons
An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
The rapidly expanding commercial and business capital of the middle east; in the united arab emirates
Group of 20 leading economies; new great powers, International forum for constructive discussion between industrial and emerging market economies
Required only three things: a rapid rate of change, a limit of some sort, and delays in perceiving the limit.Predicted that in the 1970s & 1980s hundreds of millions would starve to death; later proven false. Paul Ehrlich
An ecologist who warned that the greatest threat to the planet is overpopulation and that resources on earth would quickly become depleted as population grew, FAILED.
Yeltsin's PM in 1999, then RUssia's president from 2000 to 2008, Putin gained popularity by prosecuting Yeltsin's war on Chechnya, restoring economic and social stability and the power of the Russian state, he was also elected Prime Minister in 2008.
An influential non-governmental organization that operates globally to monitor and try to rectify glaring abuses of political (not economic or social) human rights.
US would support freedom fighters trying to overthrow Communist regimes; applied in Nicaragua, Angola, Cambodia and Afghanistan, Oppose the influence of the Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against the communist governments of Soviet-backed client states. Somewhat triggered by Afghanistan - aiding mujahideen to hurt Soviets
Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
Evil Empire Speech
In 1983, President Reagan made the __ __ __, in which he claimed that the USSR was "the evil of the world." Also that there would be a inevitable failure and collapse of global communism
Became the leader of the USSR in 1985. He proposed major reforms and adopted policies of greater openness (glasnost and perestroika) and allowed Soviet-bloc states greater independence. In 1991, there was an unsuccessful attempted overthrow of his government. The USSR dissolved in 1991 with his resignation.
Iranian Revolution of 1979
Opposition to the Shah, Mohammad-Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, grew from the brutality, inefficiency, malfeasance, and corruption of his regime. The shah had exiled his main opponent, the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, and massive street demonstrations and crippling strikes against the existing government forces the shah to leave the country in 1979.
Policy of "openness" initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980's that provided increased opportunities for freedom
Gorbachev's policy of "restructuring" which included reducing the direct involvement of the Commuist Party leadership in the day to day governing of the nation. It ws a decentralization of economic planning and controls.
Yugoslavian Dictator who broke with stalin and developed his own form of communism (Titoism), tried to bring peace with the Serbs, after he died Yugoslavia broke up. Only independant communist state.
Russian leader who stood up to a coup attempt in 1991 that would have displaced Gorbachev: First President of the Russian Republic following dissolution of Soviet Union.
An autonomous republic in southwestern Russia in the northern Caucasus Mountains bordering on Georgia, ethnic republic that declared its independence in September 1991, against which Yeltsin launched a disastrous full-scale military attack in 1994 which led to the death of thousands of civilians.
Formerly the breadbasket of the Soviet Union, with its abundant natural resources and vast expanses of fertile soil, this country is still overly dependent on Russia which has inhibited free-market reforms. Site of Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster
Name given to the 1991 crisis, in which Gorbachev was kidnapped by his political opponents as part of an abortive attempt to seize power. Accelerated the processes of national decay.
This was a series of events using civil disobedience, general strikes, and protests in Ukraine in 2004 and 2005., during and after what revolution did Ukraine experience fair elections and a shifted focus toward western Europe and the EU
The nuclear power plant in the Ukraine that suffered two large explosions which released massive amounts of radioactive materials. It is the worst nuclear accident in history and thousands were and continue to be impacted by the disaster.
Region of Yugoslavia that had autonomy until Milosovic attempted to crush the Albanian group with ethnic cleansing; 1999 NATO used military strikes against Yugoslavia until the crisis came to an end in 1999
Palestinian Liberation Organization; formed in 1964 with the purpose of creating a homeland for Palestinians in Israel
A militant Islamic fundamentalist political movement that opposes peace with Israel and uses terrorism as a weapon.
A War (1990-1991) that took place between Iraq and the U.S./Kuwait started by Iraq invading Kuwait; First non-containment based war since WWII; Often referred to as Operation Desert Storm; Primarily an aerial war (huge amounts of missiles and bombs) in the first stages, followed by an infantry march that pushed Iraqi forces back into Iraq
The killing of more than 500,000 ethnic Tutsis by rival Hutu militias in Rwanda in 1994. The conflict between the dominant Tutsis and the majority Hutus had gone on for centuries, but the suddenness and savagery of the massacres caught the United Nations off-guard. U.N. peacekeepers did not enter the country until after much of the damage had been done.
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
Western section of the country of Sudan which has suffered civil war since 2003 and has had over 500,000 people killed and 21/2 million people displaced from their homes
Event that led to the beginning of the War against Terrorism when Arab suicide bombers hijacked United States airliners and used them as bombs
George W Bush
Republican-president , neo-conservative, foreign policy dominated by war on terror, No child left behind, tax cuts, high deficits, major economic problems, proposed privatizing social security, opposed stem cell research/pro-life/carbon reductions/ international law, but wanted more domestic drilling to alleviate oil dependence, major contributions to HIV/AIDs
George H.W. Bush
Republican, former director of CIA, oil company founder/owner, foreign policy (panama, gulf war), raised taxes eventhough said he wouldnt, more centrist than his son, NAFTA negotiation, called supply side economics "voodoo economics".
The use of violence by non-governmental groups against civilians to achieve a political goal by instilling fear and frightening governments into changing policies
War on Terror
Initiated by President George W. Bush after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the broadly defined war on terror aimed to weed out terrorist operatives and their supporters throughout the world.
A network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001
Term that was used beginning in March 2005 by numerous media commentators to suggest that a spin-off benefit of the invasion of Iraq be the flowering of Western-friendly Middle East democracies. The term took on a new meaning in 2011, as democratic uprisings independently arose and spread across the Arab world in Egypt, Tunisia, and Syria.
A political moderate who took leadership of the New Labour in the 1990s and eventually helped the Labour party win in parliamentary elections in 1997 - thus becoming Prime Minister - first Labour PM since 1979. Continues in that position to the present day - though expected to stepped down as leader of the Labor party in 2007
Former Israeli Prime Minister (mainly responsible, in 2004, for the unilateral withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Gaza Strip and the evacuation of Jewish settlements there. He visited Temple Mount in 2000, which made the Arabs very angry. He suffered a stroke in 2006 and has been in a vegetative state ever since
Weapons of Mass destruction
Chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons. These weapons are capable of destroying enormous numbers of people and vast areas, hence the name. Saddam Hussein has used these on the Iranian army during the Iran-Iraq War, and on the Kurds in 1988.
Osama bin Laden
(1957- 2011) Saudi Arabian multimillionaire and leader of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda. He is responsible for numerous terrorist attacks on the United States including the destruction of the World Trade Center. Barack Obama called a Hit on him and the Navy Seals did him in in 2011.
Operation Just Cause
Invasion of Panama by the US in 89. Leader Noriega was deposed, Endara sworn in. Bush cited that 1) the aim was to safeguard US citizens 2) defend human rights and democracy 3) combat trafficking 4) Protecting integrity of Torrijos-Carter Treaties (neutrality of Panama canal)
Leader of the Chinese Communist Party (1927-1976). He led the Communists on the Long March (1934-1935) and rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China (1937-1945). (789)
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Kim Jong IL
son of Kim Il Sung, became ruler of North Korea after his father's death. He developed nuclear weapons.under his rule the North Korean economy has continued to deteriorate
General Douglas MacArthur
Commander of the UN forces at the beginning of the Korean War, however President Harry Truman removed him from his command after MacArthur expressed a desire to bomb Chinese bases in Manchuria.
Liberal Democratic Party
Monopolized Japanese government from its formation in 1955 into the 1990s; largely responsible for the economic reconstruction of Japan.
People's Democratic Republic of Korea
Northern half of Korea dominated by USSR; long headed by Kim II-Sung; attacked south in 1950 and initiated Korean War; retained independence as a communist state after the war.
Republic of Korea
Southern half of Korea sponsored by United States following World War II; headed by nationalist Syngman Rhee; developed parliamentary institutions but maintained authoritarian government; defended by UN forces during Korean War; underwent industrialization and economic emergence after 1950s
Imprisoned by the Japanese in WW2, then came to America and studied at Harvard and Princeton; Struggled for Korean freedom for 50 years and was elected president of South Korea, He was the American-favored candidate, Korean nationalist. He was elected president. Supported Anti-communism.
Kim IL Song
First Leader of N Korea. He wanted to unify N and S Korea militarily and thought 1950 was the perfect opportunity b/c the US has recently decided that Korea is not part of the United states Western Defensive Perimeter. He wants the help of Mao and Stalin, who are both very reluctant to get involved. He misjudged the political situation, and the Korean war is known as Kim Il Sung's war.
Island off Chinese mainland; became refuge for Nationalist Chinese regime under Chiang Kai-shek as Republic of China in 1948; successfully retained independence with aid of United States; rapidly industrialized after 1950s.
Region including Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Taiwan; typified by rapid growth rates, expanding exports, and industrialization; either Chinese or strongly influenced by Confucian values; considerable reliance on government planning and direction, and limitations on dissent and instability.
British colony on Chinese mainland; major commercial center; agreement reached between Britain and People's Republic of China returned colony to China in 1997.
Most popular writer in Japan, modern samurai, formed an army and tried to overthow government after WWII and killed himself, , This author wrote about Kazu's marriage to Noguchi in the novel After the Banquet. Name this Japanese author who included the novels Spring Snow and The Decay of the Angel, also known as Hiraoka Kimitoke.
Was a Republic of Korea Army general and the dictator of South Korea (the Republic of Korea) after Syngman Rhee, from 1961 to 1979. He has been credited with the industrialization of the Republic of Korea through export-led growth. His rule was ended by his assassination in 1979 by his intelligence director.
Example of huge industrial groups that wield great power in modern Korea; virtually governed Korea's southeastern coast; vertical economic organization with ships, supertankers, factories, schools, and housing units.
Son and successor of Chiang Kai-shek as ruler of Taiwanese government in 1978; continued authoritarian government; attempted to lessen the gap between followers of his father and indigenous islanders
Lee Kuan Yew
Ruler of Singapore from independence in 1959 to present; established tightly controlled authoritarian government; ruled through People's Action party to suppress political diversity.
Part of the British colony of Malaya with a mostly Chinese population; after World War II emerged as a flourishing, independent city-state.
Earliest and most successful imitators of the Japanese model for economic development; they were Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan; turned disadvantages into advantages through a program of export-driven industrialization; corporations from these 4 states undercut original Japanese products w/ lower-costing versions; the original 4 were later joined by Indonesia, Thailand, & Malaysia
Economic policy of Mao Zedong; led to formation of agricultural cooperatives in 1955; cooperatives became farming collectives in 1956.
Great Leap Forward
Economic policy of Mao Zedong introduced in 1958; proposed industrialization of small-scale projects integrated into peasant communes; led to economic disaster; ended in 1960.
Basis for China's Communist government organization; cadre advisors were attached to military contingents at all levels.
Behind the cultural revolution. Was claimed to be the successor of Mao. Biao wanted the CR to go on longer than Mao did, so Mao called him a traitor, later killing him in a plane crash., He collected Mao's works and published, Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong, also known as "The Little Red Book."
People's Liberation Army
Chinese Communist army; administered much of country under People's Republic of China.
He emerged as the Soviet leader two years after the death of Stalin. He talked about peaceful coexistence with the U.S.; listened and began to bargain with the U.S. but the U-2 spy plane incident ended all potential for progress.
One Child Policy
Restrictive, antinatalist policy in China that aimed at immediately reducing China's birth rate to replacement level and below. Is going to reult in a deficit of 50 million women relative to men by 2050.
Chinese Communist politicians such as Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, and Liu Shaoqui; determined to restore state direction and market incentives at the local level; opposed Great Leap Forward.
A prominent and influential member of the Chinese Communist Party during the time of Mao. He played a large role in China's reestablishing ties with the West.
He was a moderate CCP politician and designated successory to Mao Zedong. He died during the cultural revolution. He held the position of official headship of state, and had a strong base in the parties. He came to power after Mao stepped away following GLF. He rolled back Mao's reforms but kept China's communistic views in tact.
One of the more pragmatic, least ideological of the major Communist leaders of China; joined the party as a young man in the 1920s, survived the legendary Long March and persecution during the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, and emerged as China's most influential leader in the early 1980s.
Wife of Mao Zedong; one of Gang of Four; opposed pragmatists and supported Cultural Revolution of 1965; arrested and imprisoned for life in 1976.
Movement initiated in 1965 by Mao Zedong to restore his dominance over pragmatists; used mobs to ridicule Mao's political rivals; campaign was called off in 1968.
Student brigades utilized by Mao Zedong and his political allies during the Cultural Revolution to discredit Mao's political enemies
Gang of Four
Jiang Qing and four political allies who attempted to seize control of Communist government in China from the pragmatists; arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1976 following Mao Zedong's death.
