OHS The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Chapter Thirteen Key Terms
Mrs. Clark's AP Human Geography Vocabulary List for Chapter Thirteen of Rubenstein's book.
Terms in this set (42)
Legally adding land area to a city in the United States.
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.
transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity
Concentric Zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings, created by Burgess in 1923.
The change in ______________ in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
A large node of office and retail activities on the___________ of an urban area.
Epochs of Transportation
created by Borchert. American city stages of sail-wagon period, iron-horse period, steel-rail period, & the auto-air-amenity period.
A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment.
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area.
A ring of land maintained as parks, agricultural, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
a regional boundary, set in an attempt to control urban sprawl by mandating that the area inside the boundary be used for higher density urban development and the area outside be used for lower density development.
The use of land within a built-up area for further construction. Large part of community redevelopment. Focuses on the reuse and repositioning of obsolete or underutilized buildings and site
Islamic City Model
found in the Muslim regions; owe their structure to their religious beliefs; contain mosques, open-air markets, courtyards surrounded by walls, limiting foot traffic in residential neighborhoods
Latin American City Model
Griffin-Ford model. Blends traditional Latin American culture with the forces of globalization. The CBD is dominant; it is divided into a market sector and a modern high-rise sector. The elite residential sector is on the extension of the CBD in the "spine". The end of the spine of elite residency is the "mall" with high-priced residencies
When housing tracts jump over parcels of farmland resulting in a mixture of open lands with built-up areas.
Transportation system designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes
metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
micropolitan statistical area
An urbanized area of between 10, 000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
Single Planned Development designed for multiple use (residential, retail, industrial) to minimize travel to CBD
multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities, created by Harris & Ullman.
Outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
rush (or peak) hour
The four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard.
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige; applies to both nations and to people within a nation, society, or other group
Southeast Asian City Model
Developed by T.G McGee. The focal point of the city is the colonial port zone combined with the large commercial district that surrounds it. McGee found no formal CBD but found separate clusters of elements of the CBD surrounding the port zone: the government zone, the Western commercial zone, the alien commercial zone, and the mixed land-use zone with misc. economic activities.
spaces of consumption
Areas of a city, the main purpose of which is to encourage people to consume goods and services' driven primarily by the global media industry.
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
The ring of small towns and suburbs that surround a big city.
A spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the United States. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multicentered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones or _______, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the Central Business District (CBD).
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
An urban design concept characterized by medium density, development, mixed use zoning, available public transit, with an emphasis on urban design. The goal of an__________ is to facilitate strong community interaction and self-containment. Residents often have the same ethnic and/or cultural background.
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs.
zoning laws (ordinances)
Legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas. In the United States, areas are most commonly divided into separate zones of residential, retail, or industrial use.