OHS The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Chapter Fourteen Key Terms

Mrs. Clark's AP Human Geography Vocabulary List based on Chapter Fourteen of Rubenstein's book.
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acid deposition
Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid-and return to Earth's Surface
acid precipitation
Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to earth as rain,snow, or fog.
active solar energy systems
Solar energy system that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors.
air pollution
Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level that occurs in average air.
animate power
Power supplied by people or animals.
biodiversity
The number of species within a specific habitat.
biomass fuel
Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste
chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers
conservation
The sustainable use and management of a natural resource through consuming it as a less rapid rate than it can be replaced.
direct biological interference
Human caused alteration of species through removal, redistribution, or modification of living creatures.
environmental stress
The threat to environmental security by human activity such as atmospheric and groundwater pollution, deforestation, oil spills, and ocean dumping.
fission
The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy.
fossil fuel
Energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
fusion
Creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium.
geothermal energy
Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks.
greenhouse effect
Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.
hazardous waste
A solid that, because of its quantity or concentration or its physical, chemical or infectious characteristics, may cause or pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed of, or otherwise managed.
hydroelectric power
Power generated by moving water.
inanimate power
Power supplied by machines
mass depletions
Loss of diversity through a failure to produce new species.
nonrenewable energy
A source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted.
ozone
A gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation, found in the stratosphere, a zone between 9 to 30 miles above Earth's surface.
passive solar energy systems
Solar energy that collects energy without the use of mechanical devices.
photochemical smog
An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution especially from motor vehicles emissions
photovoltaic cell
Solar energy cells, usually made from silicon, that collect solar rays to generate electricity.
pollution
Addition of more waste than a resource can accommodate.
population pressure
Exists when population growth causes people to press against food resources. As the number of mouths to feed increases, people eventually deplete their resources and have to intensify production.
potential reserve
The amount of a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist.
preservation
Maintenance of a resource in its present condition with as little human impact as possible.
proven reserve
The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits.
radioactive waste
Particles from a nuclear reaction that emits radiation, Materials from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethal to people; therefore, the Materials must be safely stored for thousands of years.
recycling
The separation, collection, processing, marketing and reuse of unwanted material.
renewable energy
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
resource
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
sanitary landfill
A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emission of gasses and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires and to discourage vermin.
sustainable development
The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development.
toxic waste
Waste materials from industry that are poisonous to humans or other living things
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