Peasant revolution in southern Victnam during the late 1770s; succeeded in toppling the Nguyen dynasty; subsequently unseated the Trinh dynasty of northern Vietnam.
Last surviving member of Nguyen dynasty following Tayson Rebellion in Vietnam; with French support retook southern Vietnam; drove Tayson from northern Vietnam by 1802; proclaimed himself emperor with capital at Hue.
Second emperor of a united Vietnam; successor of Nguyen Anh; ruled from 1820 to 1841; sponsored emphasis of of Confucianism; persecuted Catholics., Gia Long son
Vietnamese Nationalist Party
Also known as the Vietnamese Quoc Dan Dong or VNQDD; active in 1920s as revolutionary force committed to violent overthrow of French colonialism.
Communist Party of Vietnam
Originally a wing of nationalist movement; became primary nationalist party after decline of VNQDD in 1929; led in late 1920s by Nguyen Ai Quoc, alias Ho Chi Minh.
Ho Chi Minh
Also known as Nguyen Ai Quoc; led Vietnamese Communist party in struggle for liberation from French and U.S. dominance and to unify north and south Vietnam.
Communist-dominated Vietnamese nationalist movement; operated out of base in southern China during WW II; employed guerilla tactics similar to Maoists in China.
Vo Nguyen Giap
Chief military commander of Viet Minh; architect of vietnamese victory over french at Dien Bien Phu in 1954.
Dien Bien Phu
French fortress in northern Vietnam that surrendered in 1954 to the Viet Minh; the defeat caused the French to abandon Indochina and set the stage for the Geneva Conference, which divided the region and led to American involvement in Vietnam.
Ngo Dinh Diem
Political leader of South Vietnam; established as president with United States support in the 1950s; opposed Communist government of North Vietnam; overthrown by military coup support by United States
Name given by Diem regime to Communist guerrilla movement in southern Vietnam; reorganized with northern Vietnamese assistance as the National Liberation Front in 1958.
An economic and social program that called for limited privatization of agriculture and industry, encouraged foreign investment and foreign trade, and resulted in a boost for the Chinese economy. Unlike the Great Leap Forward, the Four Modernizations was an economic success. Sugested by Deng Xiaoping.
Pakistani politician who was the chair of the PPP (Pakistan People's Party); served as PM from 1988-1990, 1993-1996 and was removed from her post both times for alleged charges of corruption which forces her to leave the country in 1996; returned in 2007 and was assassinated
At the death of her father, she became prime Minister. She nationalized India's largest banks, insurance companies, and coal mines. Corruption sapped the government's strength to deal with economic concerns however. She broke with the party bosses of Congress with their attempts to control her and forms the Congress Party, a faction of the Congress Party, and won reelection in 1971. However in 1975, court decision declared Ghandi's 1971 victory corrupt and she declared a state of emergency jailing thousands of her opponents. She then lost in 1977 but won in 1984. In 1984 she used massive military force to expel some sikh extremists. In retaliation two of her bodyguards gunned her down.
Formerly known as East Pakistan, went to war with Pakistan for its independence(With Indian Help) and became a country.
An increase in the number of people in the world caused by better medical care, increased food supplies, and decreasing death rates, commonly seen in many African, and Asian counties as families try to create a base on which to survive, however it has frequently has cancelled out the benefits of economic growth in those countries.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome, a respiratory disease of unknown etiology that apparently originated in mainland China in 2003
(Aquired Immune Deficiancy Syndrome) Immune system disease caused by HIV which over a period of years weakens the capacity of the immune system to fight off infection so that weight loss and weaknesses set in and other afflictions may hasten an infected person's demise.
The Wretched of the Earth
Frantz Fanon's most famous work, written during and regarding the Algerian struggle for independence from colonial rule. As a psychiatrist, Fanon explored the psychological effect of colonization on the psyche of a nation as well as its broader implications for building a movement for decolonization.
In many African societies, family are organized into these groups, these members believe they are descendants of a common ancestor, besides living members, this includes pass and future generations, within this group members feel a strong loyalty to one another
(b. 1933) First president of the Philippines in the post-Marcos era of late 1980s; served from 1986 to 1992; husband was assassinated by thugs in the pay of the Marcos regime; one of the key leaders in the popular movement that toppled the dictator
Follower of Gandhi who became India's first prime minister. He wanted democracy, unity, economic modernization and neutrality in the Cold War. Tried to elevate lower castes and rights of women.
(1917-1989) Philippine politician; he was elected president of the Philippines in 1965, but soon became an authoritarian dictator. He imposed martial law, arrested his political opponents, and stole millions from his country's treasury.
An approach to religious belief and practice that stresses the literal interpretation of texts sacred to the religion in question and the application of their precepts to all aspects of social life; increasingly associated with revivalist movements in a number of world religions, including Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Hinduism.
V. S. Naipaul
Born of Indian parents in Trinidad; winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2001,wrote "Mimic Men" and "An Area of Darkness" which dealt with the massive poverty facing India. He castigated governments in the developing countries for corruption, ineptitude, and self-deception. (themes- poignant loneliness and homelessness of people uprooted by colonialism and Western expansion).
Raw materials and agriculture products, typically unprocessed or only slightly processed. The primary sectors are distinguished from secondary sectors (industry) and tertiary sector (services).
Industrialized nations' continued dominance of the world economy; ability of the industrialized nations to maintain economic colonialism without political colonialism
, Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He develpoped economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts, and neglecting his own countries' issues
Gamal Abdul Nasser
Took power in Egypt following a military coup in 1952; enacted land reforms and used state resources to reduce unemployment; ousted Britain from the Suez Canal zone in 1956
Free Officers Movement
Military nationalist movement in Egypt founded in the 1930s; often allied with the Muslim Brotherhood; led coup to seize Egyptian government from khedive in July 1952.
1938 Egyptian organization by Hassan al-Banna. It attacked liberal democracy as a cover for middle-class, business, and landowning interests and fought for a return to a purified Islam.
an Egyptian social and political reformer, best known for founding the Muslim Brotherhood, one of the largest and most influential 20th century Sunni revivalist organizations
The king of Egypt before Nasser. In politics, he was an inept, corrupt and incompetent ruler, for whom many Egyptians felt nothing but contempt.
President of Egypt since 1981, succeeding Anwar Sadat and continuing his polices of cooperation with the West. Overthrown in 2011.
Egyptian statesman who (as president of Egypt) negotiated a peace treaty with Menachem Begin (then prime minister of Israel) (1918-1981)
term used to describe the transformation of agriculture in many developing nations that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
At first was sent into exile, Khomeini came back from exile, established a parallel government. o Defeat of Revolutionary Guard during the air force mutiny led to mass overruns of army bases, secret police HQ, and other police departments by protestors, and were looted. o The Shah's state was essentially smashed. • Initial provisional government was a coalition between secular nationalists and Islamic fundamentalist. o Very quickly became clear that power was in Khomeini. o Created Council of Islamic Revolution and served as head. SKOCPOL, BULLSHIT, ETC!!! Significant because it presented a situation where a political state was subservient to a religious authority, relating back to competitive authoritarianism.
Local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert all of population to Shi'ism.
The name of the dynasty that ruled Iran between 1921 and 1979. Reza Pahlavi (1921-41) the founder of the monarchy and the initiator of Iran's development during the twentieth century. Muhammad Pahlavi second ruler (1941-79).
Under apartheid, areas in South Africa designated for ethnolinguistic groups within the black African population; such areas tend to be overpopulated and poverty-stricken.
African National Congress
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality.
Black African leader who, along with Nelson Mandela, opposed apartheid system in South Africa
Long-imprisoned leader of the African National Congress party; worked with the ANC leadership and F.W. De Klerk's supporters to dismantle the apartheid system from the mid 1980s onward; in 1994, became the first black prime minister of South Africa after the ANC won the first genuinely democratic elections in the country';s history. (p 855)
(1946-1977) An organizer of black consciousness movement in South Africa, in opposition to apartheid; murdered while in police custody
F.W de Klerk
White South African prime minister in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Working with Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress, de Klerk helped to dismantle the apartheid system and opened the way for a democratically elected government that represented all South Africans for the first time.
Israeli statesman (born in Russia) who (as prime minister of Israel) negotiated a peace treaty with Anwar Sadat (then the president of Egypt) (1913-1992)
Camp David Accords
The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
A piece of land that is currently a part of Egypt but was a UN buffer zone from 1956-1966 and a part of Israel from 1967-1979
The 39th President who created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow
It was built in 1956 to control the flooding of the Nile River. The dam gives Egyptian farmers a more dependable source of water for their crops. It also gives Egypt electrical power. Which increased Egypt's farmable land by 50% and protected it from droughts and floods, however Egypt's population boom soon cancelled out the gains of this dam.
Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and has been president of the government and First Secretary of the Communist Party since 1976.
Became president of Mexico in 2000 and ended the PRI's reign; Pushed to end official corruption, reduce poverty, and spur economic growth; Tried to protect the rights of Mexico's natives;
Party of the Institutionalized Revolution; dominant political party in Mexico; developed during the 1920s and 1930s; incorporated labor, peasant, military, and middle-class sectors; controlled other political organizations in Mexico.
Guerilla movement named in honor of Emiliano Zapata; originated in 1994 in Mexico's southern state of Chiapas; government responded with a combination of repression and negotiation.
National Action Party (PAN)
A conservative and Christian democratic party and one of the three main political parties in Mexico. Since 2007, the party is led by Germán Martínez Cázares. Since 2000, the President of Mexico has been a member of this party
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; international trade organization ehtat encourages free trade by lowering tariffs and other trade restrictions
Juan Jose Arevalo
Elected president of Guatemala in 1944; began series of socialist reforms including land reform; nationalist program directed against foreign-owned companies such as United Fruit Company
United Fruit Company
Most important foreign economic concern in Guatemala during the 20th century; attempted land reform aimed at United Fruit caused U.S. intervention in Guatemalan politics leading to ouster of reform government in 1954
Opressive dictator of Cuba from 1934 to 1944; returned to presidency in 1952; ousted from government by revolution led by Fidel Castro. Marred by corruption
Ernesto "Che" Guevara
Argentine revolutionary; aided Fidel Castro in overthrow of Fulgencio Batista; died while directing guerrilla movement in Bolivia in 1967. (p 785)
Combined Catholic theology and Socialist principles in effort to bring about improved conditions for the poor in Latin America (20th century).
President of Chile; nationalized industries and banks; sponsored peasant and worker expropriations of lands and foreign-owned factories; overthrown in 1973 by revolt of Chilean military with the support of the United States.
Nicaraguan Socialist movement named after Augusto Sandino; successfully carried out a Socialist revolution in Nicaragua during the 1980s. (p. 824)
He was a nationalist leader who fought against the U.S. Marines in Nicaragua. He led an army of peasants and Indians to restore Nicaraguan national sovereignty; rediscovered the guerilla tradition, been influenced by the anti-yankees and socialist ideas of the Mexican revolution, returned to Nicaragua.
Term given to governments supported or created by the United States in Central America; believed to be either corrupt or subservient to U.S. interests.
Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy.
Alliance for Progress
Begun in 1961 by the United States to develop Latin America as an alternative to radical political solutions; enjoyed only limited success; failure of development programs led to renewal of direct intervention
President from 1980-1988 ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
Kent State Shooting
Incident in which National Guard troops fired at a group of students during an antiwar protest at Kent State University in Ohio, killing four people.
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
President after Roosevelt died, put the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall plan into affect, entered US into the Korean War, dropped the atomic bomb on Japan, "Fair Deal"
Agreement made in 1949 to stand firm against Soviet military threats, made between the U.S., Great Britain, France, and eight other nations, Center in Brussels.
Suez Canal Crisis
Nasser took over the Suez Canal to show separation of Egypt from the West, but Israel, the British, Iraq, and France were all against Nasser's action. The U.S. stepped in before too much serious fighting began.
Prime minister of Britain; strong relationship with Reagan; supported NATO, allowed US to store missiles in England; one of the first Western leaders to act warmly toward reformer Gorbachev. Pledged to limit social welfare, restrict union power, and end inflation. Formed Thatcherism
Site of the first test of the Hydrogen Bomb, Bad weather caused a large cloud of nuclear fallout over a large area. Harmed sailors, killing one. Radioactivity forced people to move out.
The state of relations between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies between the end of World War II to 1990; based on creation of political spheres of influence and a nuclear arms race rather than actual warfare.
Nations favorable to the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe during the cold war-particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, and East Germany
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
A plan that the US came up with the help of George c. Marshall to revive war-torn economies of Europe (especially Germany to act as a counter to the Soviet Union. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
An international defense alliance between the Soviet Union and many of its Eastern European satellite states as a response to NATO. Formed in 1955.
New activism of the west European state in economic policy and welfare issues after World War II; introduced programs to reduce the impact of economic inequality; typically included medical programs and economic planning
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
New type of bureaucrat; intensely trained in engineering or economics and devoted to the power of national planning; came to fore in offices of governments following World War II.
Political movement and party that arose in several western European nations in the 1970's that opposed unfettered free market economies and unchecked industrial pollution
Began as European Economic Community (or Common Market), an alliance of Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, to create a single economic entity across national boundaries in 1958; later joined by Britain, Ireland, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Austria, Finland, and other nations for further European economic integration.
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
The economic policy of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Reduced state economic power and introduced free market and privatization with certain constraints. Deregulated the UK's market. This was done at a social cost
Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea. Was pretty much a waste of time ,money, and lives .
This involved high officials in the Reagan administration secretly selling arms to Iran (in return for the release of Western hostages in the Middle East) and illegally using the proceeds to finance the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
Alliance for Progress
A program in which the United States gave billions of dollers to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems in order to counter Communism.
35th President of the United States 35th President of the United States; only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize; events during his administration include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War; assassinated in Dallas, TX in 1963
New wave of women's rights agitation dating from 1949; emphasized more literal equality that would play down domestic roles and qualities for women; promoted specific reforms and redefinition of what it meant to be female
She wrote The Feminine Mystique to denounce the housewife trap. The National Organization of women owe their popularity to her book.She calls it the problem that has no name and deplored the narrow view that women should seek fulfillment solely as wives and mothers.She wanted women to establish goals that will permit them to find their own identity.
The Feminine Mystique
Written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities, launched the modern women's movement.
National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
The Second Sex
Written by Simone de Beauvior, teacher, novelist, and writer; challenged marrige, the basic unit of modern society; theorized that marriage held women back because of male-dominated societies; recognized females as the "Other" and as second-class citizens
Simone de Beauvior
was a French existentialist philosopher, public intellectual, and social theorist. She is now best known for her metaphysical novels, including She Came to Stay and The Mandarins, and for her 1949 treatise "The Second Sex," a detailed analysis of women's oppression and a foundational tract of contemporary feminism.
A pill with hormones that alters the way the body works and prevents pregnancy. It can keep a woman from ovulating or alter the lining of the uterus so an egg cannot attach to the uterus wall., gave women greater freedom to be sexually active without the risk of pregnancy
American scientist. With Francis Crick, he elucidated the structure and function of the DNA double helix. He shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Crick and Maurice Wilkins. He served as the head of the Human Genome Research program from 1989 to 1992.
An American commercial illustrator and artist famous for his Campbell's soup painting. He was the founder of the pop-art movement, which like all other art movements in history reflected something back on the present society.
An American school of the 1950s that imitated the techniques of commercial art (as the soup cans of Andy Warhol) and the styles of popular culture and the mass media
Built in 1961 to halt the flow of immigration from East Berlin to West Berlin; immigration was in response to lack of consumer goods and close Soviet control of economy and politics. Wall was torn down at end of Cold War in 1991.
Polish labor movement formed in 1970s under Lech Walesa; challenged USSR-dominated government of Poland.
John Maynard Keynes
British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption, he also wrote "The Economic Consequences of the Peace" which helped consolidate American public opinion agianst the Versailles Treaty in 1919.
Bretton Woods Conference
The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to create a world bank to stabilize international currency, increase investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery of Europe.
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
Russian author critical of the Soviet regime; published trilogy on the Siberian prison camps, The Gulag Archipelago(1978). Still hated western "materialism".
The Gulag Archipelago
A book by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. Told of the "chain of islands" of gulag camps in the Soviet Union. Goes into detail about life inside them.
Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
Name given to the Communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) takeover of political power from the government of Afghanistan on 28 April 1978. The name is derived from the Dari name of the second month of the Persian calendar, the month in which the uprising took place
In Afghanistan, holy warriors who banded together to fight the Soviet-supported government in the late 1970s
Dwight D. Eisenhower
34th president of the US. Nicknamed Ike. General in the US army. During WWII, was supreme commander of Allied forces in Europe. Supervised invasion of France and Germany.
The political theory that if one nation comes under communist control then neighboring nations will also come under communist control. (Eisenhower)
Little Rock Nine
Nine african american students who first integrated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957.
Martin Luther King
One of the main leaders of the American civil rights movement, a political activist, a Baptist minister, and was one of America's greatest orators. In 1964, HE became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (for his work as a peacemaker, promoting nonviolence and equal treatment for different races). On April 4, 1968, He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
The name given to the programs of President Lyndon B. Johnson, which elevated the federal government to the most prominent role it would play in the twentieth century. the philosophy of this program was that government should try to solve large social problems like hunger and poverty.
Lyndon B. Johnson
1963-1969, Democrat , signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. His most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He develpoped economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts, and neglecting his own countries' issues
National Socialist Party
Also known as the Nazi party; led by Adolf Hitler in Germany; picked up political support during the economic chaos of the Gread Depression; advocated authoritarian state under a single leader; aggressive foreign policy to reverse humiliation of the Versailles treaty; took power in Germany in 1933.
Hitler's union of Germany with the German-speaking population of Austria; took place in 1938, despite complaints of other European nations.
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
The Japanese invaded here in Manchuria, China, in the year 1931.They wanted to use Manchuria as a place to colonize. Declared it independent state of Manchukuo
Soldier, politician and finally prime minister, Winston Churchill was one of Britain's greatest 20th-century heroes. He is particularly remembered for his indomitable spirit while leading Great Britain to victory in World War II.
Rape of Nanking
Was a six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937. During this period, hundreds of thousands of civilians were murdered and 20,000-80,000 women were raped by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army As a result of the nationalist efforts to deny or rationalize the war crimes, the controversy created surrounding the massacre remains a stumbling block in Sino-Japanese relations, as well as Japanese relations with other Asia-Pacific nations such as South Korea and the Philippines.
German word meaning lightning war. It was a German army tactic during World War II which called for quick moving, hard hitting drives into enemy territory.
French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France following defeat of French armies by the Germans.
Battle of Britain
The 1940 Nazi air offensive including saturation bombing of London and other British cities, countered by British innovative air tactics and radar tracking of German assault aircraft
"The Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; He tried to assassinate Hitler and also secretly refused to obey his orders if they involved killing of civilians or Jews.
Oil feilds in this region is what Hitler's army wished to capture by invading the U.S.SR, but they failed.
Battle of El Alamein
There were two battles of _______ , both during 1942. In Egypt, Allied (primarily Commonwealth) forces under a British Field Marshal Montgomery finally stopped the Germans under the command of Field Marshal Rommel. It was a turning point for World War II. oon after the Allies were able to take back more land from the Vichy Government
Operation Sea Lion
The name given by Hitler for the planned invasion of Great Britain in 1940. Never carried out due to the loss at the Battle of Great Britain.
Battle of Kursk
Summer of 1943, Hitler's generals had urged him to build an East Wall based on river barriers to halt the Soviets. Instead, Hitler gambled on taking the offensive by making use of newly developed heavy tanks. Berman forces were soundly defeated by Soviets at the battle of _______(July 5-12), the greatest tanks battle of WWII. Germans lost eighteen of their best panzer divisions.
Battle of Stalingrad
German offensive against Soviet Union in which the Soviets counterattacked and catastrophically destroyed Hitler's armies. By 1943 the Soviet Union was no longer on the defensive side, and moved further onward against Germany. A major turning point of the war. Up to 2 million troops died at this battle.
The code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944; also known as D-Day
Operation Market Garden
Operation developed by Gen Field Marshall Montgomery—largest airborne operation; Allied WWII operation in Netherlands and Germany that required the capture/control of several bridges along a predetermined route crossing the lower Rhine which would give a direct entrance for Allied forces into Germany. While a great idea, the last bridge was not captured resulting in the entire operation becoming a complete failure.
The codename for Hitler's attack on Russia, despite the Russo-German Non-aggression Pact. Hitler's reasons for attacking Russia include: Lebensraum; Resources (oil in the south and coal and food in the north); Russia had Europe's largest concentration of Jews; Crusade again Communism. Russian armies retreated slowly, "scorching the earth" as they did to deal with Napoleon. Communist Guerilla bands harassed the invaders.
Battle of the Bulge
This was Germany's last attempt at success against the Allies during WWII. This was an epic failure and basically served as a way to waste men, supplies, and fuel. The Germans went through Belgium (which was a bad idea because Belgium was a neutral country, and it caused more tension and hostility) to get to the Western Front for this historic offensive battle. Patton
This American general was one of the most successful and controversial in American military history. He was dedicated, well-trained, intelligent and a brilliant strategist. He was also arrogant, quick of temper, foul-mouthed, and believed in reincarnation. He was briefly relieved of command for slapping a soldier who suffered from battle fatigue, but returned to defeat the Germans in important battles( The most important of which is the Battle of the Bulge)
A multinational operation between America and Britain. It would be a three pronged attack. The U.S would take Morocco, The British would take Libya and then they would both come together to get Algiers. They wanted to stop the German's from advancing on Egypt. The U.S troops were not battle tested and that could be a problem. General George Patton entered the picture and helped lead the allies to victory.
American base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japanese planes on December 7, 1941. The bombing of Pearl Harbor forced the United States to enter the war.
Japans Greatest naval strategists, who called for the attack on Pearl Harbor. He also commanded the fleet that attacked Midway Island.
Battle of Coral Sea
Fought on May 7-8 1942; Caused heavy losses on both sides; Japanese won a tactical victory because they sank US carrier Lexington; Americans claimed a strategic victory by stopping Japan's drive towards Australia
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
This general was premier of Japan during World War II while this man was dictator of the country. He gave his approval for the attack on Pearl Harbor and played a major role in Japan's military decisions until he resigned in 1944
War Plan Orange
Refers to a series of United States Joint Army and Navy Board war plans for dealing with a possible war with Japan during the years between the First and Second World Wars. It anticipated a withholding of supplies from the Philippines and other U.S. outposts in the Western Pacific (they were expected to hold out on their own), while the Pacific Fleet marshaled its strength at bases in California, and guarded against attacks on the Panama Canal.
Lt. Colonel Doolittle's psychological point was to bomb Tokyo and several other Japanese cities. This did little damage. It was an important psychological point for both Americans and Japanese: Japan was vulnerable to attack. It was the first mainland bombing in Japan, it did little damage but boosted American morale.
Battle of Okinawa
Lasted almost 3 months.The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.Largest amphibious assault in Pacific; last battle of WWII
An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.
A war time conference held at Tehran, Iran that was attended by FDR, Churchill, and Stalin. It was the first meeting of the "Big Three" and it agreed on an opening of a second front (Overlord), and that the Soviet Union should enter the war against Japan after the end of the war in Europe. (Pic is a joke)
Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1945; agreed to Soviet entry into the Pacific war in return for possessions in Manchuria, organization of the United Nations; disputed the division of political organization in the eastern European states to be reestablished after the war.
Jan. 14-23, 1943 - FDR and Chruchill met in Morocco to settle the future strategy of the Allies following the success of the North African campaign. They decided to launch an attack on Italy through Sicily before initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the Allies would accept nothing less than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war.
Atlantic Charter of 1941
World War II alliance agreement between the United States and Britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live; indicated sympathy for decolonization
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdam, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Warfare of the 20th century; vast resources and emotional commitments of belligerent nations were marshaled to support military effort; resulted from impact of industrialization on the military effort reflecting technological innovation and organizational capacity.
Quit India Movement
Mass civil disobedience campaign that began in the summer of 1942 to end British control of India
Founded in 1906 to better support demands of Muslims for separate electorates and legislative seats in Hindu-dominated India; represented division within Indian nationalist movement
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Indian Muslim politician who founded the state of Pakistan. A lawyer by training, he joined the All-India Muslim League in 1913. As leader of the League from the 1920s on, he negotiated with the British/INC for Muslim Political Rights
Convention Peoples Party
Political party established by Kwame Nkrumah in opposition of continued British control of the Gold Coast colony. CPP.
Land Freedom Army
Radical organization for independence in Kenya; frustrated by failure of nonviolent means, initiated campaign of terror in 1952; referred to by British as the Mau Mau
Leader of the nonviolent nationalist party in Kenya; organized the Kenya Africa Union (KAU); failed to win concessions because of resistance of white settlers; came to power only after suppression of the Land Freedom Army, or Mau Mau.
National Liberation Front (FLN)
Radical nationalist movement in Algeria; launched sustained guerilla war against France in the 1950s; success led to independence of Algeria in 1958
Secret Army Organization (OAS)
Organization of French settlers in Algeria; led guerrilla war following independence during the 1960s; assaults directed against Arabs, Berbers, and French who advocated independence.
Kenya African Union (KAU)
Leading nationalist part in Kenya; adopted nonviolent approach to ending British control in the 1950s.
Policy of strict racial segregation imposed in south Africa to permit the continued dominance of whites politically and economically
Afrikaner National Party
Emerged as the majority party in the all-white South African legislature after 1948; advocated complete independence from Britain; favored a rigid system of racial segregation called apartheid.
Zionist military force that spearheaded Jewish resistance to the British presence in Palestine.
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.
When large amounts of a single product are consumed by a large portion of the population for a sustained period of time. the demand for the product is steady and is assumed by the population to be available at any time.
20th Century art style; best represented by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso; rendered familiar objects as geometrical shapes
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
Outbreak in U.S, began in 1919, as a result of communism in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.
Mussolini's invention, right-wing radicalism or revolution from the right, seeks to bring about change, anticommunist, anti capitalist, antidemocratic, characterized by hyper nationalism and a state-sponsored campaign of racial and ethnic bigotry
Economic and political system based on the organization of labor; imported in Latin America from European political movements; militant force in Latin American politics
Elite opinion opposed getting involved in European wars in the U.S; adopted after WWI
Fought over a period of almost 10 years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata
A dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foreign companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants, Had power 1876-1911
Mexican revolutionary and military commander in northern Mexico during the Mexican Revolution; succeeded along with Emiliano Zapata in removing Diaz from power; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta
Moderate democratic reformer in Mexico; proposed moderate reforms in 1910; arrested by Porfirio Diaz; initiated revolution against Diaz when released from prison; temporarily gained power, but removed and assassinated in 1913
Mexican revolutionary and military commander of peasant guerrilla movement after 1910 centered in Morelos; succeeded along with Pancho Villa in removing Díaz from power; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta; demanded sweeping land reform.
Plan de Ayala
Written by Zapata after he was angry with Madero for not enforcing land reform, rejection of Madero's presidency, reform of political landscape
Attempted to reestablish centralized dictatorship in Mexico following the removal of Madero in 1913;(FAILED) forced from power in 1914 by Villa and Zapata
Emerged as Mexico's leader at the end of the revolution; wrote a new constitution that promised land reforms
Mexican Constitution of 1917
Promised land reform, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; marked formal end of Mexican Revolution.
Mexican artist of the period after the Mexican Revolution; famous for murals painted on walls of public buildings; mixed romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology.
Jose Clemente Orozco
Mexican muralist of the period after the Mexican revolution; like Rivera's, his work featured romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology
the concern for the indigent peoples and their contribution that was below many reforms after indianization in the works of Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente Orozco.
Institutional Revolutionary Party which dominated Mexican politics and claimed to represent all groups
Conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s; most active in central Mexico; attempted to halt slide toward secularism; movement resulted in armed violence.
Liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution of 1917; sought development of parliamentary rule, religious freedom
Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
The seizure of power by force by the Bolsheviks from the Provisional Government (that had replaced Tsar Nicholas II after the February Revolution) in November of 1917. After the forceful seizure of power, Lenin set himself up as the first head of a Marxist state with aspirations to change the country, making several decrees in his effort use socialist ideas (Confiscation of large estates and businesses & establishment of political monopoly- no rival political parties).
Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background
New Economic Policy
Instituted by Lenin in 1921 - the state continued to set basic economic policies, but now efforts were combined with individual initiatives. This policy allowed food production to recover
Parliament of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; elected by universal suffrage; actually controlled by Communist party; served to ratify party decisions.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Federal system of socialist republics established in 1923 in various ethnic regions of Russia; firmly controlled by Communist party; diminished nationalities protest under Bolsheviks; dissolved 1991.
International office of communism under USSR dominance established to encourage the formation of Communist parties in Europe and elsewhere.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
After losing major territory the Russians surrendered and agreed to sign this treaty. The treaty sliced about a third of the Russians western territory away. This officially brought the end of the Russian empire. Was signed by Lenin.
Successor to Lenin as head of the USSR; strongly nationalist view of Communism; represented anti-Western strain of Russian tradition; crushed opposition to his rule; established series of five-year plans to replace New Economic Policy; fostered agricultural collectivization; led USSR through World War II; furthered cold war with Western Europe and the United States; died in 1953.
Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants; part of Stalin's economic and political planning; often adopted in other Communist regimes.
Last emperor of China at end of Qing Dynasty; deposed as emperor while still a small boy in 1912
Warlord in northern China after fall of Qing dynasty; hoped to seize imperial throne; president of China after 1912; resigned in the face of Japanese invasion in 1916.
In 1915, Japan presented Yuan Skikai with this, which sought to make China a Japanese protectorate. Yuan was too weak to resist some of the demands, made his nationalism less popular in the eyes of the common people, and because Mao Zedong said he would not surrender it gave him and the communists more power.
May Fourth Movement
Resistance to Japanese encroachments in China began on this date in 1919; spawned movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy; rejected Confucianism.
A modern Chinese author born in 1904 who wrote multiple short stories/ novels, including the trilogy Family, Spring, and Autumn, which portrayed a family who's younger members try to break away from the elder's Confucian ideas; he sometimes isolated himself in his study for a year
Communist leader in revolutionary China; advocated rural reform and role of peasantry in Nationalist revolution; influenced by Li Dazhao; led Communist reaction against Guomindang purges in 1920s, culminating in Long March of 1934; seized control of all of mainland China by 1949; initiated Great Leap Forward in 1958.
Chinese intellectual who gave serious attention to Marxist philosophy; headed study circle at the University of Beijing; saw peasants as vanguard of revolutionary communism in China.
Nationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who turned it into an increasingly authoritarian movement.
The military subordinate of Sun Yat-Sen, became head of nationalist party (GMD) when Sun yat-sen died of cancer, he tried to get rid of the communists by first pretending to support an alliance with them, and then striking out and making them go into hiding, he had a strong commitment to Sun Yat-sen's Three People's Principles and Ideas
Whampoa Military Academy
Founded in 1924; military wing of the Guomindang; first head of the academy was Chiang Kai-shek
Communist escape (6,000-mile)- (9,600-kilometer) from Hunan province during civil war with Guomindang in 1934; center of Communist power moved to Shaanxi province; firmly established Mao Zedong as head of the Communist party in China.
International economic crisis following the First World War; began with collapse of American stock market in 1929; actual causes included collapse of agricultural prices in 1920s; included collapse of banking houses in the United States and western Europe, massive unemployment; contradicted optimistic assumptions of 19th century.
In May 1931, this bank in Vienna that was the major institution for much of central and eastern Europe collapsed; German economy very nearly collapsed and Germany could no longer pay reparations. Worsen the worldwide Great Depression.
Combination of Socialist and Communist political parties in France; won election in 1936; unable to take strong of social reform because of continuing strength of conservatives; fell from power in 1938
President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life.
The last czar of Russia, he abdicated in 1917 and was murdered in 1918 along with his family. Though generally regarded as a decent man, he was an extremely weak and ineffective leader.
The secret police force of the German nazi state, notorious for its terrorism and brutality
A new kind of government in the 20th century that exercised massive, direct control over virtually all the activities of its subjects; existed in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union.
A group of laws that placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.
Spanish Civil War
War pitting authoritarian and military leaders in Spain against republicans and leftists between 1936 and 1939; Germany and Italy supported the royalists; the Soviet Union supported the republicans; led to victory of the royalist forces.. Francisco Franco wins.
Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.
President of Mexico from 1934 to 1940; responsible for redistribution of land (44 million acres), primarily to create ejidos, or communal farms; also began program of primary and rural education. Nationalized oil industries that refused to obey state laws and created state monopoly.
Political ideology that emphasized the organic nature of society and made the state a mediator, adjusting the interests of different social groups; appealed to conservative groups in European and Latin American societies and to the military.
Elected president of Brazil in 1929; launched centralized political program by imposing federal administrators over state governments; held off coups by communists in 1935 and fascists in 1937; imposed a new constitution based on Mussolini's Italy; leaned to communists after 1949; committed suicide in 1954.
"New State". Authoritarian regime in Brazil, instituted by Vargas. Ruled from 1947-1945.
Juan D. Peron
Military leader in Argentina who became dominant political figure after militiary coup in 1943; used position as Minister of Labor to appeal to working groups and the poor; became President in 1946, forced into exile in 1955, returned and won presidency in 1973
Minister of finance in Japan during the 1930s; increased government spending to provide jobs; created export boom and elimination of military spending.
Five year plans
Stalin's plans to hasten industrialization of USSR; constructed massive factories in metallurgy, mining and electric power; led to massive state-planned industrialization at cost of availability of consumer products. Increased machinery outut 14 fold in 10 years and let it become the world's third biggest industrial power.
Attempt within the USSR to relate formal culture to the masses in order to avoid the adoption of Western European cultural forms; begun under Joseph Stalin; fundamental method of Soviet fiction, art, and literary criticism.
Idea that Germany was too crowded and needed more living space, Hitler promised space by invading Europe and Russia
A war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I. Subscribing to the bonds became a symbol of patriotic duty in the United States and introduced the idea of financial securities to many citizens for the first time.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The (crown prince) heir to Austrian throne from 1896: assassinated on June 28, 1914 during good-will mission in Sarajevo, Bosnia (Aus-Hung) by Serbians, sparking WWI: caused Germany and other Austro Allies to declare war on Serbia and its allies
Front established in World War I; generally along line from Belgium to Switzerland; featured trench warfare and horrendous casualties for all sides in the conflict.
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.Dismissed Bismarck in 1890. Did not renew Bismarck's treaty with Russia and "Forced" Russia to look for another ally, France.
Alliance among Britain, Russia, and France at the outset of the 20th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
A battleship with increased speed and power over conventional warships, developed by both Germany and Great Britain to increase their naval arsenals. Carried 10 300mm guns mounted in 5 turrets.
Third stage in German unification. Bismark sought to unify all Germans by creating a common enemy in France. Germany defeated France easily and German unification upset the balance of power A war between France and Prussia that ended the Second Empire in France and led to the founding of modern Germany; 1870-1871. Also contributed to WW1 because of Frances lost territory of Alsace and Lorraine.
Administrative center of the Bosnian province of Austrian Empire; assassination there of Arch-duke Ferdinand in 1914 started World War I
Led sustained all-India campaign for independence from British Empire after World War I. Stressed nonviolent but aggressive mass protest.
Promise of support from Germany to Austria-Hungary after Ferdinand's assassination; Austria-Hungary sought reprisals against Serbia
The Schlieffen Plan
A plan given by Count Schlieffen in which the Germans invaded France using a wheel-like flanking procedure while the Russians mobilized. It was banking on the fact that Russia would take 6 weeks to mobilize. This plan failed because the Germans could not transport troops as well as their opposing forces who had a well-constructed train system.
The Serbian nationalist who assassinated Archduke Ferdinand and his wife, his actions that were enforced by the Black Hand led directly to WWI
The Serbian terrorist group that planned to assassinate Franz Ferdinand, part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing South Slav populations (Serbs, Croats, Macedonians, Slovenes, etc) annexed by Austria-Hungary.
Assault carried out by mainly Turkish military forces against Armenian population in Anatolia in 1915; over a million Armenians perished and thousands fled to Russia and the Middle East.
Peninsula south of Istanbul. Site of decisive 1915 Turkish victory over Australian and New Zealand forces under British command during World War I.
Most mobile of the fronts established during World War I; lacked trench warfare because of length of front extending from the Baltic to southern Russia; after early successes, military defeats led to downfall of the tsarist government in Russia.
Nazi leader of fascist Germany from 1933 to his suicide in 1945; created a strongly centralized state in Germany; eliminated all rivals; launched Germany on aggressive foreign policy leading to World War II; responsible for attempted genocide of European Jews.
Stab in the Back
Myth promoted in Germany after the war that, on the brink of victory, socialists and Jewish politicians conspired to surrender to the Allies; used by Nazis as part of their drive to power in the 1920s.
French prime minister; nickname "the Tiger" wanted to punish germany a lot by dramatically reducing its military army and letting French troops occupy the Rhineland until Germany had paid lots of reparations.
David Lloyd George
Prime minister of Great Britain who headed a coalition government through much of World War I and the turbulent years that followed., He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Wilson called for national independence from colonial rule before Versailles; This encouraged colonial subjects in Asia and Africa until they discovered Wilson intended his rhetoric only for Europe.
League of Nations
International diplomatic and peace organization created in the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I; one of the chief goals of President Woodrow Wilson of the United States in the peace negotiations; the United States was never a member
The German term for the Treaty of Versailles which they were forced to sign without being allowed to negotiate any of the details. This was an important factor in the anti-Versailles resentment of later years.
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
A poet. He was India's first Nobel laureate(1913). Spokesman for Moral concerns of his age; set to music India's first national anthem; life mission was to promote pride in a national Indian consciousness in the face of British domination
It was Wilson's peace plan. Each of the points were designed to prevent future wars. He compromised each point at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The only point which remained was the 14th (League of Nations). Each one was appealing to a specific group in the war and each one held a specific purpose.
National Congress Party
Grew out of regional associations of Western-educated Indians; originally centered in cities of Bombay, Poona, Calcutta, and Madras; became political party in 1885; focus of nationalist movement in India; governed through most of postcolonial period.
Believed that nationalism in India should be based on appeals to Hindu religiosity; worked to promote the restoration and revival of ancient Hindu traditions; offended Muslims and other religious groups; first populist leader in India
Provided educated Indians with considerably expanded opportunities to elect and serve on local and all-India legislative councils.
Increased the powers of Indian legislators at the all-India level and placed much of the provincial administration of India under local ministries controlled by legislative bodies with substantial number of elected Indians; passed in 1919.
Placed severe restrictions on key Indian civil rights such as freedom of the press; acted to offset the concessions granted under Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919, Allowed the British ruling government to jail any protester without trial for a maximum of two years.
Literally, truth-force; strategy of nonviolent protest developed by Mohandas Gandhi and his followers in India; later deployed throughout the colonized world and in the United States
British proconsul in khedival Egypt from1883 to 1907; pushed for economic reforms that reduced but failed to eliminate the debts of the khedival regime
Class of prosperous business and professional urban families in khedival Egypt; as a class generally favored Egyptian independence.
Clash between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers in 1906; arose over hunting accident along Nile River where wife of prayer leader of mosque was accidentally shot by army officers hunting pigeons; led to Egyptian protest movement.
Also known as Mustafa Kemal; leader of Turkish republic formed in 1923; reformed Turkish nation using Western models
Sherif of Mecca from 1908 to 1917; used British promise of independence to convince Arabs to support Britain against the Turks in World War I; angered by Britain's failure to keep promise; died 1931.
Governments entrusted to European nations in the Middle East in the aftermath of World War I; Britain occupied these in Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Palestine after 1922.
members of a movement known as Zionism, founded to promote the establishment of an independent Jewish state
Hungarian-born, Jewish journalist. Expressed a new sense of Jewish identity. Witnessed the Dreyfus affair and all the virulent anti-Semitism it brought to the surface. This stimulated him to found the Zionist movement which sought a Palestinian homeland. The First International Jewish Congress was held in Basel in 1897.
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.
W.E.B Du Bois
First African-American to recieve a doctorate. America's foremost black intellectual at the turn of the twentieth century, and an outspoken leader of the black cause. He disagreed with Booker T. Washington's accommodationist posture and called upon blacks to insist on equal rights. He was a founder of the NAACP and editor of its journal, "The Crisis."
European Zionist who believed that Jewish assimilation into christian European nations was impossible; argued for return to Middle Eastern Holy Land
World Zionist Organization
Formed by HERZL and other prominent European Jewish leaders to promote Jewish migration to Palestine in advance of the creation of a Zionist state in Palestine
Egyptian nationalist party that emerged after an Egyptian delegation was refused a hearing at the Versailles treaty negotiations following World War I; led by Sa'd Zaghlul; negotiations eventually led to limited Egyptian independence beginning in 1922.
French officer and Jew who was falsely accused of spying for Germany in the late 19th century; his mistreatment spurred Herzl and other Zionists to increase their call for a Jewish homeland.
Leader of Egypts nationalist Wafd party; their negotiations w/ British led to limited Egyptian indep. in 1922, however British gov't told him to stop and was eventually exiled.
African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa.
Organization that brought together intellectuals and political leaders from areas of Africa and African diaspora before and after World War I
Literary movement in Africa; attempted to combat racial stereotypes of African culture; celebrated the beauty of black skin and African physique; associated with origins of African nationalist movements.
Leopold Sedar Senghor
(1906 - 2001) One of the post-World War I writers of the negritude literary movement that urged pride in African values; president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980.
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death (coincidence? I think not).
The father of the Japanese Enlightenment. ***uzawa translated works of great foreign thinkers into Japanese and also changed them in such a way so that their works would be relevant to specifically a Japanese audience. He was very influenced by Dutch Learning, and valued a scientific, objective approach. Therefore, he hated Chinese learning and hated its influence on his country.
"Liberal" tsar of Russia (1801-25) who had played a major role in downfall of Napoleon. Feared by representatives of other powers as dreamer, self-chosen world saviour(Holy Alliance) who wanted to bring Christianity into politics. Some even thought of him as a crowned liberal.
Alliance among RUssia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and the established order; formed at Congress of Vienna by most conservative monarchies of Europe.
Political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms; put down by Tsar Nicholas I.
War bewteen the Ottoman Empire and Russia from 1853 to 1856. Britain and France supported the OE so that the Eastern Question wouldn't have to be answered. Russia loses.
Group of Japanese scholars interested in implications of Western science and technology beginning in the 18th century; urged freer exchange with West; based studies on few Dutch texts available in Japan.
Emancipation of the serfs
Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land.
Local political councils created as part of Alexander II's reforms; gave the
middle class professional experience in government but did not influence national policy.
Constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role.
Russian minister of finance from 1892 to 1903; economic modernizer responsible for high tariffs, improved banking system; encouraged Western investors to build factories in Russia.
Russian term for articulate intellectuals as a class; desired radical change in the Russian political and economic systems; wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from that of the West
Literally, the majority party; the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by V.I. Lenin and dedicated to his concept of social revolution; actually a minority in the Russian Marxist political scheme until its triumph in the 1917 revolution.
Political groups that sought the abolition of all formal government; particularly prevalent in Russia; opposed tsarist autocracy; eventually became a terrorist movement responsible for assassination of Alexander II in 1881
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
Better known as Lenin; most active Russian Marxist leader; insisted on importance of disciplined revolutionary cells; leader of Bolshevik revolution of 1917
National parliament created in Russia in the aftermath of the revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II; failed to forestall further revolution.
1904-05 war between Russia and Japan over imperial influence and territory in Manchuria; Japan won and gained Manchuria and Port Arthur
War fought between Japan and Qing China between 1894 and 1895; resulted in Japanese victory; frustrated Japanese imperial aims because of Western insistence that Japan withdraw from Liaodong peninsula.
English nurse remembered for her work during the Crimean War (1820-1910). Est 1st nursing school. Est. Standards for hospitals. Est. nursing education, made nursing a respectable occ. for women.
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class.
Reforms introduced by the Russian minister Stolypin intended to placate the peasantry in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; included reduction in redemption payments, attempt to create market-oriented peasantry.
Russia sent its baltic fleet halfway around the world to the east, only to be defeated by the new japanese army here-__________ off the coast of japan
Which famous artist warned the Czar of growing class tension?, Also remembered for "War and Peace" and" Anna Karina".
Russian novelist who wrote of human suffering with humor and psychological insight (1821-1881), Fear of loss of spiritual belief b/c people were only using human belief. Wrote "Crime and Punishment"
Polonaise in A major, Op. 40, No. 1; Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic period. He is widely regarded as the greatest Polish composer, and ranks as one of music's greatest tone poets
Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884) Czech.
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
Wife of Nicholas II left in power when he joined army on front lines; allowed Rasputin to control government and went into shock when he was assassinated
Commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by the middle of the 19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West, about 40% for Japanese Males.
An American commodore in the navy, who made a couple trips to Japan. He forced the opening of Japan to western trade, and prompted a revolution against the shogunate. It also foreshadowed later American imperialistic foreign policy.
Great White Fleet
Name for the steam-powered ships of the enlarged and modernized American Navy of the early 1900s, Navy force that circumnavigated the globe to show off US naval prowess
The period of Japanese History from 1867 - 1912 during which the country was ruled by Emperor Mutsuhito and Experienced Modernization. "Enlightened"
Young emperor of Japan who took control of the nation's government from the shogun in 1867. He led a reform and modernization movement in Japan that resulted in it being a world power.The Meiji Era began under this Empero
Industrial entrepreneur who founded the Mitsubishi zaibatsu, the second largest of the family-owned industrial-financial combines that dominated the economic life of Japan in the late 19th century and early 20th centuries.Originally built steamships for government, then tanks, aircrafts.
Japanese parliament established as part of the new constitution of 1889; part of Meiji reforms; could pass laws and approve budgets; able to advise government, but not to control it.
Huge industrial combines created in Japan in the 1890s as part of the Meiji Reforms as part of the process of industrialization
Set forth the principle all citizens were equal, the emperor had autocratic power, but still a Diet or one elected house and one house appointed by the emperor; voting rights were limited; ended distinction between classes, set up schools, literacy increased, womens position went up; what were all these a part of in Japan?
Western term for perceived threats of Japanese imperialism around 1900; met by increased western imperialism in region
The question of who will benefit from the crumbling Ottoman Empire. The Great Powers are like vultures circling a corpse. Which will dive first to pick over the bones of the Ottomans.
Led the Turkish nationalist overthrow of the Ottoman sultan in 1922. He then became the president of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. To modernized Turkey, he separated Islamic laws from the nation's laws.
Leader of the Taiping rebellion; converted to specifically Chinese form of Christianity; attacked traditional Confucian teachings of Chinese elite.Thought himself the younger brother of Jesus
Sultan who ruled Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807; aimed at modestly improving administrative efficiency and building a new army and navy; toppled by Janissaries in 1807
Ottoman sultan; built a private, professional army; fomented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents
Series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire started under Mahmud II between 1839 and 1876; established Western-style universities, state postal system, railways, extensive legal reforms; resulted in creation of new constitution in 1876
Ottoman sultan who attempted to return to despotic absolutism during reign from 1878 to 1908; nullified constitution and restricted civil liberties; deposed in coup in 1908
Manchu dynasty that seized control of China in mid-17th century after decline of Ming; forced submission of nomadic peoples far to the west and compelled tribute from Vietnam and Burma to the south.LAST Dynasty
Ottoman Society for Union and Progress
Organization of political agitators in opposition to rule of Abdul Harmid; also called the "Young Turks"; desired to restore 1876 constitution.
Group of revolutionary and nationalistic Turks who revolted against Ottoman empire in 1908 attempting to make reforms and then sided with the central powers in WWI
Slave soldiers who converted to Islam the mamluks eventually became a powerful military caste and even governed Egypt from 1250 to 1517.
Battle of the Pyramids
Took place at Embadah, near Giza; the French routed 20,000 Mamluks, Napoleon defeated Mamluk forces at this battle
Head of the coalition of Mamluk rulers in Egypt; opposed Napoleonic invasion of Egypt and suffered devastating defeat; failure destroyed Mamluk government in Egypt and revealed vulnerability of Muslim core.
Won power strugle in egypt following fall of mamluks; established mastery of all egypt by 1811; introduced effective army based on western tactics and supply and a variety of other reforms; by 1830s was able to challenge ottoman government in constantinople; died in 1848
Descendants of Muhammad Ali in Egypt after 1867; formal rulers of Egypt despite French and English intervention until overthrown by military coup in 1952.
Built across isthmus of Suez to connect Mediterranean Sea with Red Sea in 1869; financed by european investors; with increasing indebtedness of khedives, permitted intervention of British into Egyptian politics to protect their investment
Egyptian intellectual who launched modern Islamic reform movement; said Islam should return to purity of earliest, most essential doctrines, but still flexible and reasoned approach to change and foreign social ideas
Muslim thinker at the end of the 19th century; stressed need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology; recognized importance of tradition of rational inquiry.
Egyptian military officer who led a revolt against Turkic dominance in the army in 1882, which forced the Khedival regime to call in British forces for support.
Eight armies of the Manchu tribes identified by separate flags; created by Nurhaci in early 17th century; utilized to defeat Ming emperor and establish Qing dynasty.
Muslim cleric, Mahdi, led a revolt in 1881 that gave him control over much of Sudan, British sent an army to overthrow but they were overthrown
In Sufi belief system, a promise deliverer; also a name given to Muhammad Achmad, leader of late 19th century revolt against Egyptians and British in the Sudan
Successor of Muhammad Achmad as leader of Mahdists in Sudan; established state in Sudan; defated by British General Kitchener in 1598
Architect of Manchu unity; created distinctive Manchu banner armies; controlled most of Manchuria; adopted Chinese bureaucracy and court ceremonies in Manchuria, entered China and successfully captured Ming capital at Beijing
First Manchu emperor of the Qing Dynasty who became emperor in 1661, ruling for 60 years. Reduced government expenses and lowered taxes. Patron of the arts and enjoyed Jesuits in his court.
An English general that conquered Sudan in 1898. He secured the English control of the Suez Canal and most of the Red Sea.
(1130-1200) Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action, still had great influence through the Qing Dynasty. Cheating however did flourish throughout the ceivil service exams.
Wealthy new group of Chinese merchants under the Qing dynasty; specialized in the import-export trade on Chian's south coast; one of the major links between China and the outside world
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
Treaty of Nanking
Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain an indemnity of $100 million from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain for 99 years.
Broke out in south China in the 1850s and early 1860s; led by Hong Xiuquan, a semi-Christianized prophet; sought to overthrow Qing dynasty and Confucian basis of scholar-gentry
Distinguished Chinese official charged with stamping out opium trade in southern China; ordered blockade of European trading areas in Canton and confiscation of opium; sent into exile following the Opium War
Ethnic minority people of south‑central China. Famous Hakkas include Taiping leader Hong Xiuquan and the Soong family.
Qing official who raised effective military forces against the Taiping assault on Northern China
self strengthening movement
Late 19th century movement in China to counter the challenge from the West; led by provincial leaders
Popular outburst in 1898 aimed at expelling foreigners from china; failed because of intervention of armies of western powers in china; defeat of chinese enhanced control by europeans and the power of provincial officials
Head of Revolutionary Alliance, organization that led 1911 revolt against Qing dynasty in China; briefly elected president in 1911, but yielded in favor of Yuan Shikai in 1912; created Nationalist party of China (Guomindang) in 1919; died in 1925
Empress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported anti-foreign movements like the so-called Boxers, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces. Even built a boat out of marble.
Chinese general and first president of the Chinese Republic (1912-1916). He stood in the way of the democratic movement led by Sun Yat-sen.
Creole military officer in northern South America; won victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822 that led to the independent state of Gran Colombia. "The Great Liberator"
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico
Father Miguel de Hidalgo
Mexican priest who established independence movement among American Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples.
War of the Triple Alliance
That conflict with Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina was known by this name, and so decimated Paraguay's eligible soldiers that polygamy flourished in the country afterwards.paraguay suffered immense economic and emotial devastation, losing over one half of its population and almost all of its adult males.
Leader of slave rebellion on the french sugar island of st. domingue in 1791; led to creation of independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
Latin American politicians who wanted policies, especially fiscal and commercial regulation, to be set by regional governments rather than centralized national administrations; often supported by politicians who described themselves as liberals
Latin American politicians who wished to create strong, centralized national governments with broad powers; often supported by politicians who described themselves as conservatives.
Augustin de Iturbide
Conservative Creole officer in Mexican army who signed agreement with insurgent forces of independence; combined forces entered Mexico City in 1821; later proclaimed emperor of Mexico until its collapse in 1824.
Independent state created in South America as a result of military successes of Simon Bolívar; existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate nations.
Jose de San Martin
Leader of independence movement in Rio de la Plata; led to independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movement in Chile and Peru as well
People who settle in and around Buenos Aires were Europens who came to the port city for trade. Resented Spanish Trade Restrictions.
Portuguese monarch who fled the French to establish his court in Brazil from 1808 to 1820; Rio de Janeiro became the real capital of the Portuguese empire.
Son and successor of João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor.
Old Fuss and Feathers, marched on Mexico City in 1847, considered to be the ablest general of his generation, nicknamed old fuss and feathers.
Battle of Maipu
A battle fought near Santiago, Chile on April 5, 1818 between South American rebels and Spanish royalists, during the Chilean War of Independence. The Patriot rebels led by José de San Martín effectively destroyed the Spanish forces commanded by General Mariano Osorio, and completed the independence of Chile from Spanish domination.
Battle of Ayacucho
The final stand of Spanish royalist forces in which they suffered a defeat against the liberating army of Bolivar and San Martin. Thwarted the final Spanish effort to retain their empire in the Americas.
Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of latin america
Andres Santa Cruz
Mestizo general who established a union between independent Peru and Bolivia between 1829 and 1839.
A South American republic on the southeast coast of South America achieved independence from Brazil in 1825, was made a buffer zone between Argentina and Brazil.
Juan Manuel de Rosas
Federalist leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Political opportunist and general who served as president of Mexico eleven different times and commanded the Mexican army during the Texas Revolution in the 1830s and the war with the United States in the 1840s.
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Bird droppings utilized as fertilizer; exported from Peru as a major item of trade between 1850 and 1880; income from trade permitted end to Indian tribute and abolition of slavery.
A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America.
French philosopher remembered as the founder of positivism. Saw human history as 3 stages: theological, metaphysical and scientific. Founded "sociology." Influenced Realpolitik
"realistic politics," practical politics, ends justified the means, power more important than principles
Belief of the government of the United States that it was destined to rule the continent from coast to coast; led to annexation of Texas and Mexican-American War.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Agreement that ended the Mexican-American War; provided for loss of Texas and California to the United States; left legacy of distrust of the United States in Latin America
Mexican American War
Fought between Mexico and the United States from 1846 to 1848; led to devastating defeat of Mexican forces, loss of about one-half of Mexico's national territory to the United States.
A liberal reform movement against Santa Anna in 19th-century Mexico, led by Benito Juarez
Maximilian von Habsburg
Proclaimed emperor of Mexico following intervention of France in 1862; ruled until overthrow and execution by liberal revolutionaries under Benito Juárez in 1867.
Dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foreign companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants. Had power 1876-1911
Replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862 as a result of a compromise between centralists and federalists.
Domingo F. Sarmiento
Liberal politician and president of the Argentine Republic; author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade and launched reforms in education and transportation.
A caudillo in Argentina. Sarmiento wrote about his life and his "politics," or lack thereof. Anti-rule of law, violent military leader. Sarmiento wrote the book as anti-Rosas propaganda; the main character was barbaric and the opposite of order and progress.
Written by Simón Bolívar in response to a letter from Henry Cullen, in which he put forward the reasons that caused the fall of the Second Republic of Venezuela within the context of the independence of the nation; fundamental objective was to gain the attention of the most powerful liberal nation of the 19th century, Britain, with the aim that it would decide to involve itself in American independence
Plan of Iguala
Independence plan for Mexico that included three promises (written by Iturbide): 1) Iturbide was to be emperor, 2) the Roman Catholic Church would remain official church of mexico, 3) Equal rights for all mexicans
Coffee estates that spread within interior of Brazil between 1840 and 1860; created major export commodity for Brazilian trade; led to intensification of slavery in Brazil.
Rebellious village angered at locals leaving and labor shortages (deadliest civil war in Brazil's history)
Author of martin Fierro that depicted gaucho as victim of modern world stripping him of freedoms. forces of modernization cause protagonist to become an outlaw. wrote in gaucho dialect
War of the Pacific
Conflict over the Atacama nitrate fields led in 1879 to this war, which resulted int he humiliating defeat of Bolivia and Peru by Chili. It also resulted in Bolivia becoming a landlocked country.
The belief that the more industrialized, urban, and modern a society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were abandoned or transformed.
A structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop.
Advisors of government of Porfirio Díaz who were strongly influenced by positivist ideas; permitted government to project image of modernization.
"swallows"; Italian workers who migrated annually between Europe and South America to take advantage of different growing seasons
An aspect of American intervention in Latin America; resulted from United States support for a Panamanian independence movement in return for a grant to exclusive rights to a canal across the Panama isthmus; provided short route from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean; completed 1914.
Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Zhu Di - . 3rd emperor of the Ming. Ruled in the early 1400s and relocated the capital to its present-day capital of Beijing; rebuilt the whole city, built the Forbidden City. Immense symbol of power. He is known for appointing Zheng He to captain the treasure fleet and sending him on seven major expeditions around the world
A very large flatbottom sailing ship produced in the Tang and Song Empires, specially designed for long-distance commercial travel.
Vasco da Gama
in 1497 he sailed eastward past the Cape of Good Hope across the Indian Ocean and landed in India in 1498 and returned home with spices and jewels. His successful voyages represented a tremendous stroke of good fortune for the Portuguese.
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
Asian Sea Trading Network
Divided, from West to East, into three zones prior to the European arrival: an Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; an Indian zone, with cotton textiles; and a Chinese zone, with paper, porcelain, and silks, there was no central control and there was general peace until Europeans arrived.
An age of prominent economic theorists teaching that a state's power depended heavily on the amount of precious metals a monarch had in its coffers, a steady flow of bullion to Asia was unthinkable.
Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located at the southern end of the Persian Gulf; site for forcible entry into the Asian sea trade network
Portuguese trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce.
Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on the Western Indian Coast; site for forcible entry into the Asian sea trade network.
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca. Also spelled Melaka.
Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan
Fort established in 1619 as headquarters of Dutch East India Company operations in INdonesia; today the city of Jakarta.
Dutch Trading Empire
The Dutch system extending into Asia with fortified towns and factories, warships on patrol, and monopoly control of a limited number of products.
Northern island of Philippines; conquered by Spain during the 1560s; site of major Catholic missionary effort.
Southern island of the Philippines; a Muslim Kindom that was able to successfully resist Spanish conquest.
Early Jesuit missionary often called the Apostle to the Indies. He was an associate of St Ignatius of Loyola, with whom he took the vow founding the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). From 1541 he traveled through India, Japan, and the East Indies, making many converts.
Robert di Nobili
Italian Jesuit missionary; worked in India during the early 1600s; introduced strategy to convert elites at first; strategy later widely adapted by Jesuits in various parts of Asia; mission eventually failed.
First Ming emperor in 1368; originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; restored position of scholar-gentryncreased amount of food production, improved irrigation, raising cotton and sugar cane, made changes that improved the Chinese government, later grew suspicious and untrusting
One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty along with Canton
One of two port cities in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty along with Macao
The Water Margin
Is known as one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. Attributed to Shi Naian, the novel details the trials and tribulations of 108 outlaws during the Song Dynasty period of Chinese history.
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
An Italian Jesuit who by his knowledge of Astronomy and science was accepted as a missionary of China
Along with Matteo Ricci, Jesuit scholar in court of Ming emperors; skilled scientist; won few converts to Christianity
Last of the Ming Emperors; committed suicide in 1644 in the face of Jurchen capture of the Forbidden City of Bejing.
One of the three unifiers of the late warring states period, known for his ruthlessness in battle, and for establishing many of the institutions contributing to lasting peace during the Tokugawa era.
General under Nobanga; suceeded as leading military power in Japan; continued efforts to break power of daimyos; constucted a series of military alliances that made him the military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598.
Island in Nagasaki Bay; only port open to non-Japanese after closure of the islands in the 1640s; only Chinese and Dutch ships were permitted to enter.
School of National Learning
18th-century ideology that emphasized Japan's unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Confucianism and other Chinese influences.
Shogunate started by Tokugawa Leyasu; 4 class system, warriors, farmers, artisans, merchants; Japan's ports were closed off; wanted to create their own culture; illegal to fight; merchants became rich because domestic trade flourished (because fighting was illegal); had new forms of art - kabuki and geishas
Sick man of Europe
The phrase is used to describe economic poverty in a European country. This term was coined when the Ottoman empire was in decline and increasingly began to lose territory to the Europeans through defeats in battle. (Overstatement).
A ritual that required a woman to throw herself on her late husband's funeral pyre or burn herself. This was done gladly and if a woman didn't comply with this she would be disgraced.
Originally a Turkic nomadic group; family originated in Sufi mystic group; espoused Shi'ism; conquered territory and established kingdom in region equivalent to modern Iran; lasted until 1722. Disputed with Mughal Dynasty frequently because of Sunni-Shia split.
He founded the Mughal Empire in 1526 when he defeated the Lodi army and the Hindu warrior princes, he encouraged military buildup and arts, contributions: creation of a centralized government with ministries that controlled the provinces and introduction of a policy of religious toleration (unity with the Hindu princes), he introduced a new calendar, helped the poor, made an anti-alcohol campaign, and tried to improve the lives of women, was actually trying to raid in order to get other kingdom back.
An Islamic imperial power that ruled a large portion of Indian subcontinent which began in 1526, invaded and ruled most of Hindustan (South Asia) by the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and ended in the mid-19th century. Founded by Babur
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
The ruler of the turks who began to build a new empire in the corner of Asia Minor. these turks became known as the Ottoman Turks
Also called "The Conqueror", Murad's son, conquered Constaninople in 1453 and opened it to new citizens of many religions and backgrounds. The rebuilt city was renamed Istanbul.
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.
A person of a non-Muslim religion whose right to practice that religion is protected within an Islamic society, People of the Book: Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians
Ottoman equivalent of the Abbasid wazir; head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after 15th century often more powerful than sultan
Famous Ottoman mosque. Obelisks/minarettes. Built 1550's during reign of Suleyman, who also built resthouses, schools, gardens, and coffee houses. Designed by Sinam.
Ruled Ottoman Empire for 46 years and when it was at its height, he was also called "The Magnificent", spread the empire, many cultural interests, expanded military, millet system, devshirme system,
Nickname for Constantinople (capital of Byzantine empire) because it was shaped like a horn and brought in lots of trade (money, gold) because of its access to the Mediterranean, Black, and Aegean seas
'Selection' in Turkish. The system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries.
Battle of Lepanto
A naval battle fought between a Spanish and Venetian fleet and the German navy. The Spanish won. The battle meant that European navies had finally surpassed the Muslims. The Ottoman Turks could no longer challenge Europeans on international routes.
Early 14th century Sufi mystic; began campaign to purify Islam; first member of Safavid dynasty.
Sufi commander who conquered the city of Tabriz in 1501; first Safavid to be proclaimed "shah" or emperor
Battle of Chaldiran
16th Century. The Safavid vs the Ottomans. Ottomans won, and this symbolized the two greatest world powers at the time clashing together, + religious war (Shiites Vs. Sunnis), determined modern day boundaries (Iran vs. Iraq)
Most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India; originally built as a mausoleum for the wife of Shah Jahan, Mumtaz Mahal
Abbas the Great
Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology.
1534-1576. Won the throne after Isma'il , rebuilt the Safavid dynasty. Brought Turkic chiefs under control. Longest reign in the Safavid dynasty.
Local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert all of population to Shi'ism
Nadir Khan Afshar
Soldier-adventurer following fall of Safavid dynasty in 1722; proclaimed himself shah in 1736; established short-lived dynasty in reduced kingdom.
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus. , son and successor of Humayan; oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes; attempted to create new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India.
Son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but restored Mughal rule by 1556; died shortly thereafter
Head tax paid by all non-believers in Islamic territories, Eliminated by Akbar during his reign, but reinstated by other rulers.
Religion initiated by Akbar in Mughal India; blended elements of the many faiths of the subcontinent; key to efforts to reconcile Hindu and Muslims in India, but FAILED.
the practice among Hindu and Muslim women of covering the face with a veil when outside the home
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death, despotic ruler, whose strict laws led to divisions and decentralization of government in the Mughal Empire
The fortified structure built by the Mughal emperor in Delhi that served as the home of the imperial family of India under Shah Jahan.
Mughal emperor of India during whose reign the finest monuments of Mogul architecture were built (including the Taj Mahal at Agra)
Son of Akbar he was the "Grasper of the World." He married the Persian princess Nur Jahan, who really controlled the state affairs because he was a weak ruler. He was overthrown by his son Khusrau.
Shah Jahan's wife who had a building named after her (Taj Mahal) , as he was only passinate about her and beautiful buildings,took an active political role in Mughal court;
Wife of Jahangir; amassed power in court and created faction of male relatives who dominated Mughal Empire during later years of Jahangir's reign
Western Indian peoples who rebelled against Mughal control early in the 18th century and contributed to its downfall mainly because of Aurangzeb's draconian religious policies.
Sect in northwest India; early leaders tried to bridge gap between Hindus and Muslims, but Mughal persecution led to anti-Muslim feelings
Title taken by rule of Asante Empire; supreme civil and religious leader; authority symbolized by golden stool.
British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.
The Most important of early Portuguese trading factories in forest zone of Africa. Located in present day Ghana
A matrilineal clan within the Asante Empire that dominated because of their access to firearms .
Nilotic people who migrated from Upper Nile valley; established dynasty among existing Bantu population in lake region of central eastern Africa; center at Bunyoro. ( I'M THIS )
Portuguese trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce.(First and most important was El Mina.
Historian who says that no people can enslave another for 400 years without developing an air of superiority..
King of Kongo south of Zaire River from 1507 to 1543; converted to Christianity and took title Alfonso I; under Portuguese influence attempted to Christianize all of his kingdom. He also tried to end slave trade and limit Portuguese officials and was somewhat successful early on.
Portuguese factory established in 1520s south of Kongo; became basis for Portuguese colony of Angola. Showed how Portugal tried to dominate existing trade system of the African Ports.
Kingdom which stretched between Zambezi and Limpopo rivers of southern Africa, named that by Portuguese, dominance over gold found in interior of Africa, communicated with Arab port of Sofala on coast. Also called Mwenemutapa by Africans. Just Think GOLD, GOLD , GOLD.
The year the first slaves were brought to Portugal from Africa, early on this was very limited(maybe 50 a year till 1450) before the Europeans realized that raid tactics were not working and tried trading.
Royal African Company
Chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia. Early on had a survival rate of 10% due to tropical diseases like malaria.
Term utilized within the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa, Long term profits of this trade are heavily disputed.
A polygamous mating system involving one male and many females. May have been caused Sub-Saharan Africa because of the nature of the slave trade.
A river in southern Africa, flowing east through Zimbabwe and Mozambique into the Indian Ocean. 4th largest in Africa
Established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi; dominated by Oyoko clan; many clans linked under Osei Tutu after 1650.
Member of Oyoko clan of Akan peoples in Gold Coast region of Africa; responsible for creating unified Asante Empire; utilized Western firearms. Took the name asantehene.
Kingdom developed among Fon or Aja peoples in 17th century; center at Abomey 70 miles from coast; under King Agaja expanded to control coastline and port of Whydah by 1727; accepted Western firearms and goods in return for African slaves.
One of the major ethnic groups in the West African nation of Benin;Ruled Kingdom of Dahomey in 18th century.
Under this King, the kingdom of Dahomey moved toward the coast (seizing the port town of Whydah in 1727
Another word for ruler; of Benin; based his right to rule on claims of descent from the first king of Ife
A West African people who formed several kingdoms in what is now Benin and southern Nigeria, contrasted with Dahomey in the fact that several of its state had governing councils.
Peoples of northern Nigeria; formed states following the demise of Songhay empire that combined Muslim and pagan traditions.
Pastoral people of western Sudan; adopted purifying Sufi variant of Islam; under Usuman Dan Fodio in 1804, launched revolt against Hausa kingdoms; established state centered on Sokoto. Their attack on a fellow Muslim kingdom(Bornu) demonstrated that it was for political not just religious gain.
Usuman Dan Fodio
A studious Muslim Fulani scholar, preached reformist ideology in Hausa kingdoms- ideas became revolution in 1804- preached a jihad against Hausa kings ( who he felt wern't following Muhammad's teachings)
One of the original ethnic groups of South Africa. There population was largely diminished by the 1779-1878 Frontier Wars. One day, a young girl was down by the creek, and she claims to have been told by her ancestors that if the killed of their remaining cattle population (a large majority had been killed off due to a disease like anthrax), then their ancestors would rise up and defeat the white men. They killed off their cattle, but died off due to the lack of food and a great famine.
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus. The British came to power in 1795- 1806.
-longest river in South Africa
-flows west into the Atlantic
-1,367 miles long
-originates in the Drakensburg Mountains
horizontally across South Africa from Lesotho
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.
A series of nine wars between the Xhosa people and European settlers from 1779 to 1879 in what is now the Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Meta-cultural classification referring to the Zulu, Swazi, and Xhosa peoples in Southern Africa; heavy emphasis on singing (Mande), began their unification under Shaka Zulu by 1818.
Wars of 19th century in southern Africa; created by Zulu expansion under Shaka; revolutionized political organization of southern Africa.
Southern African state that survived mfecane; not based on Zulu model; less emphasis on military organization, less authoritarian government
Fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Empire in Africa. The war ended the Zulu nation's independence.
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies.
American-born descendants of saltwater slaves; result of sexual exploitation of slave women or process of miscegenation.
Kingdom of runaway slaves with a population of 8,000 to 10,000 people; located in Brazil during the 17th century; leadership was Angolan.
Formerly a Dutch plantation colony on the coast of South America, location of runaway slave kingdom in 18th century; able to retain independence attempts to crush goriella resistence
A series of struggles between the British and the Jamaican Maroons, mid 1700s, Jamaican Maroons were runaway slaves who successfully stayed hidden in the topography of Jamaica and eventually signed a treaty acknowledging them as free people as long as they returned other slaves. They made North American slave/plantation owners nervous because they could travel through the island as they wanted and were supposed to stay away from plantations but often didnt.
Ferdinand of Aragon
Along with Isabella of Castile, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Isabella created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
Isabella of Castile
Along with Ferdinand of Aragon, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Ferdinand created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima, took gold, silver and enslaved the Incas in 1532 .
The natives or inhabitants of the Iberian peninsula, where Spain and Portugal are located. They conquered much of Latin America between 1450 and 1750. During this time the Catholics kicked the Muslims out of the Iberian Peninsula in the Reconquista.
The Muslim kingdom that Spain later conquested. In 1502, the Muslims were forced to convert to Christianity or be expelled or killed.
Explorer who arrived in Yucatan by orders of Velazquez, credited with founding Nicaragua. Was captured and beheaded.
Ponce de Leon
Discovered and claimed Florida (Land of the Flowers) for Spain while looking for the Fountain of Youth, The place where he first landed was later settled by the Spanish. In 1565, St. Augustine became the first permanent Spanish settlement in what is now the United States. It is the oldest city in our country.
Founded in 1565, the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in United States territory
First island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards; settlement founded by Columbus on second voyage to New World; Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in New World.
In the spanish colonies, the grant to a spanish settler of a certain number of indian subjects, who would pay him tribute in goods and labor.
The holder of a grant of Indians who were required to pay a tribute or provide labor. Was responsible for their integration into the church.
Sugar-rich island where Toussaint L'Ouverture's slave rebellion disrupted Napoleon's dreams of a vast New World empire, now known as Haiti.
Also called the Caciques. A people indigenous to the Caribbean, and the largest people living there for a while. They were pretty chill; they were into woodcarving, big houses, hammocks, and ceremonial ballgames instead of war.
First area of Spanish exploration and settlement; served as experimental region for nature of Spanish colonial experience; encomienda system of colonial management initiated here.
A people indigenous to the Caribbean. They were pretty aggressive. They were known for their dug-out canoes, which made them a seafaring people. When the Europeans arrived in the 16th century, they had pretty much intermarried with the Tainos.
Bartolome de Las Casas
Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of Native American population of Spanish colonies; opposed forced labor and advocated Indian rights, He convinced Charles I to signs the "New Laws" prohibiting Indian slavery and attempted to put an end to the encomienda system by limiting ownership of serfs to a single generation.
A royal edict that helped establish that Indians were human, capable of salvation, and worthy servants of the Crown. It happened in 1542, and helped outlaw Indian slavery as well. It is significant because it determined the human aspect of the Indians as well as freeing them, or helping to, from slavery.
Led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519; conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
Spanish colonial possessions in Mesoamerica in territories once part of Aztec imperial system.
A Spanish soldier and commander; in 1540, he led an expedition north from Mexico into Arizona; he was searching for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold, but only found Adobe pueblos.
Spanish conquistador; conquered Araucanian Indians of Chile and established city of Santiago in 1541.
The indigenous group native to chile, resisted many attempts made by the more organized incas to conquer them, and also killed Pedro de valdivia when he tried to take over chile. The ___ held off the Spanish for a considerable amount o time
Mistress of the conqueror of Chile, fundamental in attacks on indigenous populations (Pedro Valdivia)
He was the adversary of Bartolomé de las Casas in the Valladolid Controversy in 1550 concerning the justification of the Spanish Conquest of the Indies.Was the defender of the Spanish Empire's right of conquest, of colonization, and of evangelization in the so-called New World.
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America.
Location of greatest deposit of mercury in South America; aided in American silver production; linked with Potosí.
Merchant guild of Seville; enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America and handled much of the silver received in return.
Rural estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Signed in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession in New World; reserved Brazil and all newly discovered lands east of Brazil to Portugal; granted all lands west of Brazil to Spain.
University-trained lawyers from Spain in the New World; juridical core of Spanish colonial bureaucracy; exercised both legislative and administrative functions
Body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish possessions in New World; basis of law in the Indies.
Council of the Indies
Body within the Castilian government that issued all laws and advised king on all matters dealing with the Spanish colonies of the New World.
Line of Demarcation
An imaginary line that the Pope Alexander VI drew through the New World. The land east of the line belonged to Portugal; the land west of the line belonged to Spain.
Pope Alexander VI
This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America
Ivan the Terrible
This king of Muscovy defeated the Mongols and added a great deal to his kingdom. He did not, however, conquer Livonia, a port on the Baltic sea which he desperately wanted. He was known as terrible for his treatment of boyars, the hereditary nobility in Muscovy, as he abused, killed, and/or transplanted them and then replaced them with others who were loyal to him. (Ivan IV), also killed his son, which is what the above painting entails.
Peter the Great
Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
Member of a group form Ukraine, many of whom served as horsemen to the Russian czars and were famed for their fierceness in battle
Cossack soldier who sparked a gigantic uprising of serfs (1773) in Russia during the reign of Catherine the Great-he proclaimed himself the true tsar and issued decrees abolishing serfdom, taxes, and army service-thousands joined him, slaughtering landlords and officials-lost to Russian army-he was captured and savagely executed during Catherine the Great's Reign.
Husband of Catherine the Great, was mentally unstable, and was murdered by a group of Russian army officers. Whether or not Catherine was involved in the murder is unknown, but she did benefit by it as she then had the throne to herself., Withdrew from the Seven Year's War because he liked Frederick II of Prussia. This essentially stopped the war.
Ivan the Great
Ivan III, was the Grand Duke of Moscow, ended Mongol domination of his dukedom, extended territories, subdued nobles, and attained absolute power; made Moscow the center of a new Russian state with a central government
Grandnephew of Ivan IV's wife, Anastasia, chosen by an assembly of Russian boyars and representatives to be the first Czar of the Romanov dynasty in 1613
Second Romanov tsar; abolished assemblies of nobles; gained new powers over Russian Orthodox church
Catherine the Great
Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire., German-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightened rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry.
He was a Danish explorer who explored the northern Pacific Ocean for the Russians and discovered the Bering Strait which made it easier to travel to North America.Led the way for future Russian mariners, who eventually reached Hawai`i. He discovered Alaska and the Aleutian Islands
Alexis de Tocqueville
1805-1859 Frenchman who wrote Democracy in America (1835), in which he explored the uniqueness of American character and its sources. He ALSO wrote about Russia and compared the two and said that BOTH would play a huge role in future World History.
Partition of Poland
Division of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in eastern Europe.
Eugene Pugachev, a Cossack soldier, led a huge serf uprising-demanded end to serfdom, taxes and army service; landlords and officials murdered all over southwestern Russia; eventually captured and executed
From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III
Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization.
Khan of the North
The name that Peter III( The Great) used when he was talking to the Mongols, he also swore his promises on the Koran while he was in their territories.
A member of the Turkic-speaking people living from the Volga to the Ural Mountains (the name has been attributed to many other groups), LIKE THE mongols.
Protestant kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire where the people defied their new ruler who tried to close down Protestant churches. It is in modern day Czechoslovakia. Was conquered by Russia in one of ts many late phases of expansion.
"Cyclops" Secretly married to Catherine The Great, even after stepping down from position of head lover, stayed one of her closest advisers, almost Co-Tsar, general/ lover of catherine, we use this name today; potemkin village- fake image you think everything is okay although it is really not.
Ivan Kuskov and a group of fur trapper built this fort near San Francisco., a trading post, near Bodega Bay, built by Russians in 1812. It was a base for sea otter hunters. they sold tools in exchange for salt, wheat, and other foods
This war had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans as well as in the Russian goal of recovering territorial losses it had suffered during the Crimean War, reestablishing itself in the Black Sea and following the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire.
A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. RUssia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed
In 1812 he led a group pf Russian and native Alaskan fur trappers to north San Francisco and founded Fort Russia.
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweden
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts, In Picture is a ______ House
Legendary Scandinavian, regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 C.E., ALL Russian Rulers claimed to be descended from him.
Due to his victory, he is recognized as one of the first to have successfully fought back Spanish authority. A monument to him stands in Mactan on the site where Magellan was killed.
This document, signed by King John of England in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
was Eric the Red's son. He was probably the first European to set foot on North America. He founded a Viking colony called Vinland in North America.
Genoese captain in service of king and queen of Castile and Aragon(Ferdinand and Isabella); successfully sailed to New World and returned in 1492; initiated European discoveries in Americas.
Established by Europeans by the late 16th century; based on control of seas including the Atlantic and Pacific; created an international exchange of foods, diseases, and manufactured products. Early on was based on SILVER not gold.
Was an encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1766 by some of the most prominent philosophers. It originally consisted of 28 volumes and covered everything then known about the sciences, technology, & history. It criticized the Church and government and praised religious tolerance, Collection of works compiled during the Enlightenment; explained many aspects of society; compiled by Denis Diderot
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America, produced 80% of all Peruvian silver
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control. However the Spanish also imposed it on the Indians in order to get silver and resources from them.
means "Land of Wine", given by Leif Ericsson to the present-day Canadian province of Newfoundland
Eric the Red
Was a Viking who found and named Greenland. Even thought this was a cold land he named it Greenland to encourage people to come to this area to settle. Father of Leif Ericsson
Cape of Good Hope
Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.
Portuguese explorer who found a sea route to the Spice Island by sailing around the American continent. His crew was the first to circumnavigate the world. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519, The same year Charles V became empreor, he wa skilled in the Philippines in 1521, but one of his ships returned to Spain in 1522 completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
Strait of Magellan
The strait separating South America from Tierra del Fuego and other islands south of the continent, found by Magellan at the tip of South America during his voyage around the globe
Tierra del Fuego
The large island, maybe archipelago whose name means "Land of Fire". it is located near the southern tip of Chile, but administered by Argentina and Chile.
Holy Roman emperor and king of Spain as Charles I . He summoned the Diet of Worms (and the Council of Trent, He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
The Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada
Dutch East India Company
Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in Asia; acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed until the British took over.
British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
Battle of Lepanto
A battle in which Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece-ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean, Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the Pope, loss of large international routes for Muslims.
One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty, controlled by the Porteguese.
Nations, usually European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international banking and commercial services such as shipping; exported manufactured goods for raw materials.
Economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe.
This is the passage that many European explorers attempted but never succeeded to navigate to reach other nations more quickly, the Engish thought they might have found it by discovering the St. Lawrence River, but alas it was but a foolish dream.
Old capital of Guatemala, noble and loyal of , was a British West Indian island colony used for sugar export in the age of imperalism.
an Islamic imperial power that ruled a large portion of Indian subcontinent which began in 1526, invaded and ruled most of Hindustan (South Asia) by the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and ended in the mid-19th century.
Vasco de Balboa
First Spanish captain to begin settlement on the mainland of Mesoamerica in 1509; initial settlement eventually led to conquest of Aztec and Inca empires by other captains. He also led an expedition across Panama and "discovered" the Pacific Ocean.
The Spanish conquistador who crushed the Inca civilization in Peru; took gold, silver and enslaved the Incas in 1532., Double crossed Indian people. He captured their chief, Atahualpa, and promised to release him if they paid a huge ransom which they agreed to pay, yet he killed the chief anyways. Then he made the Inca empire under Spanish rule.
Was the last emperor of the Inca Empire.He was invited to a dinner and kidnapped by fought unsuccessfully against Pizarro and spent the rest of his life in captivity. the Inca empire raised a large ransom for his return, but after it was paid he was executed Pizarro
The FIRST Land claimed for Spain by Columbus. Renamed "Holy Savior", now the capital and largest city of El Salvador
French colonies in Canada and elsewhere; extended along the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes and down into the Mississippi River valley system, had capital in Quebec, founded 1608. Fell to the British in 1763. Under King Louis the 14th(Sun King).
Seven Years War
Fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in India and North America, loss of New France at the Treaty of Paris of 1763 to the British,However France did gain back a lot of sugar colonies,
Treaty of Paris of 1763
Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceeding Florida to the British. However France did gain back a lot of sugar colonies,
Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rights, people enter social contract to create government with limited powers. If a government did not protect these rights or exceeded its authority, the people have the right to revolt. The ideas of consent of the governed, social contract, and right of revolution influenced the United States Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. He also laid the foundations for criticism of absolute monarchy in France.
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
Roanoke's colony leader who returned to England for more food and tools--when he finally returned to Roanoke the colony had vanished--the only clue he found of Roanoke or the "Lost colony" was the native american tribes name "CROATAN"
Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.
Sir Walter Raleigh
English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure.
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus.
Headquarters of British East India Company in Bengal in Indian subcontinent; located on Ganges; captured in 1756 during early part of Seven Years' War; later became administrative center for all of Bengal.
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death, Was a despotic ruler whose strict laws would ultimately led to divisions and decentralization of government in the Mughal Empire.
Black Hole of Calcutta
British trading post at Calcutta lay within the important Indian state of Bengal, who's troops(allied with the French) captured Calcutta and imprisoned many British citizens, locking them up overnight in a small Jail cell, by the morning, was only 20 feet square in a fort in Calcutta where as many as 146 English prisoners were held overnight by Siraj-ud-daula, 120 people died before the British were released and they then used it as a rallying point.
What was the colonial name of Sri Lanka? gained BY THE British in the Early Modern Era (about 1756) fro the British. It followed after a series of wins against the French in India.
A short political treatise about political power how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it. Machiavelli explores the problems of human nature and concludes that human beings are selfish and out to advance their own interests
Italian Renaissance writer, described government(practically) in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince (the end justifies the mean).Florentine statesman and historian, was reacting against Humanist of the time who only seemed to write in LATIN. Wanted a internally reunified Italy.
A mountain that Francesco Petrarch climbed in Southern France, and said he used as a symbol of what he could actually accomplish.
Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages, Renaissance.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter he is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; influenced by earlier Italian Renaissance; centered in France, the Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than in Italy, Christian Humanism criticizing the church & society, Painting/ Woodcuts/Literature
Italian painter and art historian wrote "The Lives of the Artists". Massive patronage of the arts came from this and was lead by families like the Medici's and also the churches, who saw art as a means of glorifying God.
18th century German enlightenment scholar who greatly influenced Modern art history by shifting away from Vasari's biographical emphasis to a rigorous study of stylistic development as related to historical context.
Jan Van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting,characterized by brilliant coloring and minute realistic detail, include Arnolfini and His Wife, Actually would influence Grant Wood centuries later.
King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against Holy Roman emperor in order to distract his main rival the Hapsburg ruler of Austria and Spain. Illustrated the increasing abandonment of religious and feudal justifications of the previous era.
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form
The main character in Miguel de Cervantes' book about the changing times in the early 1600's. He was a man who did not like how the Middle Ages were ending and people were becoming more materialistic, so he set of to become a knight and bring back chivalry to Spain
German goldsmith and printer who is credited with inventing movable printing type in Europe abround 1439. Created the 42-line Gutenberg Bible, noted for its high aesthetic and technical quality. His printing technology was a key factor in the European Renaissance, and is considered on of the most important inventions of all time.
European Style Family
Originated in 15th century among peasants and artisans of western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on the nuclear family, and a large minority who never married.
German monk; initiated Protestant Reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to door of Wittenberg church; emphasized primacy of faith over works stressed in Catholic church; accepted state control of church, also he was excommunicated by Catholic Church in 1521 after dispute with Charles V. Translated the Bible into German, and this contributed to the further development of the German language
Codification in 1530 of Luther's doctrines as established since time of Diet of Worms and subsequent confinement at Wartburg, 1521-22. Included priesthood of all believers, two sacraments, authority of the bible, justification by faith alone, end to monasticism and celibacy, consubstantiation. Luther's friend, Philip Melancthon, worked on this codification with him.
Luther's friend who helped with the codification of the Augsburg Confession, big supporter of education and literacy, Arrived in Wittenberg in 1518 at the age of 21 to teach greek and Hebrew.
General wave of religious dissent against the Catholic church; generally held to have begun with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many many MANY varieties of religious belief
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death
King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England(Anglican Church) in 1532.
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England, was the daughter of Henry the 8th.
French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America
doctrine of John Calvin that adhered to the idea that each person's fate is predetermined by god(COMPLETELY Retarded to Think about)
Restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation (16th century); established councils(Like council of Trent) that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs.
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.Was a Spanish soldier whose leg had been shattered fighting from Charles V against the French. He said that salvation could be achieved by self-discipline and by doing good deeds
Edict of Nantes
A decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
Thirty Years War
War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia, destroyed 60 % of population of Germany in some areas and stagnated it for the next hundred years.
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended thirty years war in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the holy roman empire to choose their own religion-either protestant or catholic
English civil war
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king, Think King Charles I >>>> Oliver Cromwell etc etc.
The irst Bourbon king-most important kings in French history-rise to power ended French Civil Wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris, also devised Edict of Nantes.
King Charles I
The English monarch who was beheaded by Puritans (see English Civil War) who then established their own short-lived government ruled by Oliver Cromwell (Mid 1600s).
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
Class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries
During Cromwell's reign, this group wanted voting rights for all men, the church and state separate, alcoholic prohibition, and universal male suffrage. More radical than radical Cromwell, and crushed by Cromwell. Example of how revolutionaries want to make their changes and then STOP the revolutionary spirit from going any farther. It rarely works.
Reflected resentment against the poor, uncertainties about religious truth; resulted in death of over 100,000 Europeans b/w 1590 and 1650; particularly common in Protestant areas
Culminated in the 17th century; period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations; resulted in change in traditional beliefs of Middle Ages, was initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics but by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science